The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system. It is often stated as "DNA makes RNA and RNA make protein.
See how following six biological production workflows which are called the central dogma, are analogous to man-made manufacturing processes, outlined afterwards:
1. applies to the genetic code, which equals a computer code
2. applies to DNA which is an information storage system
3. applies to the gene regulatory network, which activates and selects the information in the DNA library at the right location, at the right time, to be expressed
4. applies to the information stored in DNA and epigenetic codes to make Cells, which are factories, that make as products, copies of themselves in small variations.
5. applies to transcription, where DNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase enzyme complexes into messenger RNA, and then transmitted to the Ribosome to be translated.
6. applies to ribosomes which translate the digital information stored in DNA, and transmitted by messenger RNA, into proteins, which are the analogue tridimensional form of proteins
Let us suppose that the headquarters of a company is located in the u.s., where products are invented by a team of engineers, projected and developed to their maturity. A prototype is made, tested to its satisfaction, and ready for serial production. The companies industrial manufacturing park constituted of various interconnected factories, full of machines, and production lines will be raised and build in China. Before the products can be manufactured, the factory has to be built at the right, strategic location, with ease to get the materials delivered, easy to find employees, and ease to export the products to its final destinations. So the engineers of various faculties need to know how to establish the following production flow which is essential in order to make everything work:
1. The establishment of a language based on codes and signs, and a common agreement of meaning, but also a common agreement of signs for designing the engineering plans and drawings. The information of the blueprints and instruction manuals is codified, complex, and instructional.
2. Further, a storage medium of the information to make the factory and its products is needed. Traditionally, it was paper and pen. Today, computers and software programs like Autocad, and a hardrive to store the information.
3. The information specialists ( computer programmers etc. ) will need to develop a library and storage system, and tag each blueprint, so they know where to find it when needed. The engineers will send during the time period along the factory building the needed blueprints in a sequential manner. They know how to find the right plans in the library, select them, and send them to Chinese colleagues.
4. The engineers will have to decide and come to an agreement what they want to make, and how ( cars, machines, toys etc. ), the products precise size, parts, materials, and how the final product has to work and function. And use the language, to draw the blueprints and produce the descriptive information, designs with memorial etc.
The production facility must be conceptualized to produce the intended product. A factory that makes toys cannot be employed to make cars. The product must be described in all details, and how to be assembled, once the subparts have been made. The materials of the products employed must be described and informed: how and where to find the right ones, how to import them into the factory, how to reject materials that are inappropriate to be imported, how to transform them into useful form, ( material purity, density, colors, size, form etc. ) and, once the product has been processed and made, it is ready, pack and tag it, to be shipped to its final destination.
They need also to establish and instruct how to construct the factory facility, its buildings -where to find the right materials of the factory building, how to bring them to the construction site, process them ( bricks need to be made in its right shape, and the right materials ) and build the factory, establish the factory size, wall size, height, dimensions, compartments, localization, etc. The same applies to all the machines, their energy supply - they need to inform how to produce the energy , store, retrieve, to fuel the machines and fuel all the processes of the factory, where first to get the materials that will be used as fuel, where to dispose the waste material, and recycle facilities; production rate and quality control, etc. Manuals to fix the machines if something drives havoc, and skilled people that can perform the repairs when needed. Inform where to get the raw materials to make the machines for production, how to transport them and where to place them, and correctly interconnect them, retrieval facility of the stored raw materials when required in its right quantity, where to conduct them to be processed, and once the factory machine is ready, and construct everything in order for the facilities to be ready to start production. Many factories also produce machines that are delivered to the assembly factories, where they are united and interconnected into assembly lines. All this must be informed in detailed manner and requires huge quantities of specified complex information.
5. A mechanism of transmission of the information from the u.s. to China is required. Traditionally the plans drawings and instruction manuals were sent by post, FedEx and so on, but today, we have modern communication channels, like the world wide web. That is, extracting the blueprints, drawings and plans, from the HD, annex it to an email, send it, and the receiver will be able to save the received information from the email on his computer hard drive, use translation programs which translate the message into Chinese, and he eventually prints the blueprint out, and hands it over to the employees. First to those, which are trained to make and build the factories etc. and afterwards, to the workers in the factories, that will actually manufacture the products.
6. Since the drawings, blueprints and designs are made in English, and the workers are Chinese, that construct the factory, and the products, afterwards, a translation program has to be made which translates the plans from english to Chinese so they can understand the instructions. The rules of any communication system are always defined in advance by a process of deliberate choices without physical constraints. There must be prearranged agreement between sender and receiver, otherwise, communication is impossible. By definition, a communication system cannot evolve from something simpler because evolution itself requires communication to exist first.
In both cases, all depends essentially on foresight and intelligence and establishing teleological goals. For this reason, I call above analogy the central dogma of intelligent design.
1. High information content (or specified complexity) and irreducible complexity constitute strong indicators or hallmarks of (past) intelligent design.
2. Biological systems have a high information content (or specified complexity) and utilize subsystems that manifest irreducible complexity.
3. Naturalistic mechanisms or undirected causes do not suffice to explain the origin of information (specified complexity) or irreducible complexity.
4. Therefore, intelligent design constitutes the best explanations for the origin of information and irreducible complexity in biological systems.
The interdependent and irreducible structures required to make proteins
To make proteins, and direct and insert them to the right place where they are needed, at least 25 unimaginably complex biosyntheses and production-line like manufacturing steps are required. Each step requires extremely complex molecular machines composed of numerous subunits and co-factors, which require the very own processing procedure described below, which makes its origin an irreducible catch22 problem.
Wanna Build a Cell? A DVD Player Might Be Easier
Wanna Build a Cell? A DVD Player Might Be Easier Imagine that you’re building the world’s first DVD player. What must you have before you can turn it on and watch a movie for the first time?
A DVD. How do you get a DVD? You need a DVD recorder first. How do you make a DVD recorder? First, you have to define the language. When Russell Kirsch (who we met in chapter Cool created the world’s first digital image, he had to define a language for images first. Likewise, you have to define the language that gets written on the DVD, then build hardware that speaks that language. Language must be defined first. Our DVD recorder/player problem is an encoding-decoding problem, just like the information in DNA. You’ll recall that communication, by definition, requires four things to exist:
1. A code
2. An encoder that obeys the rules of a code
3. A message that obeys the rules of the code
4. A decoder that obeys the rules of the code
These four things—language, the transmitter of language, message, and receiver of language—all have to be precisely defined in advance before any form of communication can be possible at all.
Last edited by Admin on Fri Nov 09, 2018 3:47 pm; edited 2 times in total