ElShamah - Reason & Science: Defending ID and the Christian Worldview
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ElShamah - Reason & Science: Defending ID and the Christian Worldview

Otangelo Grasso: This is my library, where I collect information and present arguments developed by myself that lead, in my view, to the Christian faith, creationism, and Intelligent Design as the best explanation for the origin of the physical world.


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Confirming Yeshua

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The book of Isaiah 53, and the dead sea scrolls

Mark Niyr (2020): The significance of the suffering visible on the Shroud is aptly summarized by a prophecy from the Hebrew Scriptures found in the book of the Jewish prophet Yesha’Yahu (Isaiah) chapter 53. This prophecy from the prophet Isaiah was written 700 years before the birth of Yeshua. Copies of this book of Isaiah were recovered from among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Israel—with Hebrew texts inscribed and copied as far back as 125 years before the birth of Yeshua.   

Confirming Yeshua - Page 2 IHUSbwb

(1) [LORD, j ] Who has believed our message and to whom has the arm of the LORD [YHVH]k been revealed? . . .   (3) He was despised and rejected by mankind, a man of suffering, and familiar with pain. Like one from whom people hide their faces he was despised, and we held him in low esteem. (4) Surely he took up our pain and bore our suffering, yet we considered him punished by God, stricken by him, and afflicted. 

The opening word “LORD” is not found in surviving Hebrew texts of Isaiah 53. However, the fact that the word “LORD” does exist at this point in the Greek translation of the Jewish Septuagint of Isaiah 53 provides evidence that the word “LORD” [or Heb. YHVH] did originally exist in the ancient Hebrew texts when the Jews of Alexandria, Egypt translated Isaiah from Hebrew into Greek during the 2nd or 3rd century B.C./B.C.E. Dead Sea Scroll scholars have found impressive evidence from their research of the Dead Sea Scrolls that the Jewish translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek was translated from what at that time was considered best and oldest of the ancient Hebrew manuscripts. Thus, the opening word “LORD” in Isaiah   53:1 from the Jewish Septuagint would indicate that Isaiah chapter 53 was a prayer from the prophet Yesha’Yahu (Isaiah) directed to the “LORD” God on behalf of himself and Isaiah’s people Israel—rather than some alleged report being articulated by gentiles of something they had “never heard of before,” “nor understood” (Isa. 52:15). The superiority of the Septuagint’s Hebrew base text as compared to the Masoretic Text is substantiated by Emanuel Tov in:  The Earliest Text of the Hebrew Bible: The Relationship between the Masoretic Text and the Hebrew Base of the Septuagint Reconsidered . Septuagint and Cognate Studies. See Emanuel Tov’s contribution pp. 137‐144. 17 Emanuel Tov is considered one of the world’s foremost and eminent scholars of the Dead Sea Scrolls. He was appointed by The Israel Antiquities Authority as Editor‐in‐ Chief of the Dead Sea Scrolls Publication Project  where he was in charge of a team of sixty scholars worldwide. Also, it is highly significant that every citation of Isaiah 53:1 by Yeshua’s personal first-century talmidim (disciples) include the word “Lord” in their quotations of Isa. 53:1 (John 12:38, Rom. 10:11). It is quite likely the word “Lord” (Heb. YHVH) did still exist in Hebrew manuscripts during the 1st century. 

(5) But he was pierced for our transgressions,   [I.e. Pierced wounds to suffer God’s judgment for our sins.] he was crushed   [Hebrew dacha: bruised, smitten.]   for our iniquities;   [I.e. for our sins.]   the punishment that brought us peace was on him, and by his wounds [“Wounds” here is the Hebrew word chaburah: meaning scourge marks, stripes, stroke marks on the skin.]   we are healed.   (6) We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to our own way, and the LORD [YHVH] has laid on him the iniquity of us all.   [I.e. God laying our iniquity, our sin, upon him.]   (7) He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, [I.e. like a sacrificial lamb.] and as a sheep, before its shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth.   [Yeshua was silent before his accusations at his trial— Matt.26:62‐63; 27:12‐14.]   ( By oppression and judgment he was taken away. Yet who of his generation protested? [Some translations use the words “his descendants” here instead of “his generation.” However, the Hebrew word is dor, meaning “generation” (such as used in Gen. 15:16), or “age.” Also, the Jewish Greek Septuagint has genean autou translated “his generation” (not “his descendants.”)]  For he was cut off from the land of the living; [I.e. Killed.] for the transgression of my people he was punished. [I.e. Punished as a substitute sacrifice for the transgression/sin of the people.] (9) He was assigned a grave with the wicked, [I.e. His executioners assumed he would be buried with other wicked criminals.]   and with the rich in his death,   [I.e. There would be a deviation from the original plan for burial among wicked criminals. Here, the Dead Sea Scroll, namely, the Great Isaiah Scroll from Cave 1(QIsa‐ a) Masoretic Text of the Dead Sea Scrolls states that his grave would be via “a rich man his tomb.” Instead of a community grave among wicked Roman criminals, Yeshua was hastily buried in the nearby tomb of a rich man named Yosef of Ramatayim (Joseph of Arimathea) who just happened to have his own newly hewn tomb nearby. Even still, there was barely enough time to place Yeshua in the tomb before the approaching evening which initiated the festival Sabbath of the Pharisees. Matt. 27‐60).]   though he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth.   (10) Yet it was the LORD’S [YHVH] will to crush [Heb. dacha, bruise, smite.]   him and cause him to suffer, and though the LORD [YHVH] makes his life an offering for sin, [The word “offering” is the Hebrew word asham – the very same word used in Lev. 5 for the “guilt offering” atonement for sin sacrificed at the Temple.]  he will see his offspring   [I.e. “will see posterity, future generations,” not “his offspring.” The word “his” is not in the Hebrew text nor in the Jewish Greek Septuagint. ]   and prolong his days,   and the will of the LORD [YHVH] will prosper in his hand.   (11) After he has suffered, he will see the light of life and be satisfied; [Here we have a Hebrew triplet. This is a Hebraism where the same concept is rephrased three times in three different ways. It provides clarity, reinforcement of the message, and emphasis. In preparation for this triplet, notice in the prior verses 8‐10 that the suffering servant (represented as “an offering for sin”—literally the Hebrew “asham”—the Temple’s “guilt sacrifice” of Lev. 5:6), then dies being “cut off from the land of the living,” and his grave is reassigned to a rich man’s tomb. Then, immediately following these references to his death, the three Hebrew triplet statements begin in succession starting in verse 10: namely, (a) he “sees posterity, future generations,” (b) “his days are prolonged,” and (c) “after he has suffered, he will see the light of life.” This Hebrew triplet points to life after death: namely, resurrection. ( the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls brought new information about this verse and “the light of life”).] by his knowledge my righteous servant will justify many, and he will bear their iniquities.   [This sentence (verse 11) establishes that the suffering servant of Isaiah 53 is specifically God’s “righteous servant.” Nowhere in Isaiