Defending the Christian Worlview, Creationism, and Intelligent Design
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Defending the Christian Worlview, Creationism, and Intelligent Design

This is my personal virtual library, where i collect information, which leads in my view to the Christian faith, creationism, and Intelligent Design as the best explanation of the origin of the physical Universe, life, and biodiversity


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Defending the Christian Worlview, Creationism, and Intelligent Design » Intelligent Design » Main topics on the structural complexity of the human body

Main topics on the structural complexity of the human body

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Otangelo


Admin
Main topics on the structural complexity of the human body

https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2697-topics-on-the-structural-complexity-of-the-human-body

In order for a new limb to evolve, let's say arms, not only would have there to be new information of where to locate the new limb in the body to be functional, ( hox genes ) and develop in the right sequence and order but also, at the same time, each of the seven mentioned items below would have to develop together :

1. Muscular system - essential for the movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body.
2. Skeletal system - is the internal framework of the body.
3. Nervous system - is the part that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
4. Endocrine System- hormones are signaling molecules that target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior.
5. Circulatory system - is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body.
6. Integumentary system - comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or damages from outside
7. Lymphatic System It is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a large network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph directionally towards the heart.


The human body is a system performing its basic functions including a set of seven well-matched interdependent systems, besides requiring five major components, 1) communication; (2) waste disposal; (3) nutrition;
(4) repair; and (5) reproduction. mutually interacting, where each part in the set is indispensable to maintaining the system's basic, and therefore original, function.  The set of these indispensable parts is known as the irreducible core of the system.






Thoughts on the Human Body 1
When we arrive on this earth we are endowed with the most perfect, the most efficient, and the best constructed machine ever devised – our body. A machine beautifully engineered and constructed with the best materials with no planned obsolescence. Constructed with material of superb quality destined with proper use to last long periods of time. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096191/

The body's computer, the brain, is by far the most sophisticated, the finest constructed, the most efficient computer that has ever been or ever will be designed. No man-made computer can approach the efficiency of the computer each of us has. The brain's frontal lobes which contain higher centers form an extremely elaborate electrical system which monitors and operates the entire machine with an efficiency that is unknown in any other machine. Located in the brain is the center for the activation of the various motors (muscles that move our body, for monitoring the various activities which are essential for proper function, namely the pumping system, the waste disposal system, the heart-regulating system, the alarm system).

The thermostat which is located in the brain is adjusted to such a fine degree that the temperature remains constant almost at all times unless something interferes with the function of the machine. If the body generates more heat, the thermostat goes to work and opens up avenues for the dissipation of the heat, such as the dilatation of vessels on the surface of the body and outpouring of fluid on the surface to permit evaporation which tends to lower the surface temperature. An increase in the rate air is exchanged in the lungs also permits dissipation of heat. Conversely, when insufficient heat is generated or in cold areas, the valves controlling flow through the pipes (blood vessels) extending to the body surface are closed, shunting most of the fluid (blood) into the interiors and preventing the dissipation of the heat in the periphery. Also, more heat is generated by involuntary contraction of muscles, i.e. shivering.

The pumping system of the body is the most efficient of all pumping systems. It begins working while the infant is still in utero and pumps day and night without cessation until the individual dies at the age of 50, 60, 70, 80, or even 100. With no rest, it is obvious that this machine is a very efficient one. It requires a great deal of energy – much more than is ordinarily thought. The amount of energy required by the human heart at rest, i.e. asleep, is 40-foot tons in 24 hours, which is the amount of energy necessary to elevate a ton 24 feet in 24 hours, a power far too great to be supplied by a battery. Additionally, of all machines the human heart is the most efficient, a two-cylinder pump which is most efficient at the time of its greatest stress. Most pumps when under increasing stress require increasing amounts of energy. The human heart, however, requires less energy at the time of its greatest stress than when subjected to less stress. At the beginning of contraction of the heart when the blood pressure is at the resting stage (diastole) more energy is required than at the completion of the contraction when the blood pressure is highest (systole). No other pump has this degree of efficiency. The heart requires no conscious action on our part to function, but it is under the control of the nervous system to a certain extent in that its rate is slowed by stimulation of the vagus nerves and increased by stimulation of the sympathetic nerves. Normally the heart assumes its own control and is automatic in this control unless there is some external stimulus that causes it either to be slowed or to be increased in rate. With increased exertion on the part of the individual, more blood is needed to be pumped to the various parts of the body to supply more food and oxygen, resulting in an increased heart rate and pumping efficiency of the heart. 



The system of borrowing and lending of blood whenever it is necessary is entirely automatic and goes on without the consciousness of the individual. Those portions of the machine that require the greatest amount of blood, oxygen, and food – the brain and the kidneys – are supplied with enormous amounts of blood, relatively much more than other portions of the body. The nitrogenous waste products of the body as the result of energy production are almost entirely removed from the body by the kidneys, so that enormous amounts of blood necessarily flow through the kidneys. The kidney removes from the blood the nitrogenous wastes in solution, and because water is so essential to the body, most of the water is separated from the wastes and retained in the body. The nitrogenous wastes are thus concentrated and excreted in the urine. If, however, there has been kidney damage in which this selective process of excreting the noxious substances and retaining the waters is lost, the individual loses the ability to excrete the poisons, resulting in their retention in the body and accumulation.

