The origin of instructional complex Information & codes The argument of the information transmission system in the cell1.
In cells, information is stored in the genome through the genetic code. The genetic code is a set of rules, stored in sequences of (DNA) nucleotide triplets called codons ( words). It directs the making of amino acid polypeptide sequences, which are the basic components of proteins ( the molecular machines, the working horses of the cell ). The genetic information is transmitted by over 25 extremely complex interconnected and interdependent molecular machines. This communication system encodes, sends, and decodes genetic texts, which requires as well error check and repair mechanisms along the way to maintain low genetic mutation rate, and minimizing replication, transcription, and translation errors, and permit organisms to pass accurately genetic information to their offspring, and survive. This system had to be set-up prior to when life began because it depends on it. 2.
A code is a system of rules where a symbol, letters, words, or even sounds, gestures, or images, are assigned to something else. Transmitting information, for example, can be done through the translation of the symbols of the alphabetic letters, to symbols of kanji, logographic characters used in Japan. The genetic code can be described as a universal cipher, which assigns 61 codons (4x4x4=64-3 stop and start=64) to 20 amino acids. 3.
Assigning the meaning of characters through a code system, where symbols of one language are assigned to symbols of another language that mean the same, requires a common agreement of meaning in order to establish communication, through encoding, sending, and decoding. Semantics, Synthax, and pragmatics are always set up by intelligence. The assignment of codons (triplet nucleotides) to amino acids is, therefore, best explained by the pre-established agreement of meaning by a mind. The origin of such complex communication systems is best explained by an intelligent designer.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_tYrnv_o6APreprogrammed decision making of the gene regulatory network
1. Cells continuously process a multitude of input signals to make decisions about their appropriate responses that lead to changes in gene expression, enzymatic activity, rewiring of their signaling networks, migration, growth, or division, as well as programmed cell death as the output information. In a computing device, the input information is mathematically processed into a digital signal. This signal is a code representation of the physical cues and assumes a sequence of discrete values. For instance, in the case of a binary code, the basic unit of information is denoted as a series of “0” and “1” digits. The binary digits indicate the two states of the logic circuit. A threshold is implemented to define the input and output range that can be categorized under each logic set. If the value is either lower or higher than the threshold, the state of the circuit is defined as either “0” or “1”, respectively. Digital circuits make extensive use of logic elements that are interconnected to create logic gates, capable of executing Boolean logic functions including NOT, OR, AND, and all their possible combinations
2. Molecular and biomolecular logic gates and their networks process chemical input signals similar to human-made computers. The similarities in the processing of information by biological systems and human-designed devices are broadly recognized by many researchers.
3. Decision making is either a) something performed directly by intelligence, or b) programmed by intelligence to be performed by machines, like computers. It has never been observed, that unguided, evolutionary mechanisms could produce a decision making machine with the purpose to generate specific outcomes further ahead. Foresight is a quality exclusively performed by intelligence. If the analogy of two phenomena be very close and striking, while, at the same time, the cause of one is very obvious, it becomes scarcely possible to refuse to admit the action of an analogous cause in the other, though not so obvious in itself. A metaphor (“A biological cell is like a production system”) demonstrates that similar behaviors are driven by similar causal mechanisms.
4. Therefore, the decision-making process observed in the cell is most probably the result of divine superintelligent design.
Chance to find a message written on a cloud in the sky: "Jesus loves you" randomly, is as DNA creating its own software, and upon it, writing a complex algorithm to make a protein by accident.
The chance to find a message written on a cloud in the sky: "Jesus loves you" randomly, is the same as DNA nucleotides creating their own software code, and upon it, writing an instructional complex algorithm to make a protein by a random accident.
Intelligence can and does describe reality, and objects in the real world. That's descriptive information. But intelligence also structures, organizes, forms, transforms, creates emergent properties, controls, and orders reality. It does so, using prescriptive instructional, complex information. That is a quality of power - exclusive to intelligence.
