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ElShamah - Reason & Science: Defending ID and the Christian Worldview

Otangelo Grasso: This is my personal virtual library, where i collect information, which leads in my view to the Christian faith, creationism, and Intelligent Design as the best explanation of the origin of the physical Universe, life, biodiversity


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The Shroud of Turin: Christ's Evidence of the Resurrection

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Panel 6

STURP - The Shroud of Turin Project
The Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) was a detailed scientific examination of the Shroud of Turin conducted from 1978 to 1981. This interdisciplinary team used non-destructive techniques to study the cloth, aiming to analyze its physical properties and the formation of its image, without addressing its authenticity. The project provided extensive data that continues to be a crucial reference for ongoing research on the shroud.


Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud
In 1988, the Shroud of Turin underwent radiocarbon dating by three labs. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, they analyzed the shroud’s linen fibers for carbon-14 content. Results indicated the shroud was created between 1260 and 1390 AD, suggesting it originated in the medieval period, not the time of Christ.

The late STURP chemist Raymond Rogers had to admit that the radiocarbon-dated cloth samples contained cotton.


‘Researchers, in large numbers, now believe that in the 16th century, a corner of the Shroud had been expertly repaired… leading to erroneous carbon 14 dating in 1988.’ – Dan Porter, 2022


in France, invisible weaving replaced each broken thread, one at the time

Three samples for radiocarbon dating were taken from one corner of the Shroud


Professor Hall, aged 64, expressed skepticism about the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin, noting he had received numerous ‘shoddy’ letters from believers insisting on its genuineness. He compared the unwavering belief in the shroud to the persistence of the Flat Earth Society, firmly believing in the accuracy of his findings.


Conclusions of the STURP team
The answer to the question of how the image was produced or what produced the image remains, now, as it has in the past, a mystery.

We can conclude for now that the Shroud image is that of a real human form of a scourged, crucified man. It is not the product of an artist. The blood stains are composed of hemoglobin and also give a positive test for serum albumin. The image is an ongoing mystery and until further chemical studies are made, perhaps by this group of scientists, or perhaps by some scientists in the future, the problem remains unsolved.

Summary of STURP Final Report - 1981



Last edited by Otangelo on Mon Feb 12, 2024 6:59 am; edited 1 time in total

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Panel 7

The Shroud a Forgery?

In October 2009, Luigi Garlaschelli’s attempt to replicate the Shroud of Turin, which fell short in matching the original’s intricacy, along with filmmaker David Rolfe’s unclaimed £1 million reward challenge to the British Museum for a successful reproduction, highlight the Shroud’s complexity and uniqueness. These events underline the improbability that medieval artists, regardless of their skill in numerous specialized fields, could have created the Shroud, especially given the failure of modern experts to find evidence of forgery, reinforcing the mystery surrounding its origin.

Garlaschelli's attempt to replicate the Shroud in 2009 was a total failure!!

============================================================================================

Panel 8

How was the Image Made?

Thats how much VUV light was emitted in a split of a second from inside the body to burn the image into the linen cloth



Last edited by Otangelo on Mon Feb 12, 2024 12:54 pm; edited 2 times in total

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Panel 17 The Linen

The yarn used to weave the Shroud of Turin is of very high quality, evenly spun, and it has been woven into an unusual, fancy weave for the time, called 3 to 1 herringbone twill. The resulting cloth is very fine, with a density of 35 threads per centimeter, or about 89 threads per inch. The finest surviving Egyptian mummy fabrics are 30 threads per centimeter (75 threads per inch).

Fine linen, hand-woven with a herringbone weave. Fine linen fabrics (byssus) were available in Jerusalem at the Temple. These valuable fabrics also came from India. One of these precious linens could have been used for Jesus’ burial. Interesting is the identification on Shroud samples of significant traces of DNA typical of the Indian population (38.7%). European DNA is only 5.7%. Substantial traces of Middle Eastern DNA (55.6%) were also found.

In 1989, an expert in early Syriac, Ian Dickinson, of Canterbury, England, realized that the measurements of the Shroud were approximately 8 x 2 of the Assyrian standard cubit of between 21.4 and 21.6 inches, which was the common unit of lineal measurement in Jesus’ day. This is another major problem for the medieval (or earlier) forgery claim since a medieval artist/forger would be most unlikely to know the length of the standard cubit of Jesus’ day, as this was only discovered by archaeologists in the 19th century!!

On one of the long sides of the Shroud, a particular seam was discovered identical to those existing on 1st century A.D. Jewish fabrics found at Masada, a hill near the Dead Sea (Israel).

Other linen cloth examples exist, even older than the Shroud of Turin, hypothesized to be 2000 years old. In the image, a Mortuary linen, 2140–1976 BCE. from Egypt.

Legging discovered in permafrost, South Tyrol. Wool, 2:2 herringbone weave, ca. 800 – 500 B.C.E.


The data presented in this infographic point to the fact that the Shroud of Turin has characteristics that align more closely with textiles from 1st Century Judea than with those from Medieval Europe.


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Panel 18 The blood

The blood on the Shroud of Turin has been identified as human and belongs to the AB blood group, which is notably frequent among the Hebrew population and quite rare globally, with only about 3% of the world’s population estimated to have it.

The Sudarium Of Oviedo, also known as the Facecloth of Christ, is considered a powerful piece of evidence that refutes the carbon c14 dating from 1988 of the Shroud.

Stains from puncture wounds are on part of the cloth that covers the back of the head, indicating that the cloth was applied after the wounds before death.
The stains are composed of vital blood that flowed before death had occurred.
The cloth was applied to these wounds about 60 minutes after they had bled, or one hour after the person had died.
The Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin are believed to have covered the same person.
The Sudarium of Oviedo has a secure historical track record back to the 7th century, suggesting that the Shroud of Turin is much older than the 14th Century, which is the commonly believed date of its origin.

View of the nape of the neck

Comparisons of the blood stains of the Sudarium, and the Shroud

Stains of vital blood of type AB, on both linens, from the wounds from the crown of thorns.

Blood stains of AB blood, on both clothes, shed from wounds from sharp elements


Arterial Blood is bright red because it has been oxygenated (except for the blood in the pulmonary artery which is going to the lungs to be oxygenated). The oxygen content gives a bright red appearance.
Blood turns from darker red to maroon because it contains less oxygen. It has given up its oxygen to the tissues and has picked up carbon dioxide and other waste products.


Scientists John Heller and J.Janney conducted a chemical examination of the Shroud’s fibers and concluded that there was no doubt; it was blood.

The Shroud fabric is stained with human blood of the rare AB group. It is rich in biliverdin and bilirubin due to the tortures suffered and remained redder than normal because it must have been in the form of heavily oxidized hemoglobin typical of ancient blood present in a heavily oxidized hemoglobin typical ancient body form severely bruised.

Each scourge wound on the shroud contains tiny clots surrounded by a serum retraction halo, all holes clearly visible under ultraviolet light but barely or not at all visible to the naked eye.