For any pump to operate it is necessary to supply it with energy. The human body is supplied with energy by the food that is taken in and is consumed more efficiently than in other machines. The food is masticated, swallowed, and acted upon by digestive juices in the stomach and in the intestines. As the result of chemical alterations it is absorbed into the blood streams and carried to the liver. Because toxic products and bacteria are absorbed into the blood, they must be removed, which is done very efficiently by the liver. After the food substances have been purified by the liver, they are carried in the veins back to the heart and lungs to be transported throughout the body where they can be utilized. The liver also serves as a filter to remove bacteria absorbed from the intestinal tract and also debris. In certain forms of anemia in which the red blood cells are destroyed, the liver filters out the cell debris and excretes it in the bile.

The human body is one of the most efficient chemical factories in the world. It can produce chemicals of very complex nature which are required for body functions by using the raw chemicals and building them into the complex chemical structures which are needed for the proper functioning of the machine. This is done in various portions of the body, in the liver, the glands of internal secretion, the pituitary, the adrenal, the prostate, the thyroid, and the pancreas.

Another part of the waste disposal plant is disposal of wastes through the gastrointestinal tract. After the food has been utilized and most of the essential elements have been extracted normally from them, including the water in order to conserve water, the residue is excreted from the lower intestinal tract. A very important part of the disposal system is the action of bacteria on waste products which is necessary particularly in the large intestine or colon to make a normal function of the intestinal process. These bacteria help in the chemical breakdown of the food elements that the body needs.

The body is endowed with a very good protective system which alerts one if there is danger. Largely as the result of the programming of the computer, the individual learns which conditions are hazardous. When these present themselves, the immediate reaction is an increase in the production of adrenalin which activates the heart to pump more blood and the body to respond more quickly. One is able to respond to stress more effectively than would be possible without this stimulus. As the result of programming, one learns which things are harmful and avoids them. For instance, it does not take long for children to realize that when they touch something hot and feel the sensation of heat on the skin that this is harmful. The immediate application of the heat means a recoil to protect the individual from further damage.

The body also has a tremendous back-up system that is endowed with a great deal more capability than is ordinarily used. There are a good many paired organs, two lungs, two eyes, two kidneys – each of these has a tremendous reserve far beyond what is ordinarily needed, so that a tremendous reserve is present. Also in many parts of the body there is re-generation. The cells of the body are continually being destroyed as a result of the wearing out process but are being regenerated. This is true of most of the body but not all, and this is a part of the back-up system which is essential for the proper functioning of the body.

From the above it is obvious that the human body is the most efficient and best designed system that has even been designed, but like all systems, it is subject to wear. The human body has a longevity far greater than most machines. However, it, as all machines, should not be abused but given good care and maintenance. For some reason or other we have come to believe that the human body can stand any amount of abuse and that it is not necessary for it to have care. As do all machines, the body does experience wear, although its rate of wear and deterioration depends largely upon the care it receives. If it is neglected and abused, rapid deterioration and early obsolescence and failure result. It is astounding to me how the public generally completely disregards their bodies at the same time that they take meticulous care of their automobiles, their watches, their home appliances, etc. With proper care and lack of abuse, this beautifully machined mechanism will last for a long time and function perfectly. One must avoid all factors which produce an increase in the wearing out process and do everything to ameliorate deterioration.

In the human body as in any machine, use and proper use are necessary. Too frequently we do not get exercise; we have become a sedentary people. Exercise is important daily, and it should be strenuous enough whenever possible to require rapid deep breathing and to cause an increase in the heart rate.

The endocrine and nervous system, directly and indirectly, regulate the cardiovascular system.  One depends on the other, and both had to emerge together. Both digestive and excretory systems are regulated with input from the nervous system and endocrine system, and the cardiovascular system is inextricably linked with bowel and kidney function on multiple levels. which means, these systems had to emerge altogether. The endocrine and nervous system may work together on the same organ, and each may influence the actions of the other system. The endocrine system largely governs many processes related to reproduction and sexual maturity, as well. The endocrine and nervous system are interdependent since one influences the action of the other system. The central nervous system includes the spinal cord and the brain, which gets the information from the body and sends out instructions. The peripheral nervous system includes all of the nerves and sends messages from the brain to the rest of the body. The nervous system controls both voluntary and involuntary, automatic activities and bodily functions. Both the nervous system and endocrine system serve to integrate the body's various other systems, keeping things in synch. The spinal cord, the brain, the nerves, and the cells that sense, taste, smell, hear, see form an interdependent system. Both the nervous system and endocrine system serve to integrate the body's various other systems, keeping things in synch.  Movement in the body is the result of muscle contraction; when muscles combine with the action of joints and bones, obvious movements are performed, such as jumping and walking. Muscles, bones, the nervous system, and the cardiovascular system are interdependent. One has no function without the other.

