Contrasting and comparing "intended" versus "accidental" arrangements leads us to the notion of design.
Stephen C. Meyer, The God hypothesis, page 190:
Systems, sequences, or events that exhibit two characteristics at the same time—extreme improbability and a special kind of pattern called a “specification”—indicate prior intelligent activity. According to Dembski, extremely improbable events that also exhibit “an independently recognizable pattern” or set of functional requirements, what he calls a “specification,” invariably result from intelligent causes, not chance or physical-chemical laws
Think about the faces on Mt. Rushmore in South Dakota. If you look at that famous mountain you will quickly recognize the faces of the American presidents inscribed there as the product of intelligent activity. Why? What about those faces indicates that an artisan or sculptor acted to produce them? You might want to say it’s the improbability of the shapes. By contrast, we would not be inclined to infer that an intelligent agent had played a role in forming, for example, the common V-shaped erosional pattern between two mountains produced by large volumes of water. Instead, the faces on the mountain qualify as extremely improbable structures, since they contain many detailed features that natural processes do not generally produce. Certainly, wind and erosion, for example, would be unlikely to produce the recognizable faces of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Roosevelt.
With the extreme fine-tuning of the fundamental physical parameters, physicists have discovered a phenomenon that exhibits precisely the two criteria—extreme improbability and functional specification—that in our experience invariably indicate the activity of a designing mind.
If a designing intelligence established the physical parameters of the universe, such an intelligence could well have selected a propitious, finely tuned set. Thus, the cosmological fine tuning seems more expected given the activity of a designing mind, than it does given a random or mindless process.
We have extensive experience-based knowledge of the kinds of strategies and systems that designing minds devise to solve various kinds of functional problems. We also know a lot about the kinds of phenomena that various natural causes produce. For this reason, the theory of intelligent design makes predictions about the kinds of features we are likely to find in living systems if they were in fact intelligently designed.
A physical system is composed of a specific distribution of matter: a machine, a car, a clock. When we describe it, and quantify its size, structure, motions, annotate the materials used, that description contains information. When we arrange and distribute materials in a certain way for intended means, we can produce things for specific purposes and call it design. Thus, when we see a physical system and discern the arrangement of its parts having intentional functions, we call it designed. The question thus is, when we see things in nature with purpose and appear designed, ARE they indeed the product of intentional design ? How can random, nonliving matter produce structures of mind-boggling organizational intricacies at the molecular level that leave us in awe, so sophisticated that our most advanced technology seems pale by comparison? How can a rational, honest person analyze these systems, and say they emerged by chance? These organic structures present us with a degree of complexity that we cannot explain stochastically by unguided means. Everything we know tells us that machines, production lines, computers, energy generating turbines, are structures of intelligent design. The cooperation and interdependent action of proteins and co-factors in cells is stupendous and depends on very specific controlled and arranged mechanisms, precise allosteric binding sites, and finely-tuned forces. Accidents do not design machines. Intellect does.
Intelligence leaves behind a characteristic signature. The action or signature of an intelligent designer can be detected when we see :
1. Implementing things based on regular behavior, order, mathematical rules, laws, principles, physical constants, and logic gates
2. Something purposefully and intentionally developed and made to accomplish a specific goal(s). That includes specifically the generation and making of building blocks, energy, and information. If an arrangement of parts is
1) perceptible by a reasonable person as having a purpose and 2) can be used for the perceived purpose then its purpose was correctly perceived and it was designed by an intelligent mind.
3. Repeating a variety of complex actions with precision based on methods that obey instructions, governed by rules.
4. An instructional complex blueprint (bauplan) or protocol to make objects ( machines, factories, houses, cars, etc.) which are irreducible complex, integrated, and an interdependent system or artifact composed of several interlocked, well-matched hierarchically arranged systems of parts contributing to a higher end of a complex system that would be useful only in the completion of that much larger system. The individual subsystems and parts are neither self-sufficient, and their origin cannot be explained individually, since, by themselves, they would be useless. The cause must be intelligent and with foresight, because the unity transcends every part, and thus must have been conceived as an idea, because, by definition, only an idea can hold together elements without destroying or fusing their distinctness. An idea cannot exist without a creator, so there must be an intelligent mind.
5. Artifacts which use might be employed in different systems ( a wheel is used in cars and airplanes )
6. Things that are precisely adjusted and finely-tuned to perform specific functions and purposes
7. Arrangement of materials and elements into details, colors, forms to produce an object or work of art able to transmit the sense of beauty, elegance, that pleases the aesthetic senses, especially the sight.