Blood stains of AB group, in both cloths, shed from wounds caused by sharp elements

John Heller and J. Janney conducted a chemical examination of the Shroud’s fibers. Heller fully concurred with Adler’s opinion. There was no doubt, it was blood.

Dr Alan Adler analyzed samples and stated it is highly unlikely the staining mechanism is just water. He made a definitive statement after analyzing samples in nature.



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O sangue no Sudário de Turim foi identificado como humano e pertencente ao grupo sanguíneo AB, que é notavelmente frequente entre a população hebraica e bastante raro em todo o mundo, estimando-se que apenas cerca de 3% da população mundial o possua.

O Sudário de Oviedo, também conhecido como toalha facial de Cristo, é considerado uma poderosa evidência que refuta o carbono c14 datado de 1988 do Sudário.
Manchas de perfurações estão em parte do pano que cobria a nuca, indicando que o pano foi aplicado após os ferimentos, antes da morte.

O sangue arterial é vermelho brilhante porque foi oxigenado (exceto o sangue da artéria pulmonar que vai para os pulmões para ser oxigenado). O teor de oxigênio dá uma aparência vermelha brilhante.
O sangue muda de vermelho mais escuro para marrom porque contém menos oxigênio. Ele cedeu seu oxigênio aos tecidos e recolheu dióxido de carbono e outros resíduos.



Os cientistas John Heller e J.Janney conduziram um exame químico das fibras do Sudário e concluíram que não havia dúvida; era sangue.

O tecido do Sudário está manchado com sangue humano do raro grupo AB. É rico em biliverdina e bilirrubina devido às torturas sofridas e permaneceu mais vermelho que o normal porque deve ter estado na forma de hemoglobina fortemente oxidada típica do sangue antigo presente em uma hemoglobina fortemente oxidada típica de corpo antigo gravemente machucado.

Cada ferida de flagelo no sudário contém pequenos coágulos rodeados por um halo de retração de soro, todos os buracos claramente visíveis sob a luz ultravioleta, mas pouco ou nada visíveis a olho nu.

O Dr. Alan Adler analisou amostras e afirmou que é altamente improvável que o mecanismo de coloração seja apenas água. Ele fez uma declaração definitiva após analisar amostras da natureza.

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Panel 19 Pollen, Limestone, and microtraces

Avinoam Danin determined the origin of the Shroud based on a comprehensive analysis of pollen taken from the Shroud and plant images associated with the Shroud.

His analysis suggests that flowers and other plant materials were placed on the Shroud of Turin, leaving pollen grains and imprints of plants and flowers on the linen cloth.

Swiss criminologist Max Frei was invited to verify the accuracy of 1969 photographs of the shroud. He detected some pollen grains and identified an additional 8 species.

Pollens from 58 species of plants have been found on the shroud. But only 17 of these, i.e., less than one-third, grow in France or Italy. 55 of the 58 grow in Jerusalem.

Some pollen species identified are quite significant. They are endemic to the East, grow in Israel, and bloom between March and April. Gundelia tournefortii and Zygophyllum dumosum are two indicators of the shroud’s origin.

In October 1978 the Shroud of Turin Project (STURP) took samples of surface material on the Shroud by pressing a specially formulated sticky-tape onto body image. Under his microscope they found traces of travertine (deposited from springs) aragonite variety of calcium carbonate rather than more common calcite. Travertine aragonite limestone was typically found in limestone caves in Palestine.

A fragment of wood taken from area and heated particles aromatic resins were found. Myrrh and aloes are “coincidentally” what Gospels mention in biblical burial Jesus Nazareth. The presence myrrh aloes aligns with biblical account Jesus’ burial where these substances used preparation body.

Particles found Sudarium Oviedo were identified resin aloes myrrh similar as Shroud - one lines evidence corroborating both clothes, Shroud Sudarium covered same individual.

The pollen discovered this relic could compounds early burial ointments suggesting origins first century AD not difficult pollen stay attached fibers long time (Boi 2015), attachment even stronger when pollen so combined greasy botanical substances such those applied body after death or adhering burial cloth.

The whole set of sindonic entomogenous species, suggests the use of botanical products that were widely used in ancient funeral and burial rituals, whose purpose in embalming the body was to delay decomposition, as well as to make burials smell less unpleasant. These 2000-year-old techniques using ointments, oils with some reported exceptions during the Roman Empire.

Minute traces of cotton fibers were discovered, an indication that the Shroud was woven on a loom also used for weaving cotton. The cotton was of the Asian Gossypium herbaceum, and some commentators have construed its presence as conclusive evidence of a Middle Eastern origin. While not common in Europe until much later, cotton was being woven in Spain as early as the 8th century and in Holland by the 12th.



Pólen, calcário e microtraços

Avinoam Danin determinou a origem do Sudário com base em uma análise abrangente do pólen retirado do Sudário e de imagens de plantas associadas ao Sudário.

Sua análise sugere que flores e outros materiais vegetais foram colocados no Sudário de Turim, deixando grãos de pólen e marcas de plantas e flores no tecido de linho.

O criminologista suíço Max Frei foi convidado para verificar a precisão das fotografias do Sudário de 1969. Ele detectou alguns grãos de pólen e identificou mais 8 espécies.

Pólens de 58 espécies de plantas foram encontrados no sudário. Mas apenas 17 destes, ou seja, menos de um terço, crescem em França ou Itália. 55 dos 58 crescem em Jerusalém.

Em outubro de 1978, o Projeto do Sudário de Turim (STURP) coletou amostras do material da superfície do Sudário pressionando uma fita adesiva especialmente formulada sobre a imagem corporal. Sob seu microscópio, eles encontraram vestígios de travertino (depositado em nascentes), variedade de aragonita de carbonato de cálcio, em vez de calcita mais comum. O calcário travertino aragonita era normalmente encontrado em cavernas de calcário na Palestina.

Foi encontrado um fragmento de madeira retirado da área e partículas aquecidas de resinas aromáticas. Mirra e aloés são “coincidentemente” o que os Evangelhos mencionam no sepultamento bíblico de Jesus Nazaré. A presença de mirra e aloés se alinha com o relato bíblico do sepultamento de Jesus, onde essas substâncias foram utilizadas na preparação do corpo.

As partículas encontradas no Sudário de Oviedo foram identificadas em resina de aloés e mirra semelhante ao Sudário - uma linha de evidência corroborando ambas as roupas, o Sudário do Sudário cobria o mesmo indivíduo.

O pólen descoberto nesta relíquia poderia compor pomadas funerárias antigas, sugerindo origens no primeiro século DC, não é difícil o pólen permanecer preso às fibras por muito tempo (Boi 2015), a fixação é ainda mais forte quando o pólen combina substâncias botânicas gordurosas, como aquelas aplicadas no corpo após a morte ou aderindo ao pano funerário.

