The human brain, due to evolution, or design ?!
Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome
01 September 2005
More than a century ago Darwin1 and Huxley2 posited that humans share recent common ancestors with the African great apes. Modern molecular studies have spectacularly confirmed this prediction and have refined the relationships, showing that the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus or pygmy chimpanzee) are our closest living evolutionary relatives. 11
Ralph L. Holloway, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, New York, NY
The size of the hominid brain increased from about 450ml at 3.5 million years ago to our current average volume of 1350ml. These changes through time were sometimes gradual but not always.
Differences and similarities between human and chimpanzee neural progenitors during cerebral cortex development Sep 26, 2016 12
The expansion of the neocortex during primate evolution is thought to contribute to the higher cognitive capacity of humans compared to our closest living relatives, the great apes, and notably the chimpanzees
The Human Brain in Numbers: A Linearly Scaled-up Primate Brain
An informal survey with senior neuroscientists that we ran in 2007 showed that most believed that the number of cells in the human brain was indeed already known: that we have about 100 billion neurons
Cellular scaling rules for primate brains
Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for primate brains and show that brain size increases approximately isometrically as a function of cell numbers, such that an 11× larger brain is built with 10× more neurons and ≈12× more nonneuronal cells of relatively constant average size.
My comment: Now let's make a little calculation. The human brain has 100 billion neurons. According to the above claim, the hominid brain of our ur-ancestor, 3,5mio years ago, had a brain, a third of the size of homo sapiens today, that is 33 billion neurons approximately. ( chimpanzees have 28 billion ) That means there was an increase of 67 billion brain neurons in 3,5Mio years
Bonobos and chimpanzees reach sexual maturity between 10 and 13 years of age. So let's suppose the average age to start breeding was 10 years. That means that there would have been 350 thousand generations in 3,5mio years.
That means, there would have had to be an increase of 190450 neurons in each generation,
In computing terms, the brain’s nerve cells, called neurons, are the processors, while synapses, the junctions where neurons meet and transmit information to each other, are analogous to memory. These synapses are not " just so" interconnected. The connections process and store information and must be the correct one..... like a computer network.
One neuron can have 100,000 connections.
In each generation, there would have had to be an increase of 19 billion new synapse connections
So how could natural selection, genetic drift, or gene flow have produced the correct 19 billion new synapse connections per generation? The task would be to specify EACH new cell precisely through a master program which, coordinates, instructs, and defines each neuron. Now, there are different kinds of Neurons. Some generate action potentials. Some perfectly good neurons have no processes, some vertebrate neurons do not generate action potentials. There are sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneurons,
Cell in regard of its:
1. Cell phenotype
2. Cell size
3. It's specific function,
4. Position and place in the body. This is crucial. Limbs like legs, fins, eyes etc. must all be placed at the right place.
5. How it is interconnected with other cells,
6. What communication it requires to communicate with other cells, and the setup of the communication channels
7. What specific sensory and stimuli functions are required and does it have to acquire in regard to its environment and surroundings?
8. What specific new regulatory functions it acquires
9. When will the development program of the organism express the genes to grow the new cells during development?
11. Precisely how many new cell types must be produced for each tissue and organ?
10. Specification of the cell-cell adhesion and which ones will be used in each cell to adhere to the neighbor cells ( there are 4 classes )
11. Programming of time period the cell keeps alive in the body, and when is it time to self-destruct and be replaced by newly produced cells of the same kind
12. Set up its specific nutrition demands
Just a comparison of the processing power of the human brain, compared to the fastest supercomputers made by man:
The brain is a deviously complex biological computing device that even the fastest supercomputers in the world fail to emulate. Well, that’s not entirely true anymore. Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Technology Graduate University in Japan and Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany have managed to simulate a single second of human brain activity in a very, very powerful computer. It took 40 minutes with the combined muscle of 82,944 processors in K computer to get just 1 second of biological brain processing time. 9
The prevalence of low-level function in four such experiments indicates that roughly one in 10^64 signature-consistent sequences forms a working domain. Combined with the estimated prevalence of plausible hydropathic patterns (for any fold) and of relevant folds for particular functions, this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences. 10
Does it seem plausible that evolutionary mechanisms had this sort of power to evolve the human brain ?
There are 37.2 Trillion Cells in Your Body. That is 37,200,000,000,000 Cells
Each contains 2,3 Billion ( 2,300000000) Proteins
That sums up to 85560000000000000000000 Proteins. That is 8,556^21 Proteins.
That is 8,5 Vigintillion Proteins.
It's beyond me to understand, how one fertilized human egg can give rise to
37.2 Trillion Cells in our Body. That is 37,200,000,000,000 Cells
Each containing 2,3 Billion ( 2.300.000.000) Proteins
That sums up to 85.560.000.000.000.000.000.000 Proteins.
That is in total 8,556^21 Proteins in our body. That is 8,5 Vigintillion Proteins.
A human brain with 86 billion Neurons ( 86.000.000.000 neurons )
Each neuron with tens of thousands of synapses. Each synapse functions like a microprocessor, and tens of thousands of them can connect a single neuron to other nerve cells.
In the cerebral cortex alone 125 trillion synapses, or 1,25 x 10^14 (0.125 quadrillions), that is 1.250.000.000.000.000 synapses ( The brain has more switches than all the computers and routers and Internet connections on Earth. )
Our mental circuitry is more like Manhattan’s organized grid than London’s chaotic tangle. It consists of sheets of fibers that intersect at right angles, with no diagonals anywhere to be seen.
Van Wedeen from Massachusetts General Hospital, who led the study, says that his results came as a complete shock. “I was expecting it to be a pure mess,” he says. Instead, he found a regular criss-cross pattern like the interlocking fibers of a piece of cloth.
“If you look at brain connections in an adult human, it’s really a massive puzzle how something so complex can emerge,” says Behrens.
Some fibres execute 90 degree turns, and some entire grids will curve and warp. But the same underlying pattern holds. This simple system can still produce a brain of staggering complexity, but it makes it easier for neurons to find one another.
The Geometric Structure of the Brain Fiber Pathways
Cortico-cortical pathways formed parallel sheets of interwoven paths in the longitudinal and medio-lateral axes, in which major pathways were local condensations. Cross-species homology was strong and showed
emergence of complex gyral connectivity by continuous elaboration of this grid structure. This architecture naturally supports functional spatio-temporal coherence, developmental path-finding, and incremental rewiring with correlated adaptation of structure and function in cerebral plasticity.
Why do they even mention evolution ?
So average, there would have to be an increase of 2912 cells per day by natural selection, producing the information to make the right kind of cells.
669.760.000.000.000, or 669 trillion specifications per day during 3,5bio years.
A current estimation of human total cell number calculated for a variety of organs and cell types is presented. These partial data correspond to a total number of 3.72 × 10^13, or
In humans, there are about 200 different types of cells, and within these cells, there are about 20 different types of structures or organelles. 2 37.200.000.000.000
If we suppose that the first unicellular life forms emerged 3.5bi years ago, that is 3.500.000.000 years, then there would have to be an average increase of 1.062,857 cells each year, or 2912 cells per day, or 121 cells per hour to get the number of cells of the human body. Each of these cells would have to differentiate to form the different tissues and organs, the emergence of a signaling language, right cell signaling at the right place, at the right moment, to provoke cell movement and cell proliferation to the right place, to form the right organs and tissues, and interlink them correctly in a functional way.
The human central nervous system (CNS) is the most complex living organ in the known universe. [url=Chapter 2 Introduction to Brain Anatomy Wieslaw L. Nowinski]6[/url] Each synapse functions like a microprocessor, and tens of thousands of them can connect a single neuron to other nerve cells. In the cerebral cortex alone, there are roughly 125 trillion synapses, which is about how many stars fill 1,500 Milky Way galaxies. The human brain is often considered to be the most cognitively capable among mammalian brains and to be much larger than expected for a mammal of our body size. 4 We find that the adult male human brain contains on average 86.1 +/- 8.1 billion NeuN-positive cells. The total myelinated fiber length in a human brain varies from 150,000 to 180,000 km in young individuals. The total number of synapses in the human neocortex is approximately 1,5 x 10^14 (0.15 quadrillion), that is 1.500.000.000.000.000 synapses. The brain has more switches than all the computers and routers and Internet connections on Earth. 5 These connections should reveal a great deal about how the brain works, for while a single nerve cell may be enormously complex, it is in the massive networking of these many neurons that the brain’s fantastic processing and cognitive powers are likely to emerge.
According to mainstream science, Flatworms are the earliest known animals to have a brain, and supposedly evolved 500 mio years ago.
It would have had to produce 3.000.000 synapse connections per year, or 8200 new synapses per day, or 342 per hour. These synapses would have to make the right synaptic connections to form a functional nervous system.
The waiting time problem in a model hominin population
We have used comprehensive numerical simulations to show that in populations of modest size (such as a hominin population), there is a serious waiting time problem that can constrain macroevolution. Our studies show that in such a population there is a significant waiting time problem even in terms of waiting for a specific point mutation to arise and be fixed (minimally, about 1.5 million years). We show that the waiting time problem becomes very severe when more than one mutation is required to establish a new function. On a practical level, the waiting time problem greatly inhibits the establishment of any new function that requires any string or set of specific linked co-dependent mutations. We show that the waiting time problem becomes more extreme as string length increases, as fitness benefit decreases, and as population size decreases. In a population of 10,000 the establishment of a string of just two specific co-dependent mutations tends to be extremely problematic (conservatively requiring an average waiting time of at least 84 million years). For nucleotide strings of moderate length (eight or above), waiting times will typically exceed the estimated age of the universe – even when using highly favorable settings. Many levels of evidence support our conclusions, including the results of virtually all the other researchers who have looked at the waiting time problem in the context of establishing specific sequences in specific genomic locations within a small hominin-type population. In small populations the waiting time problem appears to be profound, and deserves very careful examination. 7
6. Chapter 2 Introduction to Brain Anatomy Wieslaw L. Nowinski
Last edited by Otangelo on Sat 20 Mar 2021 - 11:53; edited 29 times in total