Systems of the human body:
1. Muscular system - essential for movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body.
2. Skeletal system -  is the internal framework of the body.
3. Nervous system - is the part that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
4. Endocrine System- hormones are signalling molecules that target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
5. Circulatory system -  is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body.
6. Integumentary system - comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or damages from outside
7. Lymphatic System It is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a large network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph directionally towards the heart.
8. Respiratory system -  consists of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange.
9. Digestive system - consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion, and involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body.
10. Urinary system- essential to  eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH
11. Reproductive system - sex organs within an organism which works together for the purpose of sexual reproduction and giving some fun.


Structural Organization of the Human Body
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2595-structural-organization-of-the-human-body

Human organ development, it can't happen through evolution
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1743-human-organ-development-it-can-t-happen-through-evolution

Systems of the human body
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2189-systems-of-the-human-body

The human brain, marvel of design
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1377-the-human-brain-marvel-of-design

The Human Nervous System: Evidence of Intelligent Design
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2581-the-human-nervous-system-evidence-of-intelligent-design

The tongue - evidence of intelligent design
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2579-the-tongue-evidence-of-intelligent-design

Number of cells in the human body, and synapses in the human brain
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2597-number-of-cells-in-the-human-body-and-synapses-in-the-human-brain

Human metabolic map
http://vmh.uni.lu/#reconmap

The human proteome
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2646-the-human-proteome

Collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body, and its synthesis
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2593-collagen-the-most-abundant-protein-in-the-human-body-and-its-synthesis

How the origin of the human eye is best explained through intelligent design  
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2411-how-the-origin-of-the-human-eye-is-best-explained-through-intelligent-design

The Human Heart proves evolution wrong!
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1911-the-human-heart-proves-evolution-wrong

Comprehensive mapping of long range interactions reveals folding principles of the human genome
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2301-comprehensive-mapping-of-long-range-interactions-reveals-folding-principles-of-the-human-genome

Science Finds 'Tiny Computers' Embedded In Human Skin
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2246-science-finds-tiny-computers-embedded-in-human-skin

Evidence of God in Human Physiology Fearfully and Wonderfully Made
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1913-evidence-of-god-in-human-physiology-fearfully-and-wonderfully-made



Main topics on the structural complexity of the human body HPMhLXW

https://io9.gizmodo.com/your-body-the-machine-literally-1639677357

1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096191/



Last edited by Admin on Mon Sep 14, 2020 3:09 pm; edited 7 times in total

https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com

Otangelo


Admin
Main topics on the structural complexity of the human body QLSyIWb





Musculoskeletal Systems
The most obvious structural parts of a house are the bricks and mortar, and their accompanying joists, rafters and foundations. These could represent the musculoskeletal systems, which give support and structure to the body, and provide a framework to which the other organs and systems attach.

Integumentary System (Skin)
The integumentary system or skin – the epidermis, and the layers of insulation in the cavity walls being likened to the fatty layers of the dermis, through which cables and pipework may be flowing.

Respiratory System
The respiratory system, which brings air from outside the body, via the nose and mouth, into the lungs, where gaseous exchange takes place, oxygen is taken into the body and moistened, and carbondioxide-rich air is expelled. If the ventilation of a building is insufficient then toxic gases may build up, which can be fatal – and this can be seen in respiration too.

Nervous System
The nervous system, with its neurons and synapses. Electrical cabling has very thick insulation, similar to the myelin sheaths surrounding some neurons. If this myelin disappears owing to disease then the message does not flow through the neuron, just as when the copper wire is exposed when it shouldn’t be, the electrical pathway short-circuits and blows a fuse.

Endocrine System
Homeostasis is defined as the ability to maintain internal stability in an organism to compensate for environmental changes. The body maintains this by having neurological sensors that detect change,

Circulatory, Lymphatic and Immune Systems 
The lymphatic system can be seen as part of the immune system; the spleen and lymph nodes offer a suitable location for lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system. The immune system is the body’s burglar alarm system, checking for entry of bacteria and viruses, and setting off alarms in the form of immunoglobulins or complement cascades when it detects any bugs.

Digestive System
The digestive system of the body chomps food using the mouth, teeth and tongue; makes it more digestible using enzymes in the stomach and duodenum; and absorbs it into the body via the small intestine. And the excess and unwanted residue is turned into faeces and expelled via our own sewerage system, the large intestine.

Excretory System
Our body filters our waste fluids and expels them via the kidneys and bladder of the excretory system.

Reproductive System
The reproductive system, housed within the pelvis, the male and female reproductive systems are designed to make unique, individualised copies of ourselves, each having a recognisably human body, yet having distinguishing features and each different from every other.

There are many reasons to reject macroevolutionary claims, namely that mutations, and natural selection, genetic drift, or gene flow explain the origin of all the varieties of body architectures on earth.

Following is a good illustrative example.

Topics on the structural complexity of the human body
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2697-topics-on-the-structural-complexity-of-the-human-body

There are eleven different, interdependent and irreducible systems in the human body, to name:

1. Muscular system - essential for movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body.
2. Skeletal system - is the internal framework of the body.
3. Nervous system - is the part that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
4. Endocrine System- hormones are signalling molecules that target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
5. Circulatory system - is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body.
6. Integumentary system - comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or damages from outside
7. Lymphatic System It is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a large network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph directionally towards the heart.
8. Respiratory system - consists of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange.
9. Digestive system - consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion, and involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body.
10. Urinary system- essential to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH
11. Reproductive system - sex organs within an organism which works together for the purpose of sexual reproduction and giving some fun.

Let us suppose that, according to the evolutionary narrative, there had to grow a new limb. Let's say, an arm. In order to be functional, there had to be several parallel mutations in the genome to define the first 7 systems in the list above for the development of the new limb.

Not only that, the genome would have to define also the right development program from embryo to the adult of the new limb. For example, the human skeleton is composed of around 270 bones at birth – this total decreases to around 206 bones by adulthood after some bones get fused together.

Besides this, most animals on earth, including humans, are symmetrical. There is a number of types of body symmetry: asymmetry, radial, bilateral, spiral, rotational, glide and metameric symmetries.

Body of bilateral animals possesses the same dorsoventral axis and yet another polarity, orthogonal to it: the anterior-posterior axis.

To get that right is not a simple feat. Genetic control mechanisms underly development. The key developmental genes fall into a relatively small set of functional classes. Most of the developmental machinery is the same between flies and vertebrates.

For example, the Drosophila egg—shaped like a cucumber— begins its development with an extraordinarily rapid series of nuclear divisions without cell division, producing multiple nuclei in a common cytoplasm—a syncytium. The nuclei then migrate to the cell cortex, forming a structure called the syncytial blastoderm. After about 6000 nuclei have been produced, the plasma membrane folds inward between them and partitions them into separate cells, converting the syncytial blastoderm into the cellular blastoderm.

The initial patterning of the Drosophila embryo DEPENDS ON SIGNALS ( pre-established and pre-programmed genetic information ! ) that diffuse through the cytoplasm at the syncytial stage and exert their actions on genes in the rapidly dividing nuclei, before the partitioning of the egg into separate cells.

Egg-polarity genes encode macromolecules deposited in the egg to organize the axes of the early Drosophila embryo

As in most insects, the main axes of the future body of Drosophila ARE DEFINED before fertilization by a COMPLEX EXCHANGE OF SIGNALS between the developing egg, In the stages before fertilization, the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the future embryo become defined by FOUR systems of egg-polarity genes that create landmarks—either mRNA or protein—in the developing oocyte.

I don't want to go further into details at this point. But outline, as seen, body shape and symmetry and axes are defined by pre-programmed signals, and in drosophyla, there are FOUR systems of polarity genes required.

The different concentrations of Bicoid along the A-P axis help determine different cell fates by regulating the transcription of genes in the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm. Of the three other egg-polarity gene systems, two contribute to patterning the syncytial nuclei along the A-P axis and one to patterning them along the D-V axis. Together with the Bicoid group of genes, and acting in a broadly similar way, their gene products mark out three fundamental partitions of body regions—head versus rear, dorsal versus ventral, and endoderm versus mesoderm and ectoderm— as well as a fourth partition, no less fundamental to the body plan of animals: the distinction between germ cells and somatic cells.

QUESTION: Had these four systems not have to emerge TOGETHER, turning them irreducible, otherwise, the result would be monster unable to survive?

Mechanisms of pattern formation
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2752-mechanisms-of-pattern-formation

https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com

Otangelo


Admin
Movement of fluid around the body involves:

1. Digestive system
2. Cardiovascular system
3. Respiratory system
4. Integumentary system (skin)
5. Lymphatic system
6. Musculoskeletal system
7. Immune system
8. Renal system
9. Nervous system
10. Endocrine system

and is an irreducibly complex system.

If any of these systems are not working correctly, then specific pathology occurs causing disease; the type of disease is dependent on which systems are affected.

Main topics on the structural complexity of the human body Ow5IAe2

https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com

Otangelo


Admin
The human body is a structural masterpiece of amazing complexity. A“structural masterpiece” with  “ingenious” systems and “highly endowed organization”

It is structured in four levels. 

1. The cells are the smallest unit of life. 
2. Tissues (muscle tissue, nerve tissue, etc.) are groups of the same kind of cells carrying on the same kind of activity. 
3. Organs (heart, liver, etc.) are groups of tissues working together in unison. 
4. There are systems (reproductive system, circulatory system, etc.) that are composed of groups of organs carrying out specific organismal functions.

The Body’s Cells 
A human body is composed of over 30 different kinds of cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, etc.), totaling approximately 37 trillion cells in an adult. These cells come in a variety of sizes and shapes, with different functions and life expectancies. All the cells of the human body, if set end-to-end, would encircle the Earth over 200 times. Even the largest cell of the human body, the female ovum, is unbelievably small, being only 0.01 of an inch in diameter. Cells have three major components. First, each cell is composed of a cell membrane that encloses the organism. Second, inside the cell is a three-dimensional cytoplasm—a watery matrix containing specialized organelles. Third, within the cytoplasm is the nucleus, which contains most of the genetic material, and which serves as the control center of the cell. The lipoprotein cell membrane (lipids/proteins/lipids) allows selective transport into, and out of, the cell. Ernest Borek has observed: “The membrane recognizes with its uncanny molecular memory the hundreds of compounds swimming around it and permits or denies passage according to the cell’s requirements” (1973, p. 5). Inside the cytoplasm, there are over 1500 different chemical reactions occurring at any one time, with each cell containing five major components for: 

(1) communication; 
(2) waste disposal; 
(3) nutrition; 
(4) repair; and 
(5) reproduction. 

Within this watery matrix there are such organelles as the mitochondria (over 1,000 per cell in many instances) that provide the cell with its energy. The endoplasmic reticulum is a “...transport system designed to carry materials from one part of the cell to the other” (Pfeiffer, 1964, p. 13). Ribosomes are miniature protein-producing factories. Golgi bodies store the proteins manufactured by the ribosomes. Lysosomes within the cytoplasm function as garbage disposal units. The nucleus is the control center of the cell and is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane. Within the nucleus is the genetic machinery of the cell (chromosomes and genes containing deoxyribonucleic acid—DNA). The DNA is a supermolecule that carries the coded information for the replication of the cell. If the DNA from a single human cell were removed from the nucleus and unraveled (it is found in the cell in a spiral configuration), it would be approximately six feet long and would contain over 3 billion base pairs. It has been estimated that if all the DNA in an adult human were placed end-to-end, it would reach to the Sun and back (186 million miles) 400 times.

In an article written for Encyclopaedia Britannica, Carl Sagan observed that “the information content of a simple cell has been estimated as around 1012 bits [i.e., one trillion—BT/WJ]...” (1974, 10:894). To emphasize to the reader the enormity of this figure, Dr. Sagan then noted that if one were to count every letter in every word of every book in the world’s largest library (over ten million volumes), the final tally would be approximately a trillion letters. Thus, a single cell contains the equivalent information content of every book in the world’s largest library of more than ten million volumes! Every rational person recognizes that not one of the books in such a library “just happened.”

We know that in numerous cases certain effects always have intelligent causes, such as dictionaries, sculptures, machines and paintings. We reason by analogy that similar effects have intelligent causes

In like manner, an intelligible communication via radio signal from some distant galaxy would be widely hailed as evidence of an intelligent source. Why then doesn’t the message sequence on the DNA molecule also constitute prima facie evidence for an intelligent source? After all, DNA information is not just analogous to a message sequence such as Morse code, it is such a message sequence....


The Body’s Tissues 
In the human body, there are numerous tissues (e.g., muscle tissues, nerve tissues, etc.). In fact, a single human has more than 600 muscles (containing about six billion muscle fibers), composing about 40% of the body’s weight. According to I.M. Murray, professor of anatomy at the State University of New York, muscles are the “engines” of the body that provide the power for movement (1969, p. 22). Some muscles are tiny, such as those regulating the amount of light entering the eye, while others, like those in the legs, are massive. Muscles may be classified either as “voluntary” (i.e., under the control of the human will), or “involuntary” (i.e., not under control of the will). The voluntary muscles of the arms, for example, are attached to the bones by tough cords of connective tissue called tendons. One must “think” in order to move these muscles. The involuntary muscles are those whose contraction and relaxation cannot be controlled consciously (e.g., the heart and intestines). Some muscles are both voluntary and involuntary (e.g., the muscles controlling the eyelids, and the diaphragm). All muscles, in one way or another, are regulated by the nervous system.

Muscles work by contracting (tightening). When they contract, they shorten, thus exerting a “pull” (muscles do not “push”). Frequently, muscles work in pairs, as in the voluntary skeletal muscles. The biceps in the upper arm pulls the forearm forward, whereas the triceps moves the forearm downward. While one works, the other rests. The design inherent in such tissues is utterly amazing.

Some muscles, like those attached to the skeleton, are analogous to strong steel cables. Each muscle is constructed of long cells combined in small bundles called fibers. These bundles are bound together, making larger bundles of which the whole muscle consists. Muscle fibers vary in size from a few hundred-thousandths of an inch, to an inch or inch-and-a-half in length. Each muscle has its own stored supply of high-grade fuel, especially sugar (glycogen), which the body has manufactured from food that has been consumed. This analogy may be helpful. In an automobile engine, the spark ignites vaporized gasoline, the piston moves, and keeps moving in response to a series of explosions. “A muscle performs the functions of both the spark and the piston; the cell itself splits a molecule of fuel and also exerts the resulting physical power” (Miller and Goode, 1960, p. 23). If it is clear that an automobile engine was intelligently designed, why is it not reasonable to draw the same conclusion with reference to muscles. Lenihan, even though an evolutionist, writes: “The body’s engines [muscles—BT/WJ]...demonstrate some surprisingly modern engineering ideas” (1974, p. 43). The question is: Who initiated these “engineering ideas”?

Connected to the skeletal muscle is a nerve. The nerve conveys a signal telling the muscle when to contract or relax. Obviously, there must be precise orchestration between the skeletal muscle system and the nervous system. Without doubt, their cooperative nature was planned. Some muscles, like those in the stomach, are stimulated to work by means of chemicals call hormones.

Further, there is a precisely integrated relationship between muscles and bones. Here is just one such example. “As certain muscles increase in strength, they pull harder than before on the bones to which they are attached. With this as a stimulus, bone-forming cells build new bone to give internal reinforcement where necessary” (Shryock, 1968, p. 27). Would this indicate design?

https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com

Otangelo


Admin
The human body, amazing evidence of design

https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2697-main-topics-on-the-structural-complexity-of-the-human-body#7474

The more I think about the human body, the more I become aware of how incomprehensibly phenomenal it is. Its complexity is far beyond anything that we could think of, or imagine. It is a structural masterpiece with  “ingenious” systems and “highly endowed organization”. When we arrive on this earth we are endowed with the most perfect, the most efficient, and the best constructed machine ever devised – our body. A machine beautifully engineered and constructed with the best materials with no planned obsolescence. Constructed with material of superb quality destined with proper use to last long periods of time. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096191/

The body's computer, the brain, is by far the most sophisticated, the finest constructed, the most efficient computer that has ever been or ever will be designed. No man-made computer can approach the efficiency of the computer each of us has. 

It is structured in four levels.

1. The cells are the smallest unit of life.
2. Tissues (muscle tissue, nerve tissue, etc.) are groups of the same kind of cells carrying on the same kind of activity.
3. Organs (heart, liver, etc.) are groups of tissues working together in unison.
4. There are systems (reproductive system, circulatory system, etc.) that are composed of groups of organs carrying out specific organismal functions.

A human body is composed of over 200 different kinds of cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, etc.), totaling approximately 37 trillion cells in an adult, and within these cells there are about 20 different types of structures or organelles. These cells come in a variety of sizes and shapes, with different functions and life expectancies. All the cells of the human body, if set end-to-end, would encircle the Earth over 200 times. Inside the cell's liquid, the cytoplasm, there are over 1500 different chemical reactions occurring at any one time, with each cell containing five major components for:

(1) communication;
(2) waste disposal;
(3) nutrition;
(4) repair; and
(5) reproduction.

Movement of fluid around the body involves:

1. Digestive system
2. Cardiovascular system
3. Respiratory system
4. Integumentary system (skin)
5. Lymphatic system
6. Musculoskeletal system
7. Immune system
8. Renal system
9. Nervous system
10. Endocrine system

In an article written for Encyclopaedia Britannica, Carl Sagan observed that “the information content of a simple cell has been estimated as around 10^12 bits [i.e., one trillion ].” . To emphasize to the reader the enormity of this figure, Dr. Sagan then noted that if one were to count every letter in every word of every book in the world’s largest library (over ten million volumes), the final tally would be approximately a trillion letters. Thus, a single cell contains the equivalent information content of every book in the world’s largest library of more than ten million volumes! Every rational person recognizes that not one of the books in such a library “just happened.”

We know that in numerous cases certain effects always have intelligent causes, such as dictionaries, sculptures, machines and paintings. We reason by analogy that similar effects have intelligent causes

In like manner, an intelligible communication via radio signal from some distant galaxy would be widely hailed as evidence of an intelligent source. Why then doesn’t the message sequence on the DNA molecule also constitute prima facie evidence for an intelligent source? After all, DNA information is not just analogous to a message sequence such as Morse code, it is such a message sequence....

If the DNA from a single human cell were removed from the nucleus and unraveled (it is found in the cell in a spiral configuration), it would be approximately six feet long and would contain over 3 billion base pairs. It has been estimated that if all the DNA in an adult human were placed end-to-end, it would reach to the Sun and back (186 million miles) 400 times. A current estimation of human total cell numbers calculated for a variety of organs and cell types correspond to a total number of 3.72 × 10^13, or about 37 trillion cells. Something is immediately clear. There is no one to one relation between genotype and phenotype. This is a huge problem for a gene-centric view, and for who advocates that genes are the main sources of instructional information to make organismal form and architecture. Of course, the question is, if not genes, what doe really drive organismal development, and form?

Consider, that EACH of the 37 trillion cells ( each human cell hosts about 2,3 billion proteins and 6 million different protein species ) has to be specified in regards of: 

1. Cell phenotype
2. Cell size
3. It's specific function,
4. How it is interconnected with other cells,
5. What communication it requires to communicate with other cells, and the setup of the communication channels
6. What specific sensory and stimuli functions are required and does it have to acquire in regard to its environment and surroundings?
7. What specific new regulatory functions it acquires
8. When will the development program of the organism express the genes to grow the new cells during development?
9. Precisely how many new cell types must be produced for each tissue and organ?
10. Specification of the cell-cell adhesion and which ones will be used in each cell to adhere to the neighbor cells ( there are 4 classes )
11. Programming of  time period the cell keeps alive in the body, and when is it time to self-destruct and be replaced by newly produced cells of the same kind
12. Set up its specific nutrition demands, and
13. Position and place in the body. This is crucial. Limbs like legs, fins, eyes etc. must all be placed at the right place.

Following is a list of organs of the human body. It is widely believed that there are 100 organs. The following list contains many more than 79 different organs.