Todo o conjunto de espécies entomógenas do Sudário sugere a utilização de produtos botânicos muito utilizados em antigos rituais fúnebres e funerários, cuja finalidade no embalsamamento do corpo era retardar a decomposição, bem como tornar os sepultamentos com cheiro menos desagradável. Essas técnicas de 2.000 anos usavam pomadas e óleos, com algumas exceções relatadas durante o Império Romano.

Foram descobertos minúsculos vestígios de fibras de algodão, uma indicação de que o Sudário foi tecido num tear também usado para tecer algodão. O algodão era do asiático Gossypium herbaceum, e alguns comentaristas consideraram sua presença como evidência conclusiva de origem no Oriente Médio. Embora não fosse comum na Europa até muito mais tarde, o algodão era tecido na Espanha já no século VIII e na Holanda no século XII.

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Panel 9 The flagellation

The narratives of Jesus’s suffering mention that he was subjected to flogging by Roman soldiers, a process that was both excruciating and destructive. Studies conducted on the Shroud indicate around 120 lashes, a figure that notably exceeds the 39 lashes typically limited by Hebrew law. In total, over 370 marks from scourging have been discerned on the Shroud, underscoring the severity of the punishment and linking it to Roman customs of the period. The high number of slashing marks indicates that Jesus went through an extremely painful and damaging ordeal.

The virgae were used more for beating and causing pain through blunt force. The rods would cause bruising and surface-level trauma, which, while extremely painful, generally did not lead to the same level of physical damage as the flagrum.

The flagrum typically consisted of a handle made from wood, to which several leather thongs were attached. The length of these thongs varied, but they were generally long enough to wrap around the body and strike the front as well as the back. Metal balls, sharp pieces of bone, or hooks were often woven or attached to the leather thongs.


A flagelação

As narrativas do sofrimento de Jesus mencionam que ele foi açoitado pelos soldados romanos, um processo que foi ao mesmo tempo doloroso e destrutivo. Estudos realizados sobre o Sudário indicam cerca de 120 chicotadas, um número que excede notavelmente as 39 chicotadas normalmente limitadas pela lei hebraica. No total, foram identificadas mais de 370 marcas de flagelação no Sudário, sublinhando a severidade da punição e ligando-a aos costumes romanos da época. O elevado número de marcas cortantes indica que Jesus passou por uma provação extremamente dolorosa e prejudicial.

As virgas eram mais utilizadas para espancar e causar dor por meio de força contundente. As hastes causavam hematomas e traumas superficiais que, embora extremamente dolorosos, geralmente não causavam o mesmo nível de dano físico que o flagrum.

O flagrum normalmente consistia em um cabo feito de madeira, ao qual eram presas várias tiras de couro. O comprimento dessas tiras variava, mas geralmente eram longas o suficiente para envolver o corpo e atingir tanto a frente quanto as costas. Bolas de metal, pedaços afiados de osso ou ganchos eram frequentemente tecidos ou presos às tiras de couro.

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Panel 10 Head Wounds, and the Crown of Thorns

The bloodstains on the Shroud of Turin suggest a cap-like object, implying coverage over the entirety of the scalp. The distinction points to a more severe form of mockery and torture, with the cap inflicting pain across a larger area.”

Lacerations Near the Eyebrows
Some markings resemble lacerations or abrasions and swelling near the eyebrows, possibly from falling while carrying the patibulum, the crossbeam of the cross. Blunt trauma.”

Swelling of the Right Cheek
The image shows noticeable swelling on the right side of face, which could be indicative of blunt trauma.

Lung edema fluid
The fluid is from lung edema present on Shroud of Turin.

Wounds from the Crown of Thorns
The image suggests blood flow in patterns consistent with wounds on the scalp, which could be from puncture wounds caused by a thorny object, like a crown of thorns. There are distinct bloodstains on the forehead area, which could be from puncture wounds or lacerations.

Broken Nose
Some analyses of the shroud suggest that the nose may appear abnormally bent or swollen, indicating a possible fracture.

They plucked his beard
This action is referenced in the Old Testament, specifically in Isaiah 50:6, which states: “I offered my back to those who beat me, my cheeks to those who pulled out my beard; I did not hide my face from mocking and spitting.

Feridas na cabeça e a coroa de espinhos

As manchas de sangue no Sudário de Turim sugerem um objeto semelhante a um boné, implicando cobertura de todo o couro cabeludo. A distinção aponta para uma forma mais severa de zombaria e tortura, com o boné infligindo dor numa área maior.”

Lacerações perto das sobrancelhas
Algumas marcas lembram lacerações ou escoriações e inchaço perto das sobrancelhas, possivelmente por queda ao carregar o patíbulo, a trave da cruz. Trauma contundente.

Inchaço da bochecha direita
A imagem mostra um inchaço perceptível no lado direito do rosto, o que pode ser indicativo de trauma contuso.

Fluido de edema pulmonar
O fluido provém do edema pulmonar presente no Sudário de Turim.

Feridas da Coroa de Espinhos
A imagem sugere fluxo sanguíneo em padrões consistentes com feridas no couro cabeludo, que podem ser causadas por perfurações causadas por um objeto espinhoso, como uma coroa de espinhos. Existem manchas de sangue distintas na área da testa, que podem ser causadas por perfurações ou lacerações.

Nariz quebrado
Algumas análises do sudário sugerem que o nariz pode parecer anormalmente torto ou inchado, indicando uma possível fratura.

Eles arrancaram sua barba
Esta ação é referenciada no Antigo Testamento, especificamente em Isaías 50:6, que afirma: “Ofereci as costas aos que me batiam, o rosto aos que me arrancaram a barba; Não escondi meu rosto de zombarias e cuspidas.

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Panel 11 The Sorrowful path











Panel 11: Golgotha

plan of Jerusalem showing Jesus' route from Gethsemane to Golgotha, detailing six key events:

1. Jesus is arrested in Gethsemane and brought to the house of Caiaphas.
2. Jesus is transferred to the Temple to be 'tried' by the Sanhedrin.
3. He is sent to Pilate at Herod's Palace to get Roman agreement to his death.
4. Pilate sends him to Herod Antipas at the Hasmonean Palace.
5. Herod mocks Jesus, and then returns him to Pilate.
6. Pilate eventually accedes to demands for Jesus’ death, and he is sent to Golgotha for crucifixion.

Planta de Jerusalém mostrando a rota de Jesus do Getsêmani ao Gólgota, detalhando seis eventos principais:

1. Jesus é preso no Getsêmani e levado à casa de Caifás.
2. Jesus é transferido para o Templo para ser “julgado” pelo Sinédrio.
3. Ele é enviado a Pilatos no Palácio de Herodes para obter o acordo romano para sua morte.
4. Pilatos o envia a Herodes Antipas no Palácio Hasmoneu.
5. Herodes zomba de Jesus e depois o devolve a Pilatos.
6. Pilatos finalmente acede às exigências da morte de Jesus e é enviado ao Gólgota para ser crucificado.



Last edited by Otangelo on Mon Feb 12, 2024 7:39 am; edited 1 time in total

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Panel 12 The Crucifixion

Up and down movements on the Cross

Axonometry of the two main movements of sagging downwards and rising in case of this crucifixion.

Roman crucifixion nails were large, tapered iron spikes used to secure victims to the cross, ensuring a torturous execution.

Crucifixion forced a victim to alternate between slumping down and pushing up to breathe, a cycle agonizingly repeated, likely hundreds of times over several hours. Blood patterns on the Shroud of Turin suggest two distinct postures. This mechanical action would intensify the crucified individual’s suffering, leading to exhaustion and eventual death.

The Man of the Shroud shows a nail wound in the wrist, not the palm, supporting Roman practice for a secure crucifixion. The Shroud of Turin’s wrist wound contrasts with medieval art, which often inaccurately depicts crucifixion nails through the palms.

The Shroud of Turin displays three exit wounds indicating the use of two nails for crucifixion, one for each foot, likely for a more stable and secure attachment. Finger-like impressions on the cloth also suggest that the individual’s feet were held, likely aiding in transport to the tomb.


A crucificação

Axonometria dos dois movimentos principais de flacidez para baixo e subida em caso desta crucificação.

Os pregos de crucificação romanos eram grandes pontas de ferro cônicas usadas para prender as vítimas à cruz, garantindo uma execução torturante.

A crucificação forçou a vítima a alternar entre cair e empurrar para cima para respirar, um ciclo repetido agonizantemente, provavelmente centenas de vezes ao longo de várias horas. Os padrões de sangue no Sudário de Turim sugerem duas posturas distintas. Essa ação mecânica intensificaria o sofrimento do crucificado, levando à exaustão e eventual morte.

O Homem do Sudário mostra um ferimento de prego no pulso, não na palma da mão, apoiando a prática romana para uma crucificação segura. A ferida no pulso do Sudário de Turim contrasta com a arte medieval, que muitas vezes retrata de maneira imprecisa os pregos da crucificação nas palmas das mãos.

O Sudário de Turim apresenta três feridas de saída indicando o uso de dois pregos para crucificação, um para cada pé, provavelmente para uma fixação mais estável e segura. Impressões de dedos no pano também sugerem que os pés do indivíduo foram segurados, provavelmente auxiliando no transporte até a tumba.



Last edited by Otangelo on Mon Feb 12, 2024 7:45 am; edited 1 time in total

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Panel 15 Jesus death on the Cross

A weapon capable of causing the side wound on the man on the Shroud had been unearthed in Jerusalem. It was a Roman lance found. This particular spear was four centimeters wide at its broadest point. The same size as the wound on the side of the Shroud.

Markings on the cloth are consistent with a postmortem pericardial effusion. If an individual was crucified and then pierced in the chest, possibly with a spear, effusion was released along with blood. The separation of clear fluid and red blood cells (serum clot) leads to distinct markings which are evidence of pericardial effusion that occurred after death or cross. At the top wound side is the spear wound (4 cm or 1½ inches) from which there flowed out blood and water; Shroud we see blood-clotted contact air, surrounded by serum fluid.

Crucifixion from execution causes death through a combination of factors including physical trauma, suffocation, and shock. In the specific context of crucifixion, pericardial effusion might be associated with stress, body positioning, and injuries inflicted could contribute to fluid accumulation in the pericardial space. After death, this fluid remains in the pericardial cavity, potentially mixed with blood if cardiac ruptures.

A morte de Jesus na cruz

Uma arma capaz de causar o ferimento lateral no homem do Sudário foi descoberta em Jerusalém. Foi encontrada uma lança romana. Esta lança em particular tinha quatro centímetros de largura no seu ponto mais largo. Do mesmo tamanho da ferida na lateral do Sudário.

As marcas no pano são consistentes com derrame pericárdico pós-morte. Se um indivíduo fosse crucificado e depois perfurado no peito, possivelmente com uma lança, a efusão era liberada junto com o sangue. A separação do líquido claro e dos glóbulos vermelhos (coágulo sérico) leva a marcações distintas que são evidências de derrame pericárdico que ocorreu após morte ou cruzamento. No lado superior do ferimento está o ferimento de lança (4 cm ou 1½ polegadas) de onde fluiu sangue e água; No Sudário vemos ar de contato coagulado com sangue, cercado por fluido sérico.

A crucificação causada pela execução causa a morte por meio de uma combinação de fatores, incluindo trauma físico, asfixia e choque. No contexto específico da crucificação, o derrame pericárdico pode estar associado ao estresse, ao posicionamento corporal e às lesões infligidas podem contribuir para o acúmulo de líquido no espaço pericárdico. Após a morte, esse líquido permanece na cavidade pericárdica, potencialmente misturado com sangue em caso de ruptura cardíaca.

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Panel 16 Jesus Burial

The Sudarium of Oviedo is the cloth that was used to cover the head of Jesus Christ after he died on the cross to collect his blood. It is kept in Oviedo, in the region of Asturia, Spain.

The Sudarium of Oviedo’s existence is historically confirmed, going back at least to the sixth century, and the radiocarbon testing gave a date, six to seven hundred years earlier than the Shroud of Turin, which brings us much closer to the first century. All evidence indicates that it covered the same man as on the Shroud of Turin

It was folded with two layers in front of the face. The cloth was folded back on itself. It was doubled back over, creating a repeating parallel stain on a second layer of cloth. It is believed that the head was tilted down to the right so that it was pressed against the shoulder and the arms were positioned in a way that resulted in the sudarium being wrapped in this manner.

It was the day of Preparation and the sabbath was beginning… Now a man named Joseph…of Arimathea…a member of the council, a good and righteous man…went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then he took it down” (Lk 23:50-53). They must have removed the nail from the feet, lifted the crossbeam down with Jesus still attached to it, taken the nails out of the hands, and then carried the holy body to the nearby tomb which Joseph of Arimathea had made available for Jesus.

The portion of the Holy Shroud which was to receive the back of the body of the Lord was laid on the ledge in the tomb, and the other half was folded over the whole front head tips toes.

IN the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb where no one ever had been laid. So because of the Jewish day of Preparation, as the tomb was close at hand, they laid Jesus there" (Jn 19:41-42).


O Sudário de Oviedo é o pano que serviu para cobrir a cabeça de Jesus Cristo depois que ele morreu na cruz para coletar seu sangue. É guardado em Oviedo, na região das Astúrias, Espanha.

A existência do Sudário de Oviedo está historicamente confirmada, remontando pelo menos ao século VI, e os testes de radiocarbono deram uma data, seiscentos a setecentos anos antes do Sudário de Turim, o que nos aproxima muito do século I. Todas as evidências indicam que cobriu o mesmo homem que está no Sudário de Turim

Foi dobrado em duas camadas na frente do rosto. O pano estava dobrado sobre si mesmo. Foi dobrado novamente, criando uma mancha paralela repetida em uma segunda camada de pano. Acredita-se que a cabeça foi inclinada para a direita de forma que ficou pressionada contra o ombro e os braços foram posicionados de forma que o sudário fosse assim enrolado.

Era o dia da Preparação e o sábado estava começando… Agora um homem chamado José… de Arimatéia… membro do conselho, homem bom e justo… foi até Pilatos e pediu o corpo de Jesus. Então ele o tirou” (Lc 23,50-53). Eles devem ter removido o prego dos pés, levantado a trave com Jesus ainda preso a ela, tirado os pregos das mãos e depois carregado o corpo sagrado para o túmulo próximo que José de Arimateia havia colocado à disposição de Jesus.

A parte do Santo Sudário que deveria receber a parte de trás do corpo do Senhor foi colocada na borda do túmulo, e a outra metade foi dobrada sobre toda a frente, na ponta dos pés.

NO lugar onde ele foi crucificado havia um jardim, e no jardim um túmulo novo onde nunca havia sido colocado nenhum. Por isso, por causa do dia da Preparação judaica, e como o sepulcro estava próximo, depositaram Jesus ali” (Jo 19,41-42).

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Panel 16: The Resurrection

On the left: Jesus was lying flat with the shroud covering the body. Jesus’ body progressively dematerialized. During the resurrection, Jesus’ body passed through the shroud, letting an imprint, and leaving it behind as a relic.

The absence of traces of putrefaction testifies to the brief presence of the body of the Man of the Shroud in the tomb. The blood imprint was interrupted after about 36 hours: precisely the time described by the Gospel for the discovery of the empty tomb.

The image captures the moment of discovery, with empty cloths indicating the absence of Jesus’ body suggesting his resurrection. The empty tomb discarded shroud is seen as evidence of Jesus’ resurrection, fulfilling prophecies confirming divinity.

Mary Magdalene, one of Jesus’ most devoted followers, visits Jesus’ tomb early in the morning and finds it empty. Distraught, she encounters Jesus but does not recognize him at first. When she does, she exclaims “Rabbouni!” (which means “Teacher” in Aramaic). This moment of recognition is profoundly emotional as it signifies her realization that Jesus has risen, affirming the core Christian belief in resurrection.

Thomas initially doubted Jesus’ resurrection until he could see and touch Jesus’ wounds. This episode teaches that faith often requires believing without physical evidence. Jesus’ words, “Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed,” highlight the virtue of faith based on spiritual conviction rather than physical proof.

The Ascension of Jesus into Heaven is a significant event. The Ascension marks the completion of Jesus’ earthly work. His life, crucifixion, and resurrection were all part of his mission to offer salvation. The Ascension signifies that this mission was accomplished, confirming his divinity and the fulfillment of prophecies.

A ressurreição

À esquerda: Jesus estava deitado com a mortalha cobrindo o corpo. O corpo de Jesus desmaterializou-se progressivamente. Durante a ressurreição, o corpo de Jesus passou pelo sudário, deixando uma marca e deixando-o como uma relíquia.

A ausência de vestígios de putrefação atesta a breve presença do corpo do Homem do Sudário no túmulo. A impressão de sangue foi interrompida após cerca de 36 horas: precisamente o tempo descrito pelo Evangelho para a descoberta do túmulo vazio.

A imagem capta o momento da descoberta, com panos vazios indicando a ausência do corpo de Jesus sugerindo sua ressurreição. A mortalha descartada do túmulo vazio é vista como evidência da ressurreição de Jesus, cumprindo profecias que confirmam a divindade.

Maria Madalena, uma das seguidoras mais devotadas de Jesus, visita o túmulo de Jesus de manhã cedo e o encontra vazio. Atormentada, ela encontra Jesus, mas a princípio não o reconhece. Ao fazê-lo, ela exclama “Rabbouni!” (que significa “Mestre” em aramaico). Este momento de reconhecimento é profundamente emocionante, pois significa a sua compreensão de que Jesus ressuscitou, afirmando a crença cristã central na ressurreição.

Tomé inicialmente duvidou da ressurreição de Jesus até poder ver e tocar as feridas de Jesus. Este episódio ensina que a fé muitas vezes requer acreditar sem provas físicas. As palavras de Jesus: “Bem-aventurados os que não viram e ainda assim creram”, destacam a virtude da fé baseada na convicção espiritual e não na prova física.

A Ascensão de Jesus ao Céu é um evento significativo. A Ascensão marca a conclusão da obra terrena de Jesus. Sua vida, crucificação e ressurreição fizeram parte de sua missão de oferecer salvação. A Ascensão significa que esta missão foi cumprida, confirmando a sua divindade e o cumprimento das profecias.

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Panel 20  BOUGHT, PURCHASED, RANSOMED & REDEEMED

Matthew 20:28
Just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.


BOUGHT, PURCHASED, RANSOMED & REDEEMED

1 Corinthians 6:20 For you were BOUGHT at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.

Acts 20:28 Therefore take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He PURCHASED with His own blood.

Matthew 20:28 "...just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a RANSOM for many."

1 Timothy 2:5-6 For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself a RANSOM for all, to be testified in due time,

1 Peter 1:18-19 ...knowing that you were not REDEEMED with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.



Comprado e Resgatado

Mateus 20h28
Assim como o Filho do Homem não veio para ser servido, mas para servir e dar a sua vida em resgate por muitos.


Comprado e Resgatado
1 Coríntios 6:20: Pois você foi comprado por um preço; glorificai, pois, a Deus no vosso corpo e no vosso espírito, os quais pertencem a Deus.
Atos 20:28: Portanto, cuidem de vocês mesmos e de todo o rebanho sobre o qual o Espírito Santo os constituiu bispos, para pastorearem a igreja de Deus, que Ele comprou com seu próprio sangue.
Mateus 20h28: "...assim como o Filho do Homem não veio para ser servido, mas para servir e dar a sua vida em resgate por muitos."
1 Timóteo 2:5-6: Porque há um só Deus e um só Mediador entre Deus e os homens, Cristo Jesus Homem, que se entregou como resgate por todos, para ser provado no devido tempo,
1 Pedro 1:18-19: Sabendo que vocês não foram RESGATADOS com coisas corruptíveis, como prata ou ouro, da conduta sem objetivo recebida por tradição de seus pais, mas com o precioso sangue de Cristo, como de um cordeiro sem defeito e sem mancha.

Todos esses são termos usados ​​para descrever uma transação financeira. Quando você conclui uma transação na loja, o caixa lhe dá um pedaço de papel que descreve os detalhes do preço pago
É chamado de 'recibo'.

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Sermon Title: "The Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo: Witnesses to Faith"

Dear brothers and sisters in Christ,

Today, I wish to take you on a journey through time and faith, exploring two of Christianity's most intriguing and venerated relics: the Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo. These sacred items, enveloped in mystery and devotion, invite us to deepen our understanding of Christ's passion and resurrection and to reflect on the essence of our faith.

