Living cells, like computers, deal in information 1 It is scarcely to be expected that they should all store their information in the same form, or that the archives of one type of cell should be readable by the information-handling machinery of another. And yet it is so.
All living cells on Earth, without any known exception, store their hereditary information in the form of double-stranded molecules of DNA—long unbranched paired polymer chains, formed always of the same four types of monomers—A, T, C, G. These monomers are strung together in a long linear sequence that encodes the genetic information, just as the sequence of 1s and 0s encodes the information in a computer file. We can take a piece of DNA from a human cell and insert it into a bacterium, or a piece of bacterial DNA and insert it into a human cell, and the information will be successfully read, interpreted, and copied. Using chemical methods, scientists can read out the complete sequence of monomers in any DNA molecule—extending for millions of nucleotides—and thereby decipher the hereditary information that each organism contains.
Requiring steps :
1. Defining and setup of the genetic code. That is of how to set the rules of translation of the four-letter code of DNA into the 20-letter code of amino acids
2. Produce, and store the required instructional complex coded information based on the genetic code in DNA ( The monomers must be present )
Mycoplasma genitalium genome, the smallest known genome of any free-living organism has a genome size of 580MB
CD-ROM stores 650-900 MB