1. The pattern in DNA is a code.
2. All codes we know the origin of com from a intelligent mind
3. Therefore we have 100% inference that DNA comes from an intelligent mind and 0% inference that it is not.
1. DNA stores coded information.
2. All codes come from intelligence.
3. Therefore, DNA comes from a mind.
1. Symbols are defined as: something which represents something else.
2. Symbols carry thoughts (or messages) from a personal, intelligent, mind. No exceptions.
3. Scientific inquiry has discovered that DNA carries encoded symbolic instructions.
1: RNA Building Blocks Are Hard to Synthesize and Easy to Destroy
2: Ribozymes Are Poor Substitutes for Proteins
3: An RNA-based Translation and Coding System Is Implausible
4: The RNA World Doesn’t Explain the Origin of Genetic Information
1. A transistor can be considered an artificial Neuron. Every living cell within us is a hybrid analog–digital supercomputer. The brain is like 100 billion computers working together.
2. Biological cells are programmed to be experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates through circuit-like operations and producing the desired programmed output.
3. The origin of programs, logic gates, and complex circuits to obtain a purposeful specific outcome is always tracked back to intelligent implementation.The origin of the genetic information1.The information stored in DNA is a template. It is equal to a recipe or program. Nucleic acids contain information in a semantic (meaningful) sense. Instructing consists in an advance specification of the kind and order of steps yielding a certain outcome if the steps are carried out. The amino acid arrangement and sequence to make functional proteins is the product of the information stored in DNA. 2. Recipes and programs do not just bring about a particular outcome; they are designed to do so. They are usually formulated with a purpose. The computer program output is the result of executing a pre-specified series of operations. A purely physical description does not capture the instructional nature of the process. Instructional information is not a tangible entity, and as such, it is beyond the reach of, and cannot be created by any undirected physical process. This is not an argument about probability. Conceptual semiotic information is simply beyond the sphere of influence of any undirected physical process. To suggest that a physical process can create semiotic code is like suggesting that a rainbow can write poetry... it is never going to happen! Physics and chemistry alone do not possess the tools to create a concept. The only cause capable of creating conceptual semiotic information is a conscious intelligent mind.3. Therefore, the instructional information stored in DNA comes most likely from an intelligent designer. The Law of information
1. Anything material such as physical/chemical processes cannot create something non-material
2. Information is a non-material fundamental entity and not a property of matter
3. Information requires an material medium for storage and transmission
4. Information cannot arise fRom Statistical processes
5. There can be no information without a code ie. No knowledge can be shared without a code
6. All codes result from an intentional choice and agreement between sender and recipient
7. The determination of meaning for and from a set of symbols is a mental process that requires intelligence
8. There can be no new information without an intelligent purposeful sender
9. Any given chain of information can be traced back to an intelligent source
10. Information comprises the non-material foundation for all
a. Technological systems
b. Works of art
c. Biological systemsTherefore:
A. since the DNA code of all life is clearly within the definition domain of information, we can conclude there must be a sender.
B. Since the density and complexity of the DNA encoded information is billions of times greater than man's present technology , we conclude that the sender must be extremely intelligent
C. Since the sender must have
- encoded (stored) the information into the DNA molecules
- Constructed the molecular biomachines required for the encoding, decoding, and synthesizing process and
- Designed all the features for the original life formsit can be concluded that:
- the sender must be purposeful and supremely powerful and must have a non-material component
- Since information is a non-material fundamental entity and cannot originate from material quantities, and since information also originates from man then mans nature must have a non-material component or SPIRIT.
- then the assumption that the Universe is comprised solely of mass and energy is false
- Since biological information originates only from an intelligent sender and all theories of chemical and biological evolution require that information must originate solely from mass and energy alone (without a sender) then al, theories or concepts of biological evolution is false.
- Just 2mm of a DNA strand contains as much information as 100 million 40GB hard drives, think about that a little, do you really think that is the result of pure Undirected random natural processes?Prescriptive vs Descriptive Information
1. Intelligence can and does describe reality, and objects in the real world. That's descriptive information.
2. But intelligence also structures, organizes, controls, and orders reality. That's using prescriptive information.
3. That is a quality of power - exclusive to intelligence.Prescriptive information is non-physical, and comes always from a mind
1. Genetic and epigenetic information is characterized containing prescriptive codified information, which result in functional outcomes due to the right particular specified complex sequence, the proper order of triplet codons and ultimately the translated sequencing of amino acid building blocks into protein strings, and highly specific regulatory micro RNAs and other epigenetic factors.
2. Algorithms, prescribing functional instructions, digital programming, using symbols and coding systems are abstract and non-physical and originate always from thought—from conscious or intelligent activity.