The Shroud of Turin is a linen cloth bearing the faint yet detailed image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. This shroud, kept in the Royal Chapel of John the Baptist in Turin, Italy, has been the subject of intense scientific study, debate, and veneration. It measures approximately 14.3 x 3.7 feet and displays both the front and back impressions of a man, presenting details that correspond to the biblical descriptions of Christ's crucifixion.

Turning our gaze to Spain, we encounter the Sudarium of Oviedo, a lesser-known but equally significant cloth, housed in the Cathedral of San Salvador, Oviedo. The Sudarium, meaning "sweat cloth" in Latin, is believed to be the cloth that was placed over the face of Jesus at the time of his burial, as mentioned in the Gospel of John (20:6-7). Unlike the Shroud, the Sudarium does not bear a full image of the face but is stained with blood and fluid patterns, which, according to scientific studies, match those on the Shroud of Turin.

These two relics, though silent, speak volumes about the suffering, death, and, ultimately, the triumphant resurrection of Jesus Christ. They serve as tangible connections to the very core of our Christian faith, reminding us of the immense love and sacrifice that paved the way for our salvation.

In our reflection on the Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo, it's important to consider the compelling evidence and commonalities that point to their authenticity and their connection to Jesus Christ.

Firstly, scientific investigations have revealed remarkable consistencies that challenge the boundaries of mere coincidence. For instance, the blood type found on both clothes has been identified as type AB, which is relatively rare in medieval Europe, but notably common in Palestine. This commonality adds a layer of physical evidence to the belief that they were used in the burial rites of the same individual.

The patterns of bloodstains and fluid marks on the Sudarium of Oviedo closely correspond to those on the Shroud of Turin, especially around the facial area. This is significant because the Sudarium is believed to have been used to cover the face of Jesus immediately after his death, in accordance with Jewish burial customs of the time, before being replaced by the shroud for the final burial.

The use of the Sudarium is deeply rooted in the Jewish burial customs of the time. In Jewish traditions, blood is considered to carry the life force or soul of the individual. This belief is derived from passages in the Hebrew Bible, such as Leviticus 17:11, which states, "For the life of the flesh is in the blood." Therefore, in the context of burial practices, handling blood with utmost respect would be paramount, as it is closely associated with the essence or soul of the deceased. Covering the face with a Sudarium or similar cloth could be seen as part of these respectful practices, ensuring that any blood, especially from facial wounds or orifices, is not lost, aligning with the belief in the sanctity of the life force contained within the blood. This practice would serve both to honor the deceased by preserving their dignity and to adhere to religious laws concerning the handling and treatment of blood.

When lung edema and bleeding from the nose and mouth occur, which can happen in cases of severe trauma, asphyxiation, or other causes leading to pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure, the body may expel fluids post-mortem. The Sudarium was used to cover the face of the deceased to absorb these bodily fluids, including blood and edema fluid, emerging from the nose and mouth.  The Sudarium, therefore, was used as an immediate measure to cover Jesus's face after His death on the cross. This act was a sign of respect and an effort to begin the burial process in a way that honored Jewish customs, even under the rushed and less-than-ideal circumstances of Jesus's burial, which took place hastily due to the approaching Sabbath.

Following this initial step, the body was intended to later be more fully prepared for burial. This preparation involved washing the body and wrapping it in a clean linen cloth, which is where the Shroud of Turin comes into the narrative. The Shroud was used to wrap the entire body, including the head, in accordance with the Jewish custom of using burial shrouds. This final wrapping served several purposes: it further honored the deceased, it adhered to the purity laws by covering the body, and it prepared the body for placement in the tomb.

The transition from the Sudarium to the Shroud reflects a careful adherence to burial customs, even in the dire and hurried conditions of Jesus's burial.

John 20:6-7 offers a brief yet significant and elucidating insight. The passage reads: "Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying there, and the face cloth, which had been on Jesus' head, not lying with the linen cloths but folded up in a place by itself." This description provides a direct scriptural reference to the presence of two distinct cloths associated with Jesus's burial—a linen cloth (the Shroud of Turin) and a separate cloth for the face ( the Sudarium of Oviedo).

Pollen grains found on both cloths have also provided compelling evidence of their origins and authenticity. Studies have identified pollen from plants that are native to the regions around Jerusalem on both the Shroud and the Sudarium, supporting the tradition that they were both present at the burial of Jesus in Judea and were later transported to Europe. Additionally, the physical and forensic analysis of the Shroud of Turin reveals details of crucifixion that align with the biblical account of Jesus's death, including marks that suggest a crown of thorns and wounds consistent with Roman crucifixion practices. The Sudarium, with its stains formed by a combination of blood and pleural edema fluid, further corroborates the Shroud's depiction of a crucified man who suffered significantly before death.

It's also worth noting that the Sudarium's history is well-documented from the 6th century, providing a clear chain of custody that lends credibility to its age and authenticity. The Shroud of Turin, while its history is more debated, has been carbon-dated to the medieval period, though this dating is contested by some who point to potential contamination or repair work that may skew the results. These evidences are not just points of academic interest but are threads that weave together a tapestry of faith. They invite us to see beyond the physical and into the heart of our belief in the resurrection. The commonalities between the Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo serve as a testament to the historical reality of Christ's passion and death, and, ultimately, to the power of His resurrection, which is the cornerstone of our faith.

The Shroud of Turin's image is one of its most intriguing and debated features, particularly due to its superficiality and the details it presents, which could not have been produced by a forger in the Middle Ages. The image on the Shroud of Turin is remarkably superficial, affecting only the topmost fibers of the cloth. Scientific analyses have shown that the image resides on the outermost layer of the linen fibers, without penetrating to the deeper layers as one might expect from paint, dye, or other coloring substances applied with a brush or similar tool. This superficiality suggests that the image formation process was not only delicate but also quite different from any known artistic techniques of the Middle Ages. The image appears to be the result of some form of interaction that caused a change in the structure of the linen fibers themselves, rather than the addition of pigment or medium.

The methods and knowledge required to create an image with such unique characteristics—its resolution, three-dimensionality when analyzed through VP-8 Image Analyzer (which interprets the image's intensity as topographical information), and the superficiality of the image—would have been far beyond the capabilities of medieval artists and forgers. The technology or scientific understanding to create an image with these properties, especially without leaving any trace of pigments, chemicals, or artistic techniques, was not present in the Middle Ages.

The bloodstains on the Shroud of Turin, particularly those on the forehead from a crown of thorns, offer fascinating insights into the Shroud's authenticity and the level of anatomical precision it displays. These stains are significant  for what they reveal about the nature of the wounds and the blood that flowed from them. The bloodstains on the Shroud show the differences between venous and arterial blood flow, which was not well understood until the scientific advances of the 17th century. Venous blood, returning to the heart, is deoxygenated and darker in color, while arterial blood, flowing from the heart to the rest of the body, is oxygenated and brighter red. The presence of both types of blood on the Shroud, as inferred from the patterns and characteristics of the stains, indicates a level of detail that a forger from the Middle Ages would be unlikely to know or replicate accurately.