8. Establishing a language, code, communication, and information transmission system, that is 1. A language, 2. the information (message) produced upon that language, the 3 .information storage mechanism ( a hard disk, paper, etc.), 4. an information transmission system, that is: encoding - sending and decoding) and eventually fifth, sixth, and seventh ( not essential): translation, conversion, and transduction
9. Any scheme where instructional information governs, orchestrates, guides, and controls the performance of actions of constructing, creating, building, and operating. That includes operations and actions as adapting, choreographing, communicating, controlling product quality, coordinating, cutting, duplicating, elaborating strategies, engineering, error checking and detecting, and minimizing, expressing, fabricating, fine-tuning, foolproof, governing, guiding, implementing, information processing, interpreting, interconnecting, intermediating, instructing, logistic organizing, managing, monitoring, optimizing, orchestrating, organizing, positioning, monitoring and managing of quality, regulating, recruiting, recognizing, recycling, repairing, retrieving, shuttling, separating, self-destructing, selecting, signaling, stabilizing, storing, translating, transcribing, transmitting, transporting, waste managing.
10. Designed objects exhibit “constrained optimization.” The optimal or best-designed laptop computer is the one that is the best balance and compromise of multiple competing factors.
1. Paul Davies: The universe is governed by dependable, immutable, absolute, universal, mathematical laws of an unspecified origin.
Eugene Wigner: The mathematical underpinning of nature "is something bordering on the mysterious and there is no rational explanation for it.
Richard Feynman: Why nature is mathematical is a mystery...The fact that there are rules at all is a kind of miracle.
Albert Einstein: How can it be that mathematics, being, after all, a product of human thought which is independent of experience, is so admirably appropriate to the objects of reality?
Max Tegmark: Nature is clearly giving us hints that the universe is mathematical.
2. Proteins have specific purpose and function through co-factors and apo-proteins ( lock and key). Cells are interlocked irreducible factories where a myriad of proteins work together to self sustain and perpetuate life. To replicate, reproduce, adapt, grow, remain organized, store, and use the information to control metabolism, homeostasis, development, and change. A lifeless Rock has no goal, has no specific shape or form for a specific function, but is random, and the forms of stones and mountains come in all chaotic shapes, sizes, and physicochemical arrangements, and there is no goal-oriented interaction between one rock and another, no interlocking mechanical interaction.
3. A variety of biological events are performed in a repetitive manner, described in biomechanics, obeying complex biochemical and biomechanical signals. Those include, for example, cell migration, cell motility, traction force generation, protrusion forces, stress transmission, mechanosensing and mechanotransduction, mechanochemical coupling in biomolecular motors, synthesis, sorting, storage, and transport of biomolecules
4. In living cells, information is encoded through at least 30 genetic, and almost 30 epigenetic codes that form various sets of rules and languages. They are transmitted through a variety of means, that is the cell cilia as the center of communication, microRNA's influencing cell function, the nervous system, the system synaptic transmission, neuromuscular transmission, transmission b/w nerves & body cells, axons as wires, the transmission of electrical impulses by nerves between brain & receptor/target cells, vesicles, exosomes, platelets, hormones, biophotons, biomagnetism, cytokines and chemokines, elaborate communication channels related to the defense of microbe attacks, nuclei as modulators-amplifiers. These information transmission systems are essential for keeping all biological functions, that is organismal growth and development, metabolism, regulating nutrition demands, controlling reproduction, homeostasis, constructing biological architecture, complexity, form, controlling organismal adaptation, change, regeneration/repair, and promoting survival.
5. There are a variety of organisms, unrelated to each other, which encounter nearly identical convergent biological systems. This commonness makes little sense in light of evolutionary theory. If evolution is indeed responsible for the diversity of life, one would expect convergence to be extremely rare. Some convergent systems are bat echolocation in bats, oilbirds, and dolphins, cephalopod eye structure, similar to the vertebrate eye, an extraordinary similarity of the visual systems of sand lance (fish) and chameleon (reptile). Both the chameleon and the sand lance move their eyes independent of one another in a jerky manner, rather than in concert. Chameleons share their ballistic tongues with salamanders and sand lace fish.
6. The initial conditions of the universe, subatomic particles, the Big Bang, the fundamental forces of the universe, the Solar System, the earth, and the moon, are finely tuned to permit life. Over 150 fine-tuning parameters are known. Even in biology, we find fine-tuning, like Watson-Crick base-pairing, cellular signaling pathways, photosynthesis, etc.
7. “I declare this world is so beautiful that I can hardly believe it exists.” I doubt someone would disagree with Ralph Waldo Emerson. Why should we expect beauty to emerge from randomness? If we are merely atoms in motion, the result of purely unguided processes, with no mind or thought behind us, then why should we expect to encounter beauty in the natural world, and the ability to recognize beauty, and distinguish it from ugliness? Beauty is a reasonable expectation if we are the product of design by a designer who appreciates beauty and the things that bring joy.
8. In the alphabet of the three-letter word found in cell biology are the organic bases, which are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). It is the triplet recipe of thesebases that make up the ‘dictionary’ we call in molecular biology genetic code. The codal system enables the transmission of genetic information to be codified, which at the molecular level, is conveyed through genes. Pelagibacter ubique is one the smallest self-replicating free-living cells, has a genome size of 1,3 million base pairs which codes for about 1,300 proteins. The genetic information is sent through communication channels that permit encoding, sending, and decoding, done by over 25 extremely complex molecular machine systems, which do as well error check and repair to maintain genetic stability, and minimizing replication, transcription and translation errors, and permit organisms to pass accurately genetic information to their offspring, and survive.
9. Science has unraveled, that cells, strikingly, are cybernetic, ingeniously crafted cities full of factories. Cells contain information, which is stored in genes (books), and libraries (chromosomes). Cells have superb, fully automated information classification, storage, and retrieval programs ( gene regulatory networks ) which orchestrate strikingly precise and regulated gene expression. Cells also contain hardware - a masterful information-storage molecule ( DNA ) - and software, more efficient than millions of alternatives ( the genetic code ) - ingenious information encoding, transmission, and decoding machinery ( RNA polymerase, mRNA, the Ribosome ) - and highly robust signaling networks ( hormones and signaling pathways ) - awe-inspiring error check and repair systems of data ( for example mind-boggling Endonuclease III which error checks and repairs DNA through electric scanning ). Information systems, which prescribe, drive, direct, operate, and control interlinked compartmentalized self-replicating cell factory parks that perpetuate and thrive life. Large high-tech multimolecular robotlike machines ( proteins ) and factory assembly lines of striking complexity ( fatty acid synthase, non-ribosomal peptide synthase ) are interconnected into functional large metabolic networks. In order to be employed at the right place, once synthesized, each protein is tagged with an amino acid sequence, and clever molecular taxis ( motor proteins dynein, kinesin, transport vesicles ) load and transport them to the right destination on awe-inspiring molecular highways ( tubulins, actin filaments ). All this, of course, requires energy. Responsible for energy generation are high-efficiency power turbines ( ATP synthase )- superb power generating plants ( mitochondria ) and electric circuits ( highly intricate metabolic networks ). When something goes havoc, fantastic repair mechanisms are ready in place. There are protein folding error check and repair machines ( chaperones), and if molecules become non-functional, advanced recycling methods take care ( endocytic recycling ) - waste grinders and management ( Proteasome Garbage Grinders )
The (past) action or signature of an intelligent designer can be detected when we see all the above things. These things are all actions either pre-programmed by intelligence in order to be performed autonomously, or done so directly by intelligence.
10. The initial conditions of the universe, subatomic particles, the Big Bang, the fundamental forces of the universe, the Solar System, the earth and the moon, are finely tuned to permit life. Over 150 fine-tuning parameters are known.
One hundred years ago a Scientific American article about the history and large-scale structure of the universe would have been almost completely wrong. In 1908 scientists thought our galaxy constituted the entire universe. They considered it an “island universe,” an isolated cluster of stars surrounded by an infinite void. We now know that our galaxy is one of more than 400 billion galaxies in the observable universe. In 1908 the scientific consensus was that the universe was static and eternal. The beginning of the universe in a fiery big bang was not even remotely suspected. The synthesis of elements in the first few moments of the big bang and inside the cores of stars was not understood. The expansion of space and its possible curvature in response to the matter was not dreamed of. Recognition of the fact that all of space is bathed in radiation, providing a ghostly image of the cool afterglow of creation, would have to await the development of modern technologies designed not to explore eternity but to allow humans to phone home.
Besides special revelation, the teleological argument provides a foremost rational justification for belief in God. If successful, then theists can justify supernatural creation, Ex-nihilo.
We must know what we are looking for before we can know we have found it. We cannot discover what cannot be defined. Before the action of ( past ) intelligent design in nature can be inferred, it must be defined how the signature of intelligent agents can be recognized. As long as the existence of a pre-existing intelligent conscious mind beyond the universe is not logically impossible, special acts of God (miracles and creation) are possible and should/could eventually be identifiable.
What do we mean when we say “design? The word “design” is intimately entangled with the ideas of intention, creativity, mind, and intelligence. To create is to produce through imaginative skill, or to bring into existence through a course of action. A design is usually thought of as the product of goal-directed intelligent, creative effort.
An underlying scheme that governs functioning, developing, or unfolding pattern and motif <the general design of the epic>
Creation is evidence of a Creator. But not everybody ( is willing ) to see it.
Romans 1.19 - 23 What may be known about God is plain to them because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse.
When we say something is “designed,” we mean it was created intentionally and planned for a purpose. Designed objects are fashioned by intelligent agents who have a goal in mind, and their creations reflect the purpose for which they were created. We infer the existence of an intelligent designer by observing certain effects that are habitually associated with conscious activity. Rational agents often detect the prior activity of other designing minds by the character of the effects they leave behind. A machine is made for specific goals and organized, given that the operation of each part is dependent on it being properly arranged with respect to every other part, and to the system as a whole. Encoded messages and instructional blueprints indicate an intelligent source. And so does apply mathematical principles and logic gates.
Argument: There is no empirical proof of God's existence. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.
Answer: There is no empirical proof of God's existence. But there is neither, that the known universe, the natural physical material world is all there is. The burden of proof cannot be met on both sides. Consequently, the right response does not need an empirical demonstration of God's existence but we can elaborate philosophical inferences to either affirm or deny the existence of a creator based on circumstantial evidence, logic, and reason.
The first question to answer is not which God, but what cause and mechanism best explain our existence. There are basically just two options. Either there is a God/Creator, or not. Either a creative conscious intelligent supernatural powerful agency above the natural world acted and was involved, or not. That's it. All answers can be divided into these two basic options, worldviews, and categories.
Design can be tested using scientific logic. How? Upon the logic of mutual exclusion, design and non-design are mutually exclusive( it was one or the other) so we can use eliminative logic: if non-design is highly improbable, then the design is highly probable. Thus, the evidence against non-design (against the production of a feature by the undirected natural process) is evidence for design. And vice versa. The evaluative status of non-design (and thus design) can be decreased or increased by observable empirical evidence, so a theory of design is empirically responsive and is testable.
Both organisms and machines operate towards the attainment of particular ends; that is, both are purposive systems.
Question: Let us suppose, you travel to Mars on Elon Musk's SpaceX, and at arrival, you suddenly see two devices which catch your attention: One cellular iPhone from Apple, and next to it, a device with gps and similar capabilities as the Cell phone, but no nameplate or any kind of information that would give a hint of how it was made. What would you conclude in regard to its origin?
Analogy Viewed from Science
John Herschel, mathematician, chemist, and astronomer, published a philosophical treatise in 1830 called A Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy. He writes:
"Analogies in science, according to Herschel, establish links between different areas of investigation. Moreover, they may aid in explaining a new phenomenon on the basis of the causes acting in an analogous phenomenon already explained."
It seems obvious, that if the iPhone is recognized as coming from Apple, and as such intelligence that made it, then the device next to it, with GPS, and similar capabilities, would have as well intelligence as a causal agency.
Remarkably, biological Cells do also host GPS and sophisticated signaling networks:
Primary Cilium a Cell’s Antenna or Its Brain
The argument from wound healing cilium
1. The cilium that looks like an antenna on most human cells, orients cells to move in the right direction at the speed needed to heal wounds, and so acts like a Global Positioning System (GPS) that helps ships navigate to their destinations.
2. “The really important discovery is that the primary cilium detects signals, which tell the cells to engage their compass reading and move in the right direction to close the wound.”
3. “Protruding through the cell membrane, primary cilia occur on almost every non-dividing cell in the body.”
4. “Once written off as a vestigial organelle discarded in the evolutionary dust, primary cilia in the last decade have risen to prominence as a vital cellular sensor at the root of a wide range of health disorders, from polycystic kidney disease to cancer to left-right anatomical abnormalities.”
5. The unavoidable importance of the primeval cilium for the survival of the cell and its wonderful design proves the existence of the primeval designer God.
6. God necessarily exists.
Signaling: Main topics on signaling
Convention and biochemical rules mean a treaty, an agreement, a standard of presentation or conduct, and inherently the product of a mind, intelligence, and conscience. In the case of Cells, it must be a mind that sets the convention, rules, implementation of precision of organic chemistry, constraints by flexible organization, a program that works like software, able to interpret, recognize, select and discriminate the incoming signals and cues, and react in conformity and correctly, making correct choices, behaviors and responses across many hierarchical levels. Signal transduction does, in fact, qualify as a selection-driven recognition phenomenon. The cell is a semiotic structure and signal transduction is a meaning-making” process. The effects that external signals have on cells do not depend on the energy and information they carry, but on the meanings that cells give them with rules that can be called signal transduction codes. The deterministic rules of biochemistry being constrained by higher-order principles can only depart from mental intelligence.
Most signal-relay stations we know about were intelligently designed. Signal without recognition is meaningless. Communication implies a signaling convention (a “coming together” or agreement in advance) that a given signal means or represents something: e.g., that S-O-S means “Send Help!” The transmitter and receiver can be made of non-sentient materials, but the functional purpose of the system always comes from a mind. The mind uses the material substances to perform an algorithm that is not itself a product of the materials or the blind forces acting on them. Signal sequences may be composed of mindless matter, but they are marks of a mind behind the intelligent design.
Cell internet: Cells have their own internet communication channels and cargo delivery service, all in one
- The setup and implementation of sophisticated, complex and advanced communication networks like the internet depend on the invention of highly intelligent, skilled communication network engineers.
- Multicellular organisms use several extremely advanced communication systems, like Tunneling nanotubes (TNT's), Extracellular Vesicles ( VT's) which are, on top of that, also cargo carriers ( there are also cell-cell gap junctions and exosomes ). The size of the communication and cargo delivery network of the human body is 75 thousand times the size of the entire world wide web if there would be just one communication connection between each cell ( in reality, things are far more complex: each neuron cell computer may be connected to up to 10,000 other neurons )
- This is amazing evidence that multicellular organisms and their communication systems were definitively created by an extremely intelligent designer.
Imagine the internet not only as a worldwide web for an interchange of information and communication but also a courier delivery service carrier of goods, like FedEx. That would be pretty convenient, wouldn't it? In 2018, there are an estimate of 4 billion computers connected through the internet, worldwide. Most recent data estimates the number of human Cells to 3.0·10^13 4 If we put that each cell uses just one communication channel to interact with other cells, then the size of the communication and cargo delivery network of the human body would be 75 thousand times the size of the worldwide web !!