3. Therefore, genetic and epigenetic information comes from an intelligent mind. Since there was no human mind present to create life, it must have been a supernatural agency.Information is not physical1. Life is a software/information-driven process.2. Information is not physical it is conceptual.3. The only known source of semiotic information is intelligence.4. Life is therefore the direct product of a deliberate creative intellectual processes.Languages, Software, and Information come always from intelligent minds
1. DNA stores instructional complex information to assemble proteins using the software "language" of the genetic code, a set of rules, where the meaning of 64 trinucleotide codons (words) are assigned to 20 amino acids.
2. That DNA could create its own software language, and upon it, writing a complex algorithm, prescriptive information, and a translation system to make a protein by accident, is as well, nil.
3. That is similar to find a message written on a cloud in the sky: "Jesus loves you" randomly. It is extremely unlikely, basically zero. We only know of intelligence producing codified language, and upon it, writing messages, and producing prescriptive information.
4. Therefore, most likely, the genetic code, and upon it, the storage of prescribed, functional, instructional complex information is of intelligent origin. That intelligence is God. Genetic and epigenetic information comes always from a mind
1. Genetic and epigenetic information is characterized containing prescriptive codified information, which result in functional outcomes due to the right particular specified complex sequence of triplet codons and ultimately the translated sequencing of amino acid building blocks into protein strings. The sequencing of nucleotides in DNA also prescribes highly specific regulatory micro RNAs and other epigenetic factors.
2. Algorithms, prescribing functional instructions, digital programming, using symbols and coding systems are abstract and non-physical, and originate always from thought—from conscious or intelligent activity.
3. Therefore, genetic and epigenetic information comes from an intelligent mind. Since there was no human mind present to create life, it must have been a supernatural agency. Conceptual Information has always mental origin1.Life depends on vast quantity of semiotic information. 2.Semiotic functional information is not a tangible entity, and as such, it is beyond the reach of, and cannot be created by any undirected physical process. This is not an argument about probability. Conceptual semiotic information is simply beyond the sphere of influence of any undirected physical process. To suggest that a physical process can create semiotic code is like suggesting that a rainbow can write poetry... it is never going to happen! Physics and chemistry alone do not possess the tools to create a concept. The only cause capable of creating conceptual semiotic information is a conscious intelligent mind.3. Life is no accident, and provides powerful positive evidence that we have been designed. A scientist working at the cutting edge of our understanding of the programming information in biology, he described what he saw as an “alien technology written by an engineer a million times smarter than us”The argument of fast communciation networks
1. The more sophisticated and fast a Information transmission
systems is, the more intelligence is required to project and
implement it .
2. Light-fidelity, or Li-Fi, is a 5th generation cutting edge technology,
the fastest information transmission system so far invented by man.
3. Life uses not only light, but quantum entanglement to transmit
information, which occurs basically instantly.
4. It is logical, therefore, to infer a super-intelligent agency created
lifes awesome high-speed internet on a molecular level.The irreducible interdependence of information generation and transmission systems1. Codified information transmission system depends on: a) A language where a symbol, letters, words, waves or frequency variations, sounds, pulses, or a combination of those are assigned to something else. Assigning meaning of characters through a code system requires a common agreement of meaning. Statistics, Semantics, Synthax, and Pragmatics are used according to combinatorial, context-dependent, and content-coherent rules. b) An information storage system, c) Information encoded through that code,d) An information transmission system, that is encoding, transmitting, and decoding.e) Eventually translation ( the assignment of the meaning of one language to another )f) Eventually conversion ( digital-analog conversion, modulators, amplifiers)g) Eventually transduction converting the nonelectrical signals into electrical signals2. In living cells, information is encoded through at least 30 genetic, and almost 30 epigenetic codes that form various sets of rules and languages. They are transmitted through a variety of means, that is the cell cilia as the center of communication, microRNA's influencing cell function, the nervous system, the system synaptic transmission, neuromuscular transmission, transmission b/w nerves & body cells, axons as wires, the transmission of electrical impulses by nerves between brain & receptor/target cells, vesicles, exosomes, platelets, hormones, biophotons, biomagnetism, cytokines and chemokines, elaborate communication channels related to the defense of microbe attacks, nuclei as modulators-amplifiers. These information transmission systems are essential for keeping all biological functions, that is organismal growth and development, metabolism, regulating nutrition demands, controlling reproduction, homeostasis, constructing biological architecture, complexity, form, controlling organismal adaptation, change, regeneration/repair, and promoting survival. 3. The origin of such complex communication systems is best explained by an intelligent designer. Since no humans were involved in creating these complex computing systems, a suprahuman super-intelligent agency must have been the creator of the communication systems used in life. The software and hardware of the cell are irreducibly complex