The accurate representation of these blood flow patterns, reflecting an understanding of the venous and arterial systems, strengthens the argument for the Shroud's authenticity. It challenges the notion that the Shroud could be a medieval forgery, as the forger would need to possess advanced knowledge of human anatomy and the physiology of blood circulation that was not available until the work of William Harvey in the 17th century. Harvey's discovery of the circulatory system and the function of the heart in pumping blood throughout the body revolutionized medicine and our understanding of human anatomy.

The presence of bilirubin in the bloodstains on the Shroud of Turin adds another layer of evidence for its authenticity. Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the body as a result of the breakdown of red blood cells. It is typically processed by the liver and excreted, but under conditions of severe physical stress, and trauma.

In the context of the Shroud of Turin, the elevated levels of bilirubin detected in the bloodstains suggest that the individual whose image and blood are imprinted on the cloth suffered intense physical trauma. The presence of high bilirubin levels is consistent with someone who has undergone severe torture or a physically exhausting ordeal, leading to extensive tissue damage and the accelerated breakdown of red blood cells. This scenario aligns with the biblical account of Christ's Passion, which describes a series of physical abuses, including scourging, crowning with thorns, and crucifixion.

The detection of bilirubin in the bloodstains lends support to the hypothesis that the Shroud is indeed the burial cloth of Jesus, as it provides a biochemical snapshot of the individual's physical state at the time of death that is consistent with severe torture. This detail is not something that a medieval forger would likely be aware of or able to replicate, given the limited scientific understanding of the time.

The Shroud of Turin provides compelling evidence that challenges many traditional depictions of the crucifixion, particularly those from the medieval period which often illustrate the nails piercing through the palms of Jesus's hands. The Shroud, however, indicates that the nails were driven through the wrists, not the palms, a detail that aligns with modern archaeological findings and a deeper understanding of Roman crucifixion methods. The positioning of the nails is crucial for several reasons. Firstly, the human hand, with nails driven through the palm, would not be able to support the weight of a body during crucifixion. The structure of the hand is such that the bones and soft tissues in the palm area would not provide a stable anchor for the nails under the stress of the body's weight, leading to the nails tearing through the flesh.

In contrast, the wrist contains a more robust structure for supporting weight. The area identified as the 'wrist' in the context of the Shroud and crucifixion practices includes the space near the base of the palm, which is anatomically more complex and capable of bearing weight. This region is reinforced by several bones, including the radius and ulna, and the carpal bones, which form a more secure foundation for nailing.

Moreover, there is a specific spot in the wrist, known as Destot's space (located just above the carpal bones), where a nail could be driven without fracturing major bones, yet still effectively immobilize the hand and support the body's weight. Driving nails through this area would also likely cause severe nerve damage, adding to the excruciating pain of crucifixion, which aligns with the historical accounts of the method's brutality. This detail serves as a profound reminder of the historical reality and the excruciating suffering of Jesus's crucifixion. It challenges us to confront the stark truth of His sacrifice, moving beyond inaccurate artistic representations to a more authentic understanding of His passion. As we reflect on this aspect of the Shroud of Turin, let it deepen our appreciation for the immense love and sacrifice that Jesus demonstrated, enduring such physical agony to offer us salvation.

In addressing concerns about the Shroud of Turin potentially violating the commandment against making graven images, it's crucial to delve deeper into the intent and context of the biblical injunction. The commandment, as given in Exodus 20:4, prohibits the creation of images for the purpose of idolatrous worship. This is further clarified by the immediate continuation in Exodus 20:5, which explicitly forbids bowing down to or serving such images, indicating that the core issue is idolatry rather than the mere existence of images.

The Hebrew Scriptures employ a literary technique known as a Hebrew doublet, where a statement is followed by a restatement for clarification. In the case of the commandment against graven images, the prohibition is directly linked to the worship of these images, as highlighted in the subsequent verses. This distinction is critical in understanding the biblical perspective on images. The image on the Shroud was not crafted by human hands in an act of idolatry but formed in a miraculous manner at the moment of Christ's resurrection. This distinction is crucial; the Shroud is not venerated as a deity but provides a tangible connection to the pivotal event of the Christian faith.

The Shroud is a significant religious artifact, much like the relics preserved in the Ark of the Covenant, such as Aaron's rod and the manna, which were kept as reminders of God's providence and power, not as objects of worship.

In conclusion, the Shroud of Turin, viewed through the lens of biblical teachings and historical practices, does not violate the commandment against graven images. Instead, it serves as a poignant reminder of Christ's passion and resurrection, inspiring reflection and devotion within the framework of Christian worship that is directed solely towards God. As we ponder the mysteries and the significance of such relics, we are reminded of the depth and richness of our faith, which transcends the physical and invites us into a deeper relationship with the divine. Let us be strengthened in our belief that they indeed covered the same man, Jesus Christ, who suffered and died for us, and in doing so, conquered death to offer us eternal life. These relics, in their silent witness, invite us to a deeper faith, a more profound hope, and a more fervent love for Christ, who is always present among us. Amen.

In contemplating the Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo, we are invited not only to marvel at their historical and scientific significance but to delve deeper into the mystery of Christ's passion. They beckon us to reflect on the depth of Jesus' suffering for our sake, his unwavering obedience to the Father, and the boundless love that led him to the cross for our redemption. Let these relics reinforce our faith in the Gospel's truth, the reality of Christ's resurrection, and the promise of eternal life. Let them remind us that our faith is not founded on mere myths or legends but is rooted in historical events that have touched and transformed countless lives across generations.

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The Shroud of Turin and the Sign of Jona

When the Pharisees saw Jesus making miracles, they asked him to do a miracle in front of their eyes. They wanted to see him doing extraordinary things. But he said that the only sign he would leave was the sign of Jona.

(Luke 11:29-30, NIV) "As the crowds increased, Jesus said, 'This is a wicked generation. It asks for a sign, but none will be given it except the sign of Jonah. For as Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites, so also will the Son of Man be to this generation.'"

What did he mean by that?  This passage indicates Jesus's use of the "sign of Jonah" as a metaphor for His death, burial, and resurrection. Jesus refers to the prophet Jonah's experience of being in the belly of a great fish for three days and three nights as a prefiguring of His own death, burial, and resurrection after three days.