Cell Communication and signaling, evidence of design
The essential signaling pathways for animal development
How Signaling in biology points to design
How intracellular Calcium signaling, gradient and its role as a universal intracellular regulator points to design
How signaling between cells can orient a mitotic spindle
The Hippo signaling pathway in organ size control, tissue regeneration and stem cell self-renewal
Question: God is a POSSIBLE explanation of why we exist. How could you recognize that something in the natural world bears the signs or signature of the design, or being created, rather than not?
Unbeliever: I don't assert design - that's you. I'm simply asking you to support your claim that a god 'designed' life.
Response: If you do not know how to recognize design in nature, it is like to ask a blind to appreciate the beauty of Leonardo's Mona Lisa.
Let us suppose, that you arrive with a colleague at a place, and there you find an object. You do not know who/what made it, but analyzing it, you observe that it was made of several interlocking parts in precise shapes with structural complementarity which functionally interacts together in a very precise fashion, as pieces of a puzzle or, in the more popular analogy, a lock and its key, with, as it seems, specific purpose. Furthermore, you see a nameplate and several signs similar to the alphabet forming a sentence, but in an unknown code and language.
Now your colleague asks you: What do you think, how was this object made?
Upon your observation and analyzing the object, would you say, it was rather made by someone with intelligence, or it came to exist rather because of random natural forces, that is the wind, rain, etc. ?
I think order and complexity are together sufficient to support the inference to a designer even without any knowledge at all of the identity of the designer, or how he made the object.
The fact that a watch performs the function of keeping time is something that has value to an intelligent agent. In the same sense, we can recognize that the universe is finely tuned and set up to permit life on planet earth, and in biology, proteins, molecules, organelles are made with specific purpose, to provide a higher-end, namely the existence of life, and its perpetuation, survival, and adaptation to the environment.
The order and complexity of the universe and living beings far exceeds that of any human-made artifact, and we may, therefore, infer that the designer of the universe and life is correspondingly greater than designers of watches.
If the goal is to have a sequence, a particular string starting at 1, then 2,3,4,5,6 ............ 500, then intuitively you know there sequence has a specific order and was probably put there in that order with some kind of intention. The relevant point to be outlined here is: The sequence 1,2,3,4 .......... 500, exhibits a specification or particular pattern. What must be explained, is the origin not of any kind of sequence, but a particular, specific sequence.
Suppose you see a blueprint to make a car engine with 100 horsepowers to drive a BMW 5X. Not any blueprint will produce this particular car engine with the right size and fit and power. Only a blueprint with the precise, specific, complex arrangement of orders that is understood by the common pre-established agreement between the engineer, and the manufacturer, will permit to be encoded, transmitted, decoded and transformed in an equivalent artifact that has the specific, recognizable function which meets the pre-established goal. The information for that particular car engine can be encoded in Bits. Let's suppose its the size of a CD, 600mb. What has to be calculated, are the odds to get that specific sequence of instructions, which permit to give rise to that particular car engine. Not any sequence will do.
Let's suppose you arrive at a beach, and you see a sandcastle. Sculptured in precise rectangular shapes. To suggest that the sandcastle just happened to appear on the beach as the result of rain, wind, and frost would, of course, be ludicrous. It would be irrational to argue that the sandcastle may be appeared by accident, regardless of the time allowed for such a process. It's obvious that the Sandcastle is the product of an intelligent designer, as surely design points to a designer. Anyone would agree that it would be pure nonsense to argue that the structure is the result of a series of unexplained, chaotic random events by chance to be there. Systems, structures or sequences with the joint properties of “high complexity” (or small probability) and “specification” invariably result from intelligent causes, not chance or physical-chemical laws. The shape of the sandcastle is special. It matches a pattern. The shape is complex and specified. All this can be observed in nature, contrasting randomness, the lack of specification, and random chaotic structures.
Objection: A sandcastle is designed, and the beach is designed. Which doesn't help us understand the difference between natural forces and design? The claim fails because the position is that both the beach and the sandcastle are designed by an intelligent being.
Response: The argument does not fail, because, despite the fact that the sand, both, to make the sand on the beach, and the sand used to make the sandcastle are created by God, the structure and pattern of the sand on the beach is random, the result of natural forces, like wind and rain, while the specific purposeful order, pattern, and shape of the sandcastle, is obviously the result of intelligence.
The Factory maker Argument
1. Blueprints are required to make factories with specific goals
2. DNA is an information storage molecule that ( amongst other over 20 epigenetic information systems ) stores the blueprint of life to make biological Cells which are self-replicating factories and multicellular organisms with trillions of Cells.