1. The cell contains a complex information storage medium through DNA.
2. The cell has a complex information processing system ( through RNA polymerase, transcription factors, a spliceosome, a ribosome, chaperone enzymes, specialized transport proteins, and ATP
3. The cell contains a genetic code that is at or very close to a global optimum for error minimization across plausible parameter space
4. The cell stores complex, specified, coded information ( the software )
5. The cell has a complex translation system through a universal cipher, which assigns 61 codons (4x4x4=64-3 stop and start=64) to 20 amino acids and permits the translation of the genetic code into functional proteins
6. This constitutes a logical structure of information processing: DNA>>RNA>>>Protein, based on software and hardware. Both aspects must be explained.
7. There is no reason for information processing machinery to exist without the software, and vice versa.
8. Systems of interconnected software and hardware are irreducibly complex.
9. A irreducible complex system can not arise in a stepwise, evolutionary manner.
10. Only minds are capable to conceptualise and implement instructional information control systems transformed into molecular dynamics
11. Therefore, an intelligent designer exists.1. The cell coordinates its functions by virtue of a ‘genetic program’ encoded in the DNA that directs and controls the expression of a specific set of RNAs and proteins, which assemble deterministically into stable ‘molecular machines’ that reliably and efficiently execute predetermined operations according to the mechanisms of cell division, endocytosis, signal transduction, etc.2. This is analogous to engineers, which produce blueprints, which prescribe and instruct the making and assembly of machines for specific purposes. 3. Herschel 1830 1987, p. 148: “If the analogy of two phenomena be very close and striking, while, at the same time, the cause of one is very obvious, it becomes scarcely possible to refuse to admit the action of an analogous cause in the other, though not so obvious in itself.” A metaphor (“A biological cell is like a production system”) demonstrates that similar behaviors are driven by similar causal mechanisms.4. Since there was no human mind present when life started, we can conclude that a nonhuman higher intelligent agency must have created life. The origin of the genetic code
1.DNA is not merely a molecule with a pattern; it is a information storage mechanism, using the genetic code.
2.All codes we know the origin of are created by a conscious mind.
3.Therefore DNA was designed by a mind, and language and information are proof of the action of a Superintelligence.
http://evo2.org/read-prove-god-exists/Codes have always a mental origin
1. In cells, the genetic code assigns 61 codons and 3 start/stop codons to 20 amino acids, using the Ribosome as a translation mechanism.
2. All codes require arbitrary values being assigned and determined to represent something else.
3. All codes require a translation mechanism, adapter, key, or process of some kind to exist prior to translation
4. Foreknowledge is required both, a) to get a functional outcome through the information system, and b) to set up the entire system.