We have the recorded narratives of the Gospels, but we cannot know if they were not just first-century embellishments of a preacher of that time. Events, that went from mouth to mouth, and changed over time. But with the resurrection, Jesus left us a durable empirical sign recorded on his burial cloth. While the image is only faint and almost unperceivable by the naked eye, and can only be seen from a certain distance of about 6 feet, with the first photograph by Secondo Pia in 1898, the image unraveled as an extraordinary photonegative with high resolution and remarkable details of a crucified man. This evolving revelation took another amazing step with the discovery that the image bears 3D Information. And today, with modern computer technology, we can reconstruct how Jesus looked in real life 2000 years ago.

Here we have a gradual revelation. Similar to how God revealed his plan of salvation, and the coming of the messiah, with Old Testament prophecies, over time. Just as Jonah's emergence from the fish after three days was a sign to the people of Nineveh, Jesus's resurrection was the ultimate sign to humanity of His divine authority and victory over death. The Shroud of Turin is a tangible artifact that bears witness to the resurrection, serving as a modern-day "sign" akin to the "sign of Jonah" that Jesus promised. It's a symbolic representation, suggesting that just as Jonah's experience in the fish was a precursor to Jesus's resurrection, the shroud serves as a physical testimony to that pinnacle event of human history and Christian belief.

Unbelievers ask frequently for empirical proof that the Christian faith is true. With the image on the Shroud of Turin, we can meet this demand, and we do indeed have empirical proof of Jesus' crucifixion, and resurrection, and confirmation that the Gospel narratives are not embellished fantasy stories, but real-life events that occurred 2000 years ago, confirming the prophecies of the coming of the messiah with precision, and accuracy.

We have 1. evidence of God's existence through natural theology, through the created order, that has been unraveled by science in the last 150 years with more and more new layers of evidence, and modern science has confirmed that the Shroud of Turin is not a forgery, was not painted by an artist in the middle age, but the image is due to a supernatural event, that occurred at the resurrection of Christ. Never in human history, we had more evidence and proof of the truthfulness of the Christian God, than today. Unbelievers are truly unjustifiable. They were not in the past, and much less, today.

The Shroud of Turin:  Christ's Evidence of the Resurrection - Page 5 Sem_t198

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The Shroud of Turin: Color, Science, and Sacred Symbolism

The linen flax is made up of single electron Bond carbon atoms. However, where there is coloring, the arrangement of the electrons was changed to double electron bonds. A different arrangement of the electrons orbiting the carbon atoms. This changed the color we see to a bronze color, reminiscent of the bronze serpent that the Lord God commanded Moses to make. When the Lord God does a painting, he does not use a paintbrush; he changes the arrangement of the electrons. Evidently, he wanted the Shroud of Turin to be the same color as the bronze serpent he commanded Moses to make, or the cherub angels God commanded Moses to make out of hammered gold. It seems like the Lord God likes the color bronze. This is why I believe that the Shroud of Turin is the new bronze serpent on the pole.

Everything Moses did, Jesus did in a different way. Moses turned the River Nile into blood; Jesus changed water into wine. Moses parted the Red Sea; Jesus walked on water and controlled the Sea of Galilee. Moses made a bronze image and put it on a pole. The Shroud is the bronze image that Jesus made.

The Shroud of Turin, an ancient linen cloth bearing the faint imprint of a crucified man, has puzzled scholars, scientists, and believers for centuries. One of the most intriguing mysteries surrounding this artifact is its distinctive bronze-like hue, a color that appears to transcend conventional pigmentation and delve into the realms of atomic structure.

At the core of this enigma lies a fundamental scientific principle: the arrangement of electrons within the atoms of a substance determines how that substance interacts with and absorbs or reflects different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, ultimately shaping the colors we perceive. However, the Shroud's coloration may not be a result of conventional staining or pigmentation. Instead, it raises the possibility that the very arrangement of electrons within the carbon atoms of the linen fibers has been fundamentally altered, imbuing the cloth with a hue that defies conventional explanation.

Remarkably, this bronze-like color bears a striking resemblance to the biblical account of the bronze serpent that Moses was commanded to construct and elevate on a pole – a symbol of healing and deliverance that foreshadowed the ultimate redemption offered through Christ's sacrifice. Could the Shroud of Turin be a tangible reminder of that sacrificial act, just as the bronze serpent was a physical representation of healing and salvation? The parallels between the events and symbols of the Old Testament and the life and ministry of Christ speak to the consistent and progressive nature of God's redemptive plan throughout history.

Just as Moses turned the Nile into blood and parted the Red Sea, Jesus demonstrated His power over the natural elements by turning water into wine and walking on water. And just as Moses erected a bronze serpent on a pole, Jesus, through His crucifixion, became the ultimate symbol of healing and salvation – an act potentially represented by the very existence of the Shroud itself.

Moreover, the biblical instructions for Moses to construct cherubim out of hammered gold (Exodus 25:18-20) hint at a divine preference for the hues of bronze and gold – colors often associated with the sacred, the divine, and the eternal. The resonance between the Shroud's coloration and these sacred shades could be a reflection of its profound significance and connection to the divine nature of Christ.

The potential alteration of the atomic structure of the linen fibers to produce this enigmatic color can be seen as a manifestation of the profound and sacred nature of creation, extending even to the subatomic level. In this light, the Shroud of Turin becomes a convergence of the natural and the divine, the tangible and the ineffable, beckoning us to approach the boundaries of human understanding with a spirit of reverence and a thirst for deeper knowledge.

Quantum mechanics is the domain where the fundamental building blocks of reality behave in ways that challenge our conventional understanding. At the heart of this exploration lies the concept of electron configurations, the precise arrangements of these subatomic particles within the atoms that constitute the very fabric of the Shroud's linen fibers.

It is these configurations that govern how matter interacts with the electromagnetic spectrum, ultimately determining the hues and shades that we perceive as color. However, the Shroud's coloration raises the tantalizing possibility that the electron configurations within its carbon atoms have been fundamentally altered, perturbing the delicate balance of these subatomic particles in a manner that transcends conventional processes of pigmentation or staining.

Such a notion invites us to contemplate the profound mysteries that lie at the intersection of the quantum and the divine. For if the electron configurations have indeed been altered, it would suggest a process that defies our current understanding of the natural world – a process that hints at the existence of forces and phenomena that lie beyond the veil of our conventional scientific paradigms.

We are reminded of the profound interconnectedness that exists between the smallest and largest scales of existence. Just as the arrangement of electrons within an atom can shape the colors we perceive, so too can the cosmic forces and divine intervention shape the very fabric of reality itself. The Shroud of Turin, with its enigmatic hue and potential quantum underpinnings, serves as a powerful reminder that our pursuit of knowledge and understanding must be grounded in humility and a willingness to embrace the unknown.

The resonance between the Shroud's coloration and the biblical instructions for constructing cherubim out of hammered gold speaks to the enduring association between certain hues and the divine. From the golden calf to the mercy seat, the colors of bronze and gold have long been symbolic of the sacred, the eternal, and the divine presence. Could the Shroud's enigmatic hue be a reflection of this symbolic resonance, a tangible manifestation of Christ's divine nature and the profound significance of His sacrifice?

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