Information is what is conveyed or represented by a particular arrangement or sequence of things. To have an information transmission system, following things are indispensable, essential, and required ( if any of those is missing, information transmission cannot be established - all have to be precisely defined in advance before any form of communication can be possible at all):
1. A language, 2. the information (message) produced upon that language, the 3 .information storage mechanism ( a hard disk, paper etc.), 4. an information transmission system, that is: encoding - sending and decoding) and eventually fifth, sixth, and seventh ( not essential): translation, conversion, and transduction
1. The rules or protocol of any informational communication and information system must be preestablished and agreed in advance between those that communicate with each other, through establishing in common agreement of the meaning where a symbol, letters, words, waves or frequency variations, sounds, pulses, or a combination of those are assigned to something else, otherwise the transmission of information is not possible. A message can only be created once a language has been established. A code is an abstract, immaterial, nonphysical set of rules. Statistics, Semantics, Synthax, and Pragmatics are used according to combinatorial, context-dependent, and content-coherent rules.
2. This set of rule, code, or language, permits to produce a blueprint, which contains instructional complex information, that permits to produce goods for specific purposes, control or maintain the operation of factories.
3. Then there has to be a device, that is the harddisk, a paper, or any hardware upon which the information can be recorded.
4. And there has to be a system to encode, send, and decode the message.
5. Eventually, during the transmission of information, it can be translated from one language to another. That requires a system of translation/cipher. It’s like when you visit a Russian website and your browser has the language plug-in for Russian. Conveying meaning of the Russian and english language must be established in advance, that is the alphabet (symbols), syntax (grammar), and semantics (meaning) before any translation can take place. Otherwise, it would never be certain that what the transmitter is communicating is the same as what the receiver is understanding.
6. Eventually signal conversion ( digital-analog conversion, modulators, amplifiers)
7. Eventually signal transduction converting the nonelectrical signals into electrical signals
In Cells, we see all these things.
1. The language of DNA:
In the alphabet of the three letter word found in cell biology are the organic bases, which are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). It is the triplet recipe of these
bases that make up the ‘dictionary’ we call in molecular biology genetic code. The codal system enables the transmission of genetic information to be codified, which at molecular level, is conveyed through genes.
The language of DNA is digital, but not binary. Where binary encoding has 0 and 1 to work with (2 - hence the 'bi'nary), DNA has 4 positions, T, C, G and A.
Rutgers University professor Sungchul Ji’s :
“Biologic systems and processes cannot be fully accounted for in terms of the principles and laws of physics and chemistry alone, but they require in addition the principles of semiotics—the science of symbols and signs, including linguistics.”
Ji identifies 13 characteristics of human language. DNA shares 10 of them.
The genetic language: grammar, semantics, evolution
The genetic language is a collection of rules and regularities of genetic information coding for genetic texts. It is defined by alphabet, grammar, collection of punctuation marks and regulatory sites, semantics.
Experts in Information Theory define 5 LEVELS of Information:
statistics ( transmitting the signal )
syntax (transmission, using a code. The rules according to which words are sequenced to sentences, signs that appear, etc. )
semantics (expressin an idea, meaning. The relationship between a sign or a word to what it is pointing to in reality),
pragmatics ( understand the command and perform action. Rules for applying words and signs in written or verbal conversations and broader social situations frame meaning. ),
The code in DNA completely conforms to all four of these levels of information
2. Information stored in DNA
Chance of intelligence to set up the first blueprint for life:
Mycoplasma is one of the smallest self-replicating cells, and its genome has about 500 thousand base-pairs. It is, however, a pathogen, which has to be hosted by other organisms to survive. It does not produce the twenty amino acids used in life. In order to know the threshold or minimal organismal complexity to sustain life, Pelagibacter ubique is a good candidate, since it is one the smallest self-replicating free-living cells, and produces all 20 amino acids used in life. It has a genome size of 1,3 million base pairs which codes for about 1,300 proteins. That would be the size of a book with 400 pages, each page with 3000 characters. The chance to sequence each of the 1,3 million characters in the right order by unguided means, to get the precise instructional complex information to have a working self replicating cell is is 10^700,000. This is in the realm of the absolutely impossible.
The likelyhood of intelligence to set up an information system essential for life is 100% We KNOW by repeated experience that intelligence does elaborate blueprints, instructional information and constructs complex machines, production lines, transistors and computers and factories with specific purposes.
DNA has Ultra-High-Density Data Storage and Compression
Our cells contain at least 92 strands of DNA and 46 double-helical chromosomes. In total, they stretch 6 feet (1.8 meters) end to end. Every human DNA strand contains as much data as a CD. Every DNA strand in our body stretched end to end would reach from Earth to the sun and back 600 times. Cells store data at millions of times more density than hard drives. Not only that, they use that data to store instructions vastly more effectively than human-made programs; consider that Windows takes 20 times as much space (bits) as our genome. The genome is unfathomably more elegant, more sophisticated, and more efficient in its use of data than anything we have ever designed. A single gene can be used a hundred times by different aspects of the genetic program, expressed in a hundred different ways.
3. An information transmission system
Most signal-relay stations we know about were intelligently designed. Signal without recognition is meaningless. Communication implies a signalling convention (a “coming together” or agreement in advance) that a given signal means or represents something: e.g., that S-O-S means “Send Help!” The transmitter and receiver can be made of non-sentient materials, but the functional purpose of the system always comes from a mind. The mind uses the material substances to perform an algorithm that is not itself a product of the materials or the blind forces acting on them. Signal sequences may be composed of mindless matter, but they are marks of a mind behind the intelligent design.
In living cells, information is encoded through at least 30 genetic, and almost 30 epigenetic codes that form various sets of rules and languages. They are transmitted through a variety of means, that is the cell cilia as the center of communication, microRNA's influencing cell function, the nervous system, the system synaptic transmission, neuromuscular transmission, transmission b/w nerves & body cells, axons as wires, the transmission of electrical impulses by nerves between brain & receptor/target cells, vesicles, exosomes, platelets, hormones, biophotons, biomagnetism, cytokines and chemokines, elaborate communication channels related to the defense of microbe attacks, nuclei as modulators-amplifiers. These information transmission systems are essential for keeping all biological functions, that is organismal growth and development, metabolism, regulating nutrition demands, controlling reproduction, homeostasis, constructing biological architecture, complexity, form, controlling organismal adaptation, change, regeneration/repair, and promoting survival.
Besides the information transmission system of DNA to make proteins, there is the most amazing and advanced information transmission system in operation in each of our cells, which works through light. The more sophisticated and fast a Information transmission systems is, the more intelligence is required to project and implement it . Light-fidelity, or Li-Fi, is a 5th generation cutting edge technology, the fastest information transmission system so far invented by man. Life uses not only light, but quantum entanglement to transmit information, which occurs basically instantly. It is logical, therefore, to infer a super intelligent agency created lifes awesome high-speed internet on a molecular level.
The origin of such complex communication systems is best explained by an intelligent designer. Since no humans were involved in creating these complex computing systems, a suprahuman super intelligent agency must have been the creator.
4. An information translation system
The translation of a word in one language, to another language, is always of mental origin. For example the assignment of the word chair, in English, to xizi, in Chinese, can only be made by intelligence upon common agreement of meaning.
In biology the genetic code is the assignment ( a cipher) of 64 triplet codons to 20 amino acids.
Origin and evolution of the genetic code: the universal enigma
In our opinion, despite extensive and, in many cases, elaborate attempts to model code optimization, ingenious theorizing along the lines of the coevolution theory, and considerable experimentation, very little definitive progress has been made. Summarizing the state of the art in the study of the code evolution, we cannot escape considerable skepticism. It seems that the two-pronged fundamental question: “why is the genetic code the way it is and how did it come to be?”, that was asked over 50 years ago, at the dawn of molecular biology, might remain pertinent even in another 50 years. Our consolation is that we cannot think of a more fundamental problem in biology.
1. The assignment of a word to represent something, like the word chair to an object to sit down, is always of mental origin.
2. The translation of a word in one language, to another language, is always of mental origin. For example the assignment of the word chair, in English, to xizi, in Chinese, can only be made by intelligence upon common agreement of meaning.
3. In biology the genetic code is the assignment ( a cipher) of 64 triplet codons to 20 amino acids.
4. Since we know only of intelligence to be able to do so, this assignment is best explained by the deliberate, arbitrary action of a non-human intelligent agency.
Quantum mechanic communication in cells: A paradigm shift in biology
Cell internet: Cells have their own internet communication channels and cargo delivery service, all in one
Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria
Cell Communication and signaling, evidence of design
Complexity of the cell's transport and communication system
Last edited by Admin on Sat Oct 17, 2020 6:18 am; edited 2 times in total