5. Therefore, translation directing the making of proteins used in life was most probably designed.Codes come always from intelligence1. In cells, the genetic code is the assignment ( a cipher) of 64 triplet codons to 20 amino acids.2. A code is a system of rules where a symbol, letters, words, etc. are assigned to something else. Transmitting information, for example, can be done through the translation of the symbols of the alphabetic letters, to symbols of kanji, logographic characters used in Japan. That requires a common agreement of meaning. 3. Therefore, the triplet codons (triplet nucleotides) to amino acids must be pre-established by a mind. The origin of the genetic code is best explained by an intelligent designer. The Genetic Code was most likely implemented by intelligence.1. In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as assigning the meaning of a letter, word, into another form, ( as another word, letter, etc. ) 2. In translation, 64 genetic codons are assigned to 20 amino acids. It refers to the assignment of the codons to the amino acids, thus being the cornerstone template underling the translation process.3. Assignment means designating, dictating, ascribing, corresponding, correlating, specifying, representing, determining, mapping, permutating. 4. The universal triple-nucleotide genetic code can be the result either of a) a random selection through evolution, or b) the result of intelligent implementation.5. We know by experience, that performing value assignment and codification is always a process of intelligence with an intended result. Non-intelligence, aka matter, molecules, nucleotides, etc. have never demonstrated to be able to generate codes, and have neither intent nor distant goals with a foresight to produce specific outcomes. 6. Therefore, the genetic code is the result of an intelligent setup.The argument of the origin of codes1. In cells, information is encoded through the genetic code which is a set of rules, stored in DNA sequences of nucleotide triplets called codons. The information distributed along a strand of DNA is biologically relevant. In computerspeak, genetic data are semantic data. Consider the way in which the four bases A, G, C, and T are arranged in DNA. As explained, these sequences are like letters in an alphabet, and the letters may spell out, in code, the instructions for making proteins. A different sequence of letters would almost certainly be biologically useless. Only a very tiny fraction of all possible sequences spell out a biologically meaningful message. Codons are used to translate genetic information into amino acid polypeptide sequences, which make proteins ( the molecular machines, the working horses of the cell ). And so, the information which is sent through the system, as well as the communication channels that permit encoding, sending, and decoding, which in life is done by over 25 extremely complex molecular machine systems, which do as well error check and repair to maintain genetic stability, and minimizing replication, transcription and translation errors, and permit organisms to pass accurately genetic information to their offspring, and survive. This system had to be set-up prior to life began because life depends on it.2. A code is a system of rules where a symbol, letters, words, or even sounds, gestures, or images, are assigned to something else. Translating information through a key, code, or cipher, for example, can be done through the translation of the symbols of the alphabetic letters, to symbols of kanji, logographic characters used in Japan.3. Intelligent design is the most case-adequate explanation for the origin of the sequence-specific digital information (the genetic text) necessary to produce a minimal proteome to kick-start life. The assembly information stored in genes, and the assignment of codons (triplet nucleotides) to amino acids must be pre-established by a mind. Assignment which means designating, ascribing, corresponding, or correlating meaning of characters through a code system, where symbols of one language are assigned to symbols of another language that mean the same, requires a common agreement of meaning in order to establish communication, trough encoding, sending, and decoding. Semantics, Syntax, and pragmatics are always set up by intelligence. The origin of such complex communication systems is best explained by an intelligent designer.1. The origin of the genetic cipher
1.Triplet codons must be assigned to amino acids to establish a genetic cipher. Nucleic-acid bases and amino acids don’t recognize each other directly but have to deal via chemical intermediaries ( tRNA's and Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase ), there is no obvious reason why particular triplets should go with particular amino acids.
2. Other translation assignments are conceivable, but whatever cipher is established, the right amino acids must be assigned to permit polypeptide chains, which fold to active functional proteins. Functional amino acid chains in sequence space are rare. There are two possibilities to explain the correct assignment of the codons to the right amino acids. Chance, and design. Natural selection is not an option, since DNA replication is not set up at the stage prior to a self-replicating cell, but this assignment had to be established before.
3. If it were a lucky accident that happened by chance, luck would have hit the jackpot through trial and error amongst 1.5 × 10^84 possible genetic code tables. That is the number of atoms in the whole universe. That puts any real possibility of a chance of providing the feat out of question. Its, using Borel's law, in the realm of impossibility. Natural selection would have to evaluate roughly 10^55 codes per second to find the one that's universal. Put simply, the chemical lottery lacks the time necessary to find the universal genetic code.
4. We have not even considered that there are also over 500 possible amino acids, which would have to be sorted out, to get only 20, and select all L amino and R sugar bases......
5. We know that minds do invent languages, codes, translation systems, ciphers, and complex, specified information all the time.
6. Put it in other words: The task compares to invent two languages, two alphabets, and a translation system, and the information content of a book ( for example hamlet) being created and written in English, and translated to Chinese, through the invention and application of an extremely sophisticated hardware system.
7. The genetic code and its translation system are best explained through the action of an intelligent designer. The genetic piano
1. The work of the gene regulatory network “corresponds to a pianist playing a piece of music. Like keys on a piano, DNA is the blueprint to make the proteins that cells require. Epigenetic information provides dynamic, flexible instructions as to how, where, and when the information stored in DNA will be expressed.
2. There must be an origin of the information required to produce function. Who’s the pianist and who’s the conductor? The environment cannot be the director. Heredity cannot be the musician; it has no foresight to orchestrate the collection of processes organized into a meaningful, functional outcome.
