Defending the Christian Worldview, Creationism, and Intelligent Design
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Defending the Christian Worldview, Creationism, and Intelligent Design

This is my personal virtual library, where i collect information, which leads in my view to the Christian faith, creationism, and Intelligent Design as the best explanation of the origin of the physical Universe, life, and biodiversity


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Defending the Christian Worldview, Creationism, and Intelligent Design » Intelligent Design » Physics and biochemistry point to design

Physics and biochemistry point to design

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1Physics and biochemistry point to design Empty Physics and biochemistry point to design Wed Nov 10, 2021 10:09 am

Otangelo


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Physics and biochemistry point to design

https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t3192-physics-and-biochemistry-point-to-design

Scientific evidence points to a universe having a beginning, where time, space, and matter were created. All the matter in the universe erupted from a singularity. A singularity does not contain anything that is actually infinite, only things that MOVE MATHEMATICALLY TOWARDS infinity.  A singularity's mass is, therefore, finite, the 'infinity' refers only to the maths. The claim that energy is eternal because it cannot be neither created nor destroyed, is false. 1 The fundamental forces were instantiated, and from a unified force, split into the four forces that govern the universe. For unknown reasons, they got into a hierarchy, which is fundamental to have stars and planets. The strong nuclear force that holds neutrons and protons together is a factor of 10^38 – or 10 thousand billion, billion, billion, billion times stronger than gravity, and 137 times stronger than electromagnetism. There is nothing more physically fundamental that gives these forces their strength. The value of the four fundamental forces permits the right coupling constants ( force interactions ) between protons, neutrons, and electrons, and as such, stable atoms. Subatomic particle physics is based on 26 free parameters, of which at least 10 are just right to permit the observed physical hierarchies. This ordering is necessary to have atoms, stable over billions of years, and a habitable universe. The constants of physics are fundamental numbers that, when plugged into the mathematical equations, determine the basic structure of the universe. The four fundamental forces are secured, lawlike, to give an orderly, intelligible universe: these forces are unchanging, constant, with a fixed value, and can’t be derived from other deeper constants. They are discovered, described, and have to be verified by experiment. Simply put: there is no scientific explanation for why they have the right, life-permitting values, and why they are stable, rather than oscillating, stochastic, changing, or even popping in and out of existence, like virtual particles, or frequencies of sound. 2

If the initial expansion rate of the universe had differed values, the universe would have either quickly collapsed back on itself or expanded too rapidly for stars to form. In either case, life would be impossible. The Universe is characterized by a delicate balance of its inventory, a balance between expansion and contraction. Several parameters had to be just right. To name: The Gravitational constant, the density of dark matter, the Hubble constant, the cosmological constant, the primordial Fluctuations,  Matter-antimatter symmetry, the low-entropy state of the universe. Not considering the low entropy state ( that alone had to be finely tuned in an unimaginable order of 10^10123 ), joining all other fine-tune parameters together, the expansion rate had to be adjusted in the order of one part in 10^400, that is over a centillion. That is as if tossing a coin and coming it up heads over a centillion times in a row by chance. That far exceeds the total number of events that could have occurred in the observable universe since the origin of the universe which is 10^139. 3

Carbon nucleosynthesis is fine-tuned ( Hoyle resonance). This is essential to life since carbon is the basis of all life on earth. Our Milky Way Galaxy, the Solar System, the sun, the moon are as well all finely adjusted to permit life. Furthermore, our planet earth is very special and adjusted in many ways to permit life. The earth needs to have steady plate tectonics, the right amount of water in the crust, a large moon with right planetary rotation period, right planetary mass, be outside the spiral arm of the galaxy (which allows the earth to stay safely away from supernovae). The earth’s magnetic field is critically important, then the pressure of the atmosphere must be right. The earth must be Long-term stabilized of the surface temperature, amongst other parameters, water, the electromagnetic spectrum, and biochemistry are all fine-tuned too.4

There was no prebiotic mechanism selecting for the basic constituents of RNA and DNA, phosphorus, chiral right-handed ribose, and the bases, to join them together at the right prime positions of the backbone, ribose, polymerize them without the enzymatic machinery into short oligomers which might later have undergone chemically selective oligomerization. All model prebiotic syntheses produce unusable mixtures. In all living systems, homochirality is made by enzymes, which operate, encapsulated in right-handed phospholipid cell membranes. Enzymes are themselves composed of left-handed amino acids that were specified through right-handed DNA and produced through right-handed messenger RNA, right-handed ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA. There was no prebiotic selection process for these enantiomeric pure molecules.  5

Nitrogen and carbon in fixed form, necessary elements of the basic building blocks of life, were not readily available. There is no natural selector of the twenty left-handed amino acids used by cells to make proteins, but even if that were the case, the amino acids would have to be concentrated in millions altogether at one assembly site. There were no enzymes able to bond and polymerize amino acids at the right place. (There are four different ways to bond AAs together by the side chains.)  Amino acids polypeptide chains hydrolyze in water to their constituent amino acids. Life’s cornerstone molecules break down in water. Proteins, and nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA, are vulnerable at their joints. Proteins are made of chains of amino acids, and nucleic acids are chains of nucleotides. If the chains are placed in water, it attacks the links and eventually breaks them. In carbon chemistry, water is an enemy to be excluded as rigorously as possible. The hydrolytic deamination of DNA and RNA nucleobases is rapid and irreversible, as is the base-catalyzed cleavage of RNA in water.  RNA requires water to function, but RNA CANNOT emerge in water and does not persist in water without repair. Life seems to need a substance (water) that is inherently toxic to  RNA necessary for life. 6

DNA forms a double helix, fundamental to the biological function, which depends on hydrogen bonding between purine and pyrimidine bases. This bonding depends on the selection of the right atoms in the bases ring structure. Pyrimidine rings consist of six atoms. Purines have nine atoms forming the ring. Remarkably, it is the composition of these atoms that permit that the strength of the hydrogen bond that permits to join the two DNA strands and form Watson–Crick base-pairing, and well-known DNA ladder.  Neither transcription nor translation of the messages encoded in RNA and DNA would be possible if the strength of the bonds had different values. Hence, life, as we understand it today, would not have arisen. There could be over a million different based compositions and variants. There is no reason why these structures could or would have emerged in this functional complex configuration by random trial and error. There is a complete lack of scientific-materialistic explanations despite decades of attempts to solve the riddle. 7

Single proteins do not have any function on their own unless interconnected correctly in a living cell. In order for life to begin naturally, all essential proteins required for life to start would have had to emerge randomly on prebiotic earth, protein super-complexes like ribosomes would have had to join the subparts together to get the right protein-protein interactions, like lock and key. A miracle would have had to prevent them to be burned by UV radiation. Then start to interconnect in the correct order to create a functional metabolic network and multi-protein production lines, where the joint venture of several enzymes began to produce functional products, hand them over to carrier mechanisms, tag them in order to be transported to the right locations. Somehow, all this would have had to begin in a protected environment, so a protective envelope would have had to exist. That envelope had to emerge fully functional with " gates " that permit the right materials in, and the waste product out.

Once the data storage system (DNA) emerged, a language based on a code system had to be established, and the blueprint to store the information to make all parts of the cell had to be stored within it, and DNA replication errors had to be reduced 10.000.000.000 times. Somehow, that envelope had to create a homeostatic environment, diminishing the calcium concentration in the cell 10,000 times below the external environment, to permit signaling. At the same time, a signaling code would have had to be established, and immediately begin to function, with a common agreement between sender and receiver. Energy supply would have been a major problem since almost all life forms depend on the supply of glucose, which is a product of complex metabolic pathways, and not readily available on the prebiotic earth. Most proteins require active metal clusters in their reaction centers.

These clusters are in most cases ultracomplex, each cluster had to have the right atoms interconnected in the right way, and get the correct 3-dimensional form. They require the complex uptake of the basic materials, like iron and sulfur, molybdenum, and complex biosynthesis processes, and after the correct assembling, the insertion in the right way and form inside the proteins. All these processes require energy, in form of ATP, not readily available - since ATP is the product of complex nano-factories, like ATP synthase - which by themselves depend on a proton gradient.

