There are various meanings of Evolution:
Cosmic Evolution: the origin of time, space and matter from nothing.
Stellar Evolution: stars and planets formed from gas clouds.
Chemical Evolution: life begins from inanimate matter.
Biological Evolution: Organisms change from one type into another.
Cosmic Evolution - From Big Bang to Humankind - Harvard CfA
What is fact :
1. Change over time; history of nature; any sequence of events in nature
2. Changes in the frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population
3. Limited common descent: the idea that particular groups of organisms have descended from
a common ancestor.
4. The mechanisms responsible for the change required to produce limited descent with modification; chiefly pre-programmed selection acting on random variations or mutations
5. Natural selection acting up to two random mutations as shown in malaria ( See Behe's Edge of evolution )
What is not fact:
6. Universal common descent: the idea that all organisms have descended from a single common ancestor.
7. Blind watchmaker thesis: the idea that all organisms have descended from common ancestors through unguided, unintelligent, purposeless, material processes such as natural
selection acting on random variations or mutations; the idea that the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection acting on random variation, and other similarly naturalistic mechanisms, completely suffice to explain the origin of novel biological forms and the appearance of design in complex organisms.
Microevolution is better described as adaptation and is an engineered process which does not occur by accident, but by the activation and orchestrated set of pathways. The Cell receives macroscopic signals from the environment and responds by modulating the signalling pathways and responding by adaptive, nonrandom mutations, contributing to the maintenance of systemic homeostasis which provides robustness and adaptability and is the mechanistic fundament of living organisms. These mutations are not a reasonable means of producing cascading morphological change from one kind of animal to another but merely secondary speciation.
According to evolutionary theory, what drives evolution, is Natural Selection, Genetic Drift, and Gene Flow. Natural selection depends on Variation through random mutations. Inheritance, differential survival, and reproduction. M.Behe: Any adaptive biological feature requiring a mutational pathway of twice that complexity (that is, 4-6 mutations with the intermediate steps being deleterious) is unlikely to have arisen by Darwinian processes during the history of life on Earth. Richard Lenski: Negative epistasis contributes to declining rates of adaptation over time. James Shapiro: There are no detailed Darwinian accounts for the evolution of any fundamental biochemical or cellular system, only a variety of wishful speculations”. Natural selection would not select for components of a complex system that would be useful only in the completion of that much larger system. In other words : Why would natural selection select an intermediate biosynthesis product, which has by its own no use for the organism, unless that product keeps going through all necessary steps, up to the point to be ready to be assembled in a larger system ? A minimal amount of instructional complex information is required for a gene to produce useful proteins. A minimal size of a protein is necessary for it to be functional. Thus, before a region of DNA contains the requisite information to make useful proteins, natural selection would not select for a positive trait and play no role in guiding its evolution.
Evidence points to preprogrammed specifying - instructional complex INFORMATION ( blueprints ) encoded in various genetic and epigenetic languages and signalling communication networks as the true mechanisms responsible for major morphological architecture and innovation & adaptation, development and body form. Major morphological innovation, development and body form are based on at least 17 different, but integrative mechanisms, the interplay of genes with the gene regulatory network, Trans and Retrotransposons, so-called Junk DNA, gene splicing and recombination, and at least two dozen epigenetic informational code systems, some, like the glycan ( sugar) code, far more complex than the genetic code, on the membrane - exterior side of cells, Post-transcriptional modifications (PTMs) of histones, hormones, Ion Channels and Electromagnetic Fields that are not specified by nuclear DNA, Membrane targets and patterns, Cytoskeletal arrays, Centrosomes, and inheritance by cell memory which is not defined through DNA sequences alone.
Where Do Complex Organisms Come From?
1. Biological sciences have come to discover in the last decades that major morphological innovation, development and body form are based on at least 16 different, but integrative mechanisms, the interplay of genes with the gene regulatory network, Trans and Retrotransposons, so-called Junk DNA, gene splicing and recombination, and at least two dozen epigenetic informational code systems, some, like the glycan ( sugar) code, far more complex than the genetic code, on the membrane - exterior side of cells, Post-transcriptional modifications (PTMs) of histones, hormones, Ion Channels and Electromagnetic Fields that are not specified by nuclear DNA, Membrane targets and patterns, Cytoskeletal arrays, Centrosomes, and inheritance by cell memory which is not defined through DNA sequences alone.
2. These varied mechanisms orchestrate gene expression, generate Cell types and patterns, perform various tasks essential to cell structure and development, are responsible for important tasks of organismal development, affect gene transcription, switch protein-coding genes on or off, determine the shape of the body, regulate genes, provide critical structural information and spatial coordinates for embryological development, influence the form of a developing organism and the arrangement of different cell types during embryological development, organize the axes, and act as chemical messengers for development
3. Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis have proposed traditionally a gene-centric view, a scientific metabiological proposal going back to Darwin's " On the origin of species ", where first natural selection was proposed as the mechanism of biodiversity, and later, gene variation defining how bodies are built and organized. Not even recently proposed alternatives, like the third way, Saltationism, Saltatory ontogeny, mutationism, Genetic drift, or combined theories, do full justice by taking into account all organizational physiological hierarchy and complexity which empirical science has come to discover.
4. Only a holistic view, namely structuralism and systems biology, take into account all influences that form cell form and size, body development and growth, providing adequate descriptions of the scientific evidence. The BIG ( umbrella ) contributor to explain organismal complexity is preprogrammed instructional complex INFORMATION encoded in various languages and communication through signalling through various signalling networks that act on a structural level, which are pre-instructed to respond to environmental cues, development, and nutrition demands, and they are apt to communicate, crosstalk, signal, regulate, govern, control, recruit, interpret, recognize, orchestrate, elaborate strategies, guide and so forth. All codes, blueprints, and languages are inventions by intelligence. Therefore, the genetic and epigenetic codes and signalling networks and the instructions to build cells and complex biological organisms were most likely created by an intelligent agency.
Why Darwin was wrong, and what really drives descent with modification
The tree of life, common descent, common ancestry, a failed hypothesis
Principal Meanings of Evolution in Biology Textbooks
Macroevolution. Fact, or fantasy ?
Micro evolution and macro evolution are not the same
Failed and falsified evolutionary predictions
Primary, and secondary speciation
Is there evidence for natural selection ?
Eukaryotes evolved from Prokaryotes. Really ?
On the Origin of Mitochondria: Reasons for Skepticism on the Endosymbiotic Story
Unicellular and multicellular Organisms are best explained through design
"Tetrapods evolved" . Really ?
Chimps, our brothers ?
The origin of Homo Sapiens & timeline of human evolution according to mainstream science.....
Chromosome 2, evidence for common ancestry ?