3. Science is supposed to seek efficient and adequate causes, not just-so stories, or appeals to chance based on circular reasoning. The alternative and the only explanation is therefore intelligent design with a known cause sufficient to produce functional instructional information: an intelligent agent.
The Wobble hypothesis points to an intelligent setup!1. In translation, the wobble hypothesis is a set of four relationships. The first two bases in the codon create the coding specificity, for they form strong Watson-Crick base pairs and bond strongly to the anticodon of the tRNA.2. When reading 5' to 3' the first nucleotide in the anticodon (which is on the tRNA and pairs with the last nucleotide of the codon on the mRNA) determines how many nucleotides the tRNA actually distinguishes.If the first nucleotide in the anticodon is a C or an A, pairing is specific and acknowledges original Watson-Crick pairing, that is: only one specific codon can be paired to that tRNA. If the first nucleotide is U or G, the pairing is less specific and in fact, two bases can be interchangeably recognized by the tRNA. Inosine displays the true qualities of wobble, in that if that is the first nucleotide in the anticodon then any of three bases in the original codon can be matched with the tRNA.3. Due to the specificity inherent in the first two nucleotides of the codon, if one amino acid is coded for by multiple anticodons and those anticodons differ in either the second or third position (first or second position in the codon) then a different tRNA is required for that anticodon.4. The minimum requirement to satisfy all possible codons (61 excluding three stop codons) is 32 tRNAs. Which is 31 tRNAs for the amino acids and one initiation codon. Aside from the obvious necessity of wobble, that our bodies have a limited amount of tRNAs and wobble allows for broad specificity, wobble base pairs have been shown to facilitate many biological functions. This has another AMAZING implication which points to intelligent set up: The science paper: The genetic code is one in a million, confesses: If we employ weightings to allow for biases in translation, then only 1 in every million random alternative codes generated is more efficient than the natural code. We thus conclude not only that the natural genetic code is extremely efficient at minimizing the effects of errors, but also that its structure reflects biases in these errors, as might be expected were the code the product of selection.5. This, all, by all means, screams out literally of intelligent DESIGN !!
1. First, it would seem that the early codons need have used only two bases (which could code for up to 16 amino acids); but a subsequent change to three bases (to accommodate 20) would seriously disrupt the code. Recognizing this difficulty, most researchers assume that the code used 3-base codons from the outset; which was remarkably fortuitous or implies some measure of foresight on the part of evolution (which, of course, is not allowed).https://evolutionunderthemicroscope.com/ool02.html
2. Much more serious are the implications for proteins based on a severely limited set of amino acids. In particular, if the code was limited to only a few amino acids, then it must be presumed that early activating enzymes comprised only that limited set of amino acids, and yet had the necessary level of specificity for reliable implementation of the code. There is no evidence of this; and subsequent reorganization of the enzymes as they made use of newly available amino acids would require highly improbable changes in their configuration. Similar limitations would apply to the protein components of the ribosomes which have an equally essential role in translation.
3. Further, tRNAs tend to have atypical bases which are synthesized in the usual way but subsequently modified. These modifications are carried out by enzymes, so these enzymes too would need to have started life based on a limited number of amino acids; or it has to be assumed that these modifications are later refinements - even though they appear to be necessary for reliable implementation of the code.
4. Finally, what is going to motivate the addition of new amino acids to the genetic code? They would have little if any utility until incorporated into proteins - but that will not happen until they are included in the genetic code. So the new amino acids must be synthesized and somehow incorporated into useful proteins (by enzymes that lack them), and all of the necessary machinery for including them in the code (dedicated tRNAs and activating enzymes) put in place – and all done opportunistically! Totally incredible!
2. D -> A & B & C
3. A & B & C -> requires Intelligence
4. Therefore Intelligence
A: Information, Biosemiotics ( instructional complex mRNA codon sequences transcribed from DNA )
B: Translation mechanism ( adapter, key, or process of some kind to exist prior to translation = ribosome )
C: Genetic Code
D: Functional proteins
1. Life depends on proteins ( molecular machines ) (D). Their function depends on the correct arrangement of a specified complex sequence of amino acids.