3. All information storage devices, blueprints, and factories are known, are of intelligent origin.
4. Therefore, biological cells and organisms are with high certainty the result of Intelligent design.
Design can be tested using scientific logic. How? Upon the logic of mutual exclusion, design and non-design are mutually exclusive (it was one or the other) so we can use eliminative logic: if non-design is highly improbable, then the design is highly probable. Thus, the evidence against non-design (against the production of a feature by undirected natural process) is evidence for design. And vice versa. The evaluative status of non-design (and thus design) can be decreased or increased by observable empirical evidence, so a theory of design is empirically responsive and is testable.
Probability theory is the logic of science. You do not need to prove everything absolutely for it to make sense within reason. What you need is a tendency for it to be true statistically. That means evidence of it working repeatedly with low error.
1. According to the latest estimation of a minimal protein set for the first living organism, the requirement would be about 560 proteins, this would be the absolute minimum to keep the basic functions of a cell alive.
2. According to the Protein-length distributions for the three domains of life, there is an average between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells of about 400 amino acids per protein. 8
3. Each of the 400 positions in the amino acid polypeptide chains could be occupied by anyone of the 20 amino acids used in cells, so if we suppose that proteins emerged randomly on prebiotic earth, then the total possible arrangements or odds to get one which would fold into a functional 3D protein would be 1 to 20^400 or 1 to 10^520. A truly enormous, super astronomical number.
4. Since we need 560 proteins total to make a first living cell, we would have to repeat the shuffle 560 times, to get all proteins required for life. The probability would be therefore 560/10520. We arrive at a probability far beyond of 1 in 10^100.000 ( A proteome set with 239 proteins yields odds of approximately 1/10^119614 )
(Herschel  1987, p. 148). Herschel (ibid., p. 149) wrote:
“If the analogy of two phenomena be very close and striking, while, at the same time, the cause of one is very obvious, it becomes scarcely possible to refuse to admit the action of an analogous cause in the other, though not so obvious in itself.”
1. Intelligent minds make factory plants full of machines with specific functions, set up for specific purposes. Each fabric can be full of robotic production lines where the product of one factory is handed over to the next for further processing until the end product is made. Each of the intermediate steps is essential. If any is mal or non-functioning, like energy supply, or supply of the raw materials, the factory as a whole ceases its production.
2. Biological cells are a factory complex of interlinked high-tech fabrics, fully automated and self-replicating, hosting up to over 2 billion molecular fabrics like Ribosomes & chemical production lines, full of proteins that act like robots, each with a specific task, function or goal, and completing each other, the whole system has the purpose to survive and perpetuate life. At least 560 proteins and a fully setup metabolome and genome is required, and they are interdependent. The probability, that such complex nano-factory plant could have emerged by unguided chemical reactions, no matter in what primordial environment, is beyond the chance of one to 10^150.000. The universe hosts about 10^80 atoms.
3. Biological Cells are of unparalleled gigantic complexity and adaptive design, vastly more complex and sophisticated than any man-made factory plant. Self-replicating cells are, therefore, with extremely high probability, the product of an intelligent designer.
The make of components of a complex system that are only useful in the completion of a much larger system and their orderly aggregation in a sequentially correct manner requires always external direction through intelligence. No exceptions are known. In other words: Intermediate sub-products have by its own no use of any sort unless they are correctly assembled in a larger system. Instructional complex information is required for to make these sub-products and parts, and know-how to mount them correctly in the right order and at the right place, and interconnected correctly in a larger system. Intelligence is required to find and recruit and select the right materials, and to form computer hardware, highly efficient information storage devices, software, a language using signs and codes like the alphabet, an instructional blueprint, information retrieval, transmission, signaling, translation, machine parts with highly specific structures, which permit to form the aggregation into complex machines, production line complexes, autonomous robots with error check functions and repair mechanisms, electronic circuit - like networks, energy production factories, power generating plants, energy turbines, recycle mechanisms and methods, waste grinders and management, organized waste disposal mechanisms, and self-destruction when needed to reach a higher-end, and veritable micro-miniaturized factories where all before-mentioned systems and parts are required in order for that factory to be self- replicating, and being functional.
- The establishment of communication systems requires intelligence. Most signal relay stations we know about were intelligently designed. Signal without recognition is meaningless. Communication implies a signaling convention (a “coming together” or agreement in advance) that a given signal means or represents something: e.g., that S-O-S means “Send Help!” The transmitter and receiver can be made of non-sentient materials, but the functional purpose of the system always comes from a mind. The mind uses the material substances to perform an algorithm that is not itself a product of the materials or the blind forces acting on them. Signal sequences may be composed of mindless matter, but they are marks of a mind behind the intelligent design. Acts as an information processing system ( the interaction of a software program and the hardware can only be set up all at once through intelligent input )
- Selecting the most optimal and efficient code information system and the ability to minimize the effects of errors requires intelligence.
Intelligence is required to create a system that uses a cipher, translating instructions through one language, which contains Statistics, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics, and Apobetics, and assigns the code of one system to the code of another system.
- The make of complicated, fast high-performance production systems, and technology with high robustness, flexibility, efficiency, and responsiveness, and quality-management techniques requires intelligence.