Muscular system Edit
Main article: Musculoskeletal system
See also: List of bones of the human skeleton and List of muscles of the human body
* Human skeleton
* Joints
* Ligaments
* Muscular system
* Tendons
Digestive system Edit
Main article: Digestive system
* Mouth
* Teeth
* Tongue
* Salivary glands
* Parotid glands
* Submandibular glands
* Sublingual glands
* Pharynx
* Esophagus
* Stomach
* Small intestine
* Duodenum
* Jejunum
* Ileum
* Large intestine
* Liver
* Gallbladder
* Mesentery
* Pancreas
* Anal canal and anus
* Blood cells
Respiratory system Edit
Main article: Respiratory system
* Nasal cavity
* Pharynx
* Larynx
* Trachea
* Bronchi
* Lungs
* Diaphragm
Urinary system Edit
Main article: Urinary system
* Kidneys
* Ureter
* Bladder
* Urethra
Reproductive organs Edit
Female reproductive system Edit
Main article: Female reproductive system
* Internal reproductive organs
* Ovaries
* Fallopian tubes
* Uterus
* Vagina
* External reproductive organs
* Vulva
* Clitoris
* Placenta
Male reproductive system Edit
Main article: Male reproductive system
* Internal reproductive organs
* Testes
* Epididymis
* Vas deferens
* Seminal vesicles
* Prostate
* Bulbourethral glands
* External reproductive organs
* Penis
* Scrotum
Endocrine system Edit
Main article: Endocrine system
* Pituitary gland
* Pineal gland
* Thyroid gland
* Parathyroid glands
* Adrenal glands
* Pancreas
Circulatory system Edit
Circulatory system Edit
Main article: Circulatory system
See also: List of arteries of the human body and List of veins of the human body
* Heart
* Patent Foramen Ovale
* Arteries
* Veins
* Capillaries
Lymphatic system Edit
Main article: Lymphatic system
* Lymphatic vessel
* Lymph node
* Bone marrow
* Thymus
* Spleen
* Gut-associated lymphoid tissue
* Tonsils
* Interstitium
Nervous system Edit
* • Brain
* Cerebrum
* Cerebral hemispheres
* Diencephalon
* The brainstem
* Midbrain
* Pons
* Medulla oblongata
* Cerebellum
* The spinal cord
* The ventricular system
* Choroid plexus
Peripheral nervous system Edit
See also: List of nerves of the human body
* Nerves
* Cranial nerves
* Spinal nerves
* Ganglia
* Enteric nervous system
Sensory organs Edit
Main article: Sensory system
* Eye
* Cornea
* Iris
* Ciliary body
* Lens
* Retina
* Ear
* Outer ear
* Earlobe
* Eardrum
* Middle ear
* Ossicles
* Inner ear
* Cochlea
* Vestibule of the ear
* Semicircular canals
* Olfactory epithelium
* Tongue
* Taste buds
Integumentary system Edit
Main article: Integumentary system
* Mammary glands
* Skin
* Subcutaneous tissue

Erection of multicellular structures needs something that unicellulars do not: huge amounts of information for the strictly determined spatial arrangement of a myriad of cells of different types and a mechanism for transmitting that information to the offspring.

Transmitting huge amounts of epigenetic information from parents to the offspring is a prerequisite for complex multicellular life.

The genetic information encodes proteins, but there is no indication, let alone proof, that it determines the specific spatial arrangement of billions or trillions of cells of various types in the animal body. The amount of information contained not only in genes but in the whole human genome, including the “junk” DNA, quantitatively represents only a negligible fraction of the information necessary for molding an animal structure.

A human brain alone has at least one trillion nerve cells. Before birth, that is experience-independently, each neuron establishes an average of 10,000 specific connections with specific neurons, implying that information for establishing these connections alone is of the order of quadrillions of bits, millions of times greater than the total amount of information contained in the genomic DNA.

The Control System and the Epigenetic System of Heredity in Metazoans

How can an organism, whose structure at the molecular, cellular, and supracellular levels is continually disintegrating, succeed in maintaining that complex structure and function during its lifetime? Metazoans succeed in doing so unambiguously proves that they

– Continually monitor the state of the system,
– Figure out structural losses, based on the presence of information about the normal structure,
– Figure out restitutive necessities, and
– Start signal cascades and activate GRN for replacing the lost structures at the right time and place.

The maintenance of multicellular structures implies possession by the control system of information on the normal structure.

Question: How did this control system emerge? Did it not require to have a priori " knowledge " of the normal structure? Does monitoring and figuring out based on a control system which constantly compares the actual state to what it has to be, as used in engineering,  not require the previous input of information, both, of how the correct homeostatic situation has to be, and how to control that state of affairs, and in case of disease and homeostatic imbalance, how to activate signal cascades in order to replace the lost structures?  Are engineering, monitoring, figuring out, controlling not all activities exclusively pre-programmed by intelligence in order to be able to be performed autonomously?  

The above functions performed by metazoans are typical functions of control systems, in principle similar to the control systems used in engineering. No metazoan would exist as such in the absence of a control system. The presence of a control system is one of the fundamental features of living, as opposed to anorganic, systems. That control system makes possible the development and maintenance of the metazoan organism, a thermodynamically improbable structure.

In metazoans, this is an integrated control system (ICS) with the central nervous system CNS as its controller. During reproduction, the integrated control system (ICS)  serves as the epigenetic system of heredity, which controls individual development. This epigenetic system organizes cells in the supracellular multicellular structures, parts, and organs, and the morphology in general.

In the process of metazoan reproduction, the integrated control system (ICS) functions as the epigenetic system of heredity. The individual development from the egg/ zygote to adulthood is a bigenerational process in which early development from the unicellular stage to the phylotypic stage takes place based on the epigenetic information provided parentally to the gametes.

In the second, the postphylotypic stage, the embryo is in possession of an operational CNS, which generates and provides information for the rest of the individual development, organogenesis and morphogenesis. After the phylotypic stage, electrical signals resulting from the processing of external/internal stimuli in neural circuits in the CNS (neural net in lower invertebrates) determine the activation of specific signal cascades leading to the development of specific morphological traits. The epigenetic information for metazoan morphology is computationally generated in the CNS by processing the input of internal/external stimuli.

Ample empirical evidence shows that the inductive signals for the development of tissues and organs during individual development originate in the CNS. During adult life, as well, signal cascades for the maintenance of animal morphology and homeostasis come from the CNS, via neuroendocrine cascades, often with essential participation of the local innervation.

Development of the metazoan structure requires a considerable investment of matter, free energy, and information. With matter and free energy is taken from the environment in the form of food, where does the information for the individual development and restitution of the disintegrating metazoan’s supracellular structure come from? That is, the source of the information necessary for the prenatal, i.e., experience-independent, the establishment of trillions or quadrillions of specific connections among neurons?  Biologists believe that this information resided in the nervous system, but that does not answer the origin or source of the information. The development of various organs during embryogenesis is induced by signals and signal cascades originating in the central nervous system CNS. But the meaning of these signals, and the interpretation of those, had to be pre-programmed, and pre-established. 1

Since instructional complex information comes always from intelligence, I would say, most probably, the information was pre-programmed by the intelligent designer.

1. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/An-estimation-of-the-number-of-cells-in-the-human-Bianconi-Piovesan/41c3dfda0d261070d84a2070c8b70b1f86cab52d

https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2697-main-topics-on-the-structural-complexity-of-the-human-body#7474

Where Do Complex Organisms Come From?
https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2316-evolution-where-do-complex-organisms-come-from



Last edited by Otangelo on Fri Jan 15, 2021 11:09 am; edited 1 time in total

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Otangelo


Admin
Musculoskeletal Systems - Integumentary System - (Skin) Respiratory System -  Nervous System -  Endocrine System -  Circulatory - Lymphatic and Immune Systems -  Digestive System - Excretory System -  Reproductive System

Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres. The presence of sarcomeres manifests as a series of bands visible along the muscle fibers. Sarcomeres, the smallest contractile units of striated muscle. Accessory proteins maintain precise alignment of thin and thick filaments within the sarcomere. I list over 40 ESSENTIAL, aka irreducible, interdependent components required in the Sarcormere for function. 1

Bone formation (osteogenesis) depends on at least 11 ESSENTIAL, aka irreducible interdependent components 2

Integumentary System

1. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2671-titin-the-largest-proteins-known-and-the-titin-telethonin-complex-the-strongest-protein-bond-found-so-far-in-nature
2. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2296-origin-and-development-of-bones-osteogenesis

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Otangelo


Admin
The human body has at last six memory systems -
* The short term memory system which we use to remember phone numbers for a few seconds
* "Muscle" memory where we learn physical skills such as how to catch a ball or wield a bat
* Long term memory which most people mean when they talk of memory
* Genetic memory where DNA carries instructions to replicate cells
* Epigenetic methylation "switches" which turn genes on and off in response to environmental stimuli.
* Immunological memory where the immune system remembers pathogens which have been encountered so they can be defeated when they next invade.
No doubt there are others. Some of these memory systems don't involve the central nervous system over these we have no direct control and very little over the others. If we did we would be able to erase unpleasant memories and avoid post-traumatic stress disorders.

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8Main topics on the structural complexity of the human body Empty The 3230 genes you can’t do without Thu Apr 15, 2021 8:07 pm

Otangelo


Admin
The 3230 genes you can’t do without

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/11/3230-genes-you-can-t-do-without#:~:text=Fiddle%20just%20a%20little%20bit,us%20before%20we're%20born.

Fiddle just a little bit with any one of about 3200 genes in the human body and you could be toast. That’s the conclusion of a new study, which finds that about 15% of our 20,000 genes are so critical to our livelihood that certain changes can kill us before we’re born.

Whenever one of these genes mutates, the embryo usually dies or the person is too sick to reproduce—so the variation disappears.

NOT ALL GENES ARE ESSENTIAL, BUT AT LEAST 15% ARE

https://thedishonscience.stanford.edu/posts/essential-genes/

ExAC also found that 3,230 genes had hardly any protein-truncating variants. Over 15% of our genes fall in this absolutely essential category. For the rest of our genes, there may be consequences to losing them, but they’re not so essential that we can’t live without them.

My comment: If we can't live without them, that basically means, the human body is irreducibly complex. That rises the question, how we got these genes in the first place.

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