2. That depends on the translation of genetic information
(A) through the ribosome
(B) and the genetic code (C)
, which assigns 61 codons and 3 start/stop codons to 20 amino acids
3. Instructional complex Information ( Biosemiotics: Semantics, Synthax, and pragmatics (A)) is only generated by intelligent beings with foresight. Only intelligence with foresight can conceptualize and instantiate complex machines with specific purposes, like translation using adapter keys (ribosome, tRNA, aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (B)) All codes require arbitrary values being assigned
and determined by agency to represent something else ( genetic code (C)).4.
Therefore, Proteins being the product of semiotics/algorithmic information including translation through the genetic code, and the manufacturing system ( information directing manufacturing ) are most probably the product of a divine intelligent designer.The problem of translation through the Ribosome is threefold:1. The origin of Information stored in the genome.
1. Semiotic functional information is not a tangible entity, and as such, it is beyond the reach of, and cannot be created by any undirected physical process.
2. This is not an argument about probability. Conceptual semiotic information is simply beyond the sphere of influence of any undirected physical process. To suggest that a physical process can create semiotic code is like suggesting that a rainbow can write poetry... it is never going to happen! Physics and chemistry alone do not possess the tools to create a concept. The only cause capable of creating conceptual semiotic information is a conscious intelligent mind.
3. Since life depends on the vast quantity of semiotic information, life is no accident and provides powerful positive evidence that we have been designed. A scientist working at the cutting edge of our understanding of the programming information in biology, he described what he saw as an “alien technology written by an engineer a million times smarter than us”
2. The origin of the adapter, key, or process of some kind to exist prior to translation = ribosome
1. Ribosomes have the purpose to translate genetic information into proteins. According to Craig Venter, the ribosome is “an incredibly beautiful complex entity” which requires a minimum of 53 proteins. It is nothing if not an editorial perfectionist…the ribosome exerts far tighter quality control than anyone ever suspected over its precious protein products… They are molecular factories with complex machine-like operations. They carefully sense, transfer, and process, continually exchange and integrate information during the various steps of translation, within itself at a molecular scale, and amazingly, even make decisions. They communicate in a coordinated manner, and information is integrated and processed to enable an optimized ribosome activity. Strikingly, many of the ribosome functional properties go far beyond the skills of a simple mechanical machine. They can halt the translation process on the fly, and coordinate extremely complex movements. The whole system incorporates 11 ingenious error check and repair mechanisms, to guarantee faithful and accurate translation, which is life-essential.
2. For the assembly of this protein-making factory, consisting of multiple parts, the following is required: genetic information to produce the ribosome assembly proteins, chaperones, all ribosome subunits, and assembly cofactors. a full set of tRNA's, a full set of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, the signal recognition particle, elongation factors, mRNA, etc. The individual parts must be available, precisely fit together, and assembly must be coordinated. A ribosome cannot perform its function unless all subparts are fully set up and interlocked.
3. The making of a translation machine makes only sense if there is a source code, and information to be translated. Eugene Koonin: Breaking the evolution of the translation system into incremental steps, each associated with a biologically plausible selective advantage is extremely difficult even within a speculative scheme let alone experimentally. Speaking of ribosomes, they are so well-structured that when broken down into their component parts by chemical catalysts (into long molecular fragments and more than fifty different proteins) they reform into a functioning ribosome as soon as the divisive chemical forces have been removed, independent of any enzymes or assembly machinery – and carry on working. Design some machinery that behaves like this and I personally will build a temple to your name! Natural selection would not select for components of a complex system that would be useful only in the completion of that much larger system. The origin of the ribosome is better explained through a brilliant intelligent and powerful designer, rather than mindless natural processes by chance, or/and evolution since we observe all the time minds capabilities producing machines and factories.
3. The origin of the genetic code
1. A code is a system of rules where a symbol, letters, words, etc. are assigned to something else. Transmitting information, for example, can be done through the translation of the symbols of the alphabetic letters, to symbols of kanji, logographic characters used in Japan. In cells, the genetic code is the assignment ( a cipher) of 64 triplet codons to 20 amino acids.
2. Assigning meaning of characters through a code system, where symbols of one language are assigned to symbols of another language that mean the same, requires a common agreement of meaning. The assignment of triplet codons (triplet nucleotides) to amino acids must be pre-established by a mind.
3. Therefore, the origin of the genetic code is best explained by an intelligent designer.