- The setup of 1,000–1,500 manufacturing proceedings in parallel by a series of operations and flow connections to reach a common end-goal, the most complex industry-like production networks require intelligence.
- The product making only in response to actual demand, not in anticipation of forecast demand, thus preventing overproduction, requires intelligence for setup and implementation.
- To create machines, production lines and factories that are more complex than man-made things of the sort, most probably require more intelligence, than human intelligence, and not none at all.
- The organization of software exhibiting logical functional layers - regulatory mechanisms - and control networks and systems have only been observed to be set up by intelligence.
- Error check and detection, inspection processes, quality assurance procedures, information error proofreading, and repair mechanisms have only been observed to be set up by intelligence.
- Foolproofing, applying the key-lock principle to guarantee a proper fit between product and machine requires an intelligent setup.
- Complex production lines that depend on precise optimization and fine-tuning require intelligence.
- Only intelligence is capable to create complex systems that are able to adapt to variating conditions.
All the above systems are a pre-requisite of life and biological Cells and implemented in an extremely ordered, complex, efficient manner.
A wrecking yard or junkyard is a place of dismantling where wrecked or decommissioned objects are brought, with lots of unusable metal parts, known as scrap metal parts. These parts are usually in a state of disorder, without any purpose or function, there is no injection of energy, so usually, they are decomposing and by thermodynamical forces moving from an already state of disorder, to more disorder. There are no specified specific shapes or forms placed in order to do something specific.
In contrast, when we see a factory producing specific products, with input of energy, raw materials, and a project department, where blueprints are elaborated of these products with specific goals, and these blueprints are sent to the factory where the blueprints are read and the instructions applied to produce the products, based on the specific information, then we can recognize that the factory itself was made by intelligence with purpose.
Biological Cells are equal to a complex of millions of interlinked factories
1. Factories are the result of intelligent design
2. Biological cells are factories
3. Therefore, biological cells are designed.
The Factory maker Argument
1. Intelligent minds make factory plants full of machines with specific functions, set up for specific purposes. Each fabric can be full of robotic production lines where the product of one factory is handed over to the next for further processing until the end product is made. Each of the intermediate steps is essential. If any is mal or non-functioning, like energy supply, or supply of the raw materials, the factory as a whole ceases its production.
2. Biological cells are a factory complex of interlinked high-tech fabrics, fully automated and self-replicating, hosting up to over 2 billion molecular fabrics like Ribosomes & chemical production lines, full of proteins that act like robots, each with a specific task, function or goal, and completing each other, the whole system has the purpose to survive and perpetuate life. At least 560 proteins and a fully setup metabolome and genome is required, and they are interdependent. If even one of these proteins were missing, life could not kick-start. For example, without helicase, DNA replication would not be possible, and life could not perpetuate. The probability, that such complex nano-factory plant could have emerged by unguided chemical reactions, no matter in what primordial environment, is beyond the chance of one to 10^150.000. The universe hosts about 10^80 atoms.
3. Biological Cells are of unparalleled gigantic complexity and purposeful adaptive design, vastly more complex and sophisticated than any man-made factory plant. Self-replicating cells demonstrate, therefore extremely strong indicators that the deliberate action of a conscious intelligent designer was involved in creating living cells.
Just what it is for something to be complex in the relevant sense is rarely explained very well, but it is generally acknowledged that the idea is well captured by Fred Hoyle’s (1981) suggestion that the random assembly of the very simplest living system would be like a tornado blowing through a junkyard and assembling a Boeing 747 (Dawkins 1987 and de Duve 1995 focus on this example in part to illustrate the alleged absurdity of attributing the emergence of life to chance). Obviously part of what makes something complex in this sense is that it has a heterogeneous structure, being made up of very many parts of various shapes and sizes. But any pile of 747 parts meets this condition. Furthermore, the 747 parts should be randomly assembled into a jumbled pile of some very specific shape and structure is just as improbable as their being assembled into a plane. What then is the significant difference between the pile of 747 parts and the 747? The idea seems to be what Hume (1935) described as “the curious adapting of means to ends” (p. 34) Like a living system, the plane consists of very many parts working intricately together to perform a function, namely flying. The parts require a very specific arrangement for this to work; if anyone part is in a slightly different position, then the plane can’t perform its function. The pile of plane parts, on the other hand, don’t do anything but sit there, or topple over if you push them enough. You don’t need a very precise arrangement of parts to do that, so there is nothing very remarkable about such a pile forming by chance.
On a closer look, however, this apparent difference is not so deep. For any pile of plane parts, we could define a very specific functional property taking the form: the pile is such that when this part is pulled in precisely this direction, precisely this far, then the pile will topple into this very specific structure.... This functional property requires for its instantiation an extremely precise arrangement of parts; shift one part and the pile will not have exactly the same toppling tendencies. Call a pile of plane parts that has this functional property a “schmane” What planes and schmanes have in common is that the probability that tornado strewn plane parts would assemble either is extremely low. Why then are we so resistant to the idea that a tornado might assemble the parts into a plane, but have no trouble supposing that might produce a schmane? The answer should be that a tornado is just as likely to produce either, it is just that only the plane is more likely to result if there was more than just chance operating. But now we must return to the question of whether it is the assumption of intentional or non-intentional biasing which renders this outcome more probable. Certainly the plane might seem more likely on the assumption that an agent influenced the arrangement of the parts (that is why if we found one on a distant planet we would conclude that extraterrestrials had built it, even if we had never seen a plane before, and even if our theories made the existence of such creatures in the vicinity very unlikely). But it is hard to see any reason to suppose that on the assumption of non-intentional biasing, a plane is any more likely than a schmane. Any considerations which make planes stand out as special as compared to schmanes, are intentionally related—whatever intuitions we have about the case have to do with what we think an agent is likely to do.
We seem to be in the same situation with respect to the molecular machinery from which complex life forms developed. These molecules are intricate little machines that perform a certain functions, most important of which is the assembly of new machines identical to themselves with a high degree of accuracy. But for any large heterogeneous aggregate of molecules, we can define some very specific functional property F that it possesses, such that it is extremely unlikely that a random assembly of molecules will result in something with property F. Yet for the vast majority of such properties, no one will have any trouble believing that it was just a matter of chance that some molecules were arranged this way. What makes the complex macromolecules from which life developed so special? Unlike just any arbitrary function, their ability to create replicas of themselves strikes many as crying out for a nonchancy explanation. But once again we may have a sense as to why an agent might be inclined to form such a molecular structure rather than others. But it is hard to imagine why what de Duve calls the “combinatorial properties of matter” if they favor particular molecular configurations at all, should be biased toward those capable of self-replication.
I’ve argued that the phenomenon of life gives us no good reason to doubt that it arose by chance, unless we think life’s existence is more likely on the assumption of intentional biasing. Why then are most scientists so reluctant to allow too much chance into their accounts of life’s emergence?
If you see a blueprint to make a factory, it is obvious and evident that somebody made that blueprint, rather than coming to be by chance. DNA contains precise instructions/ a blueprint / specified - instructional - complex - codified information to make biological Cell factories. This evidence alone is the signature of God, is a stumblingblock of naturalism, and corners ANY unbeliever.
The Signature in the Cell
A Positive, Testable Case for Intelligent Design
The problem is that nature has too many options and without design couldn’t sort them all out. Natural mechanisms are too unspecific to determine any particular outcome. Mutation and natural selection or luck/chance/probablity could theoretically form a new complex morphological feature like a leg or a limb with the right size and form , and arrange to find out the right body location to grow them , but it could also produce all kinds of other new body forms, and grow and attach them anywhere on the body, most of which have no biological advantage or are most probably deleterious to the organism. Natural mechanisms have no constraints, they could produce any kind of novelty. Its however that kind of freedom that makes it extremely unlikely that mere natural developments provide new specific evolutionary arrangements that are advantageous to the organism. Nature would have to arrange almost a infinite number of trials and errors until getting a new positive arrangement. Since that would become a highly unlikely event, design is a better explanation. This situation becomes even more acentuated when natural selection is not a possible constrainer, since evolution depends on replication, which did not exist prior dna replication
What natural selection lacks, intelligent design—purposive, goal-directed selection—provides. Rational agents can arrange both matter and symbols with distant goals in mind. In using language, the human mind routinely "finds" or generates highly improbable linguistic sequences to convey an intended or preconceived idea. In the process of thought, functional objectives precede and constrain the selection of words, sounds, and symbols to generate functional (and meaningful) sequences from a vast ensemble of meaningless alternative possible combinations of sound or symbol. Similarly, the construction of complex technological objects and products, such as bridges, circuit boards, engines, and software, results from the application of goal-directed constraints. Indeed, in all functionally integrated complex systems where the cause is known by experience or observation, designing engineers or other intelligent agents applied constraints on the possible arrangements of matter to limit possibilities in order to produce improbable forms, sequences, or structures. Rational agents have repeatedly demonstrated the capacity to constrain possible outcomes to actualize improbable but initially unrealized future functions. Repeated experience affirms that intelligent agents (minds) uniquely possess such causal powers. Analysis of the problem of the origin of biological information, therefore, exposes a deficiency in the causal powers of natural selection and other undirected evolutionary mechanisms that corresponds precisely to powers that agents are uniquely known to possess. Intelligent agents have foresight. Such agents can determine or select functional goals before they are physically instantiated. They can devise or select material means to accomplish those ends from among an array of possibilities. They can then actualize those goals in accord with a preconceived design plan or set of functional requirements. Rational agents can constrain combinatorial space with distant information-rich outcomes in mind. The causal powers that natural selection lacks—by definition—are associated with the attributes of consciousness and rationality—with purposive intelligence. Thus, by invoking intelligent design to overcome a vast combinatorial search problem and to explain the origin of new specified information, contemporary advocates of intelligent design are not positing an arbitrary explanatory element unmotivated by a consideration of the evidence.
Last edited by Otangelo on Mon Apr 05, 2021 4:20 pm; edited 85 times in total