The basic building blocks on early earth, left to themselves, rather than complexity to become self-replicating cells, would disintegrate to give uselessly complex mixtures, “asphalts”.  The scientific literature reports exactly  ZERO CONFIRMED OBSERVATIONS where living cells emerged spontaneously from a devolving chemical system. it is IMPOSSIBLE for any non-living chemical system to escape devolution to enter into the world of the living.  RNA and DNA Monomers and polymers undergo a variety of decomposition reactions. If they could form prebiotically, that would be as well the case on the early earth. 8

P.Ubique is known to be one of the smallest self-replicating, free-living cells.  It has complete biosynthetic pathways for all 20 amino acids, 1,300 genes, and 1,3 million base pairs and codes for about 1,300 proteins. They survive without any dependence on other life forms.   The chance to get the sequence of 1,3 million base pairs randomly would be 4^1,300,000 or 10^740,000.  All organisms have a genome. Some an epigenome and all life have a proteome, a metabolome, and an interactome, which defines all cellular interactions, amongst it, all protein-protein interactions of a cell. The odds to connect all 1300 proteins in the right, functional order would be 4^3641. It should be evidently clear, by the astronomical odds, that having a functional interactome of the currently known smallest life form, P.Ubique, on top of a functional proteome, is in the realm of the ABSOLUTELY impossible !! 9

Cells store genetic information through DNA that has the highest information storage density physically possible. DNA uses a genetic code. Cells have over forty epigenetic languages, translation systems, and signaling networks. These information systems prescribe and instruct the making and operation of cells. Cells ARE computers in a literal sense, using boolean logic. Each cell hosts many interconnected molecular machines, production lines and factories analogous to factories made by man. They are of unparalleled gigantic complexity, able to process constantly a stream of data from the outside world through signaling networks. Cells operate robot-like,  autonomously. They adapt the production and recycle molecules on demand. The process of self-replication is the epitome of manufacturing advances and sophistication. No unguided mechanism is known for creating blueprints containing the instructional complex information, fabricating complex machines and interlinked factories based on complex instructions, producing goods for specific purposes.  Cells are interdependent and irreducible complex ( a minimal genome, proteome, and metabolome size is required to give life a first go ).

Intelligent design wins using eliminative induction based on the fact that its competitors are false. Materialism explains basically nothing consistently in regards to origins but is based on unwarranted consensus and scientific materialism, a philosophical framework, that should never have been applied to historical sciences. Evidence should be permitted to lead wherever it is. Also, eventually, to an intelligent agency as the best explanation of origins. And intelligent design wins based on the fact that basically, all-natural phenomena demonstrate the imprints and signature of intelligent input and setup. We see an unfolding plan, a universe governed by laws, that follows mathematical principles, finely adjusted on all levels, from the Big Bang, to the earth, to permit life, which is governed by instructional complex information stored in genes and epigenetically, encoding, transmitting and decoding information, used to build, control and maintain molecular machines ( proteins ) that are build based on integrated functional complex parts, which are literally nanorobots with internal communication systems, fully automated manufacturing production lines, transport carriers, turbines, transistors, computers, and factory parks, employed to give rise to a wide range, millions of species, of unimaginably complex multicellular organisms.
Chance to find a message written on a cloud in the sky: "Jesus loves you" randomly, is as DNA creating its own software, and upon it, writing a complex algorithm to make a protein by accident. DNA base sequencing cannot be explained by chance nor physical necessity any more than the information in a newspaper headline can be explained by reference to the chemical properties of ink. Nor can the conventions of the genetic code that determine the assignments between nucleotide triplets and amino acids during translation be explained in this manner. The genetic code functions like a grammatical convention in a human language.


1. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1297-beginning-the-universe-had-a-beginning
2. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t3134-fine-tuning-of-the-physical-constants
3. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1866-fine-tuning-of-the-big-bang
4. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1277-fine-tuning-of-the-universe
5. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1279-abiogenesis-is-mathematically-impossible#1773
6. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1279-abiogenesis-is-mathematically-impossible
7. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2591-biochemical-fine-tuning-essential-for-life#7845
8. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1279-abiogenesis-is-mathematically-impossible#7309
9. https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2245-abiogenesis-the-factory-maker-argument

Physics and biochemistry point to design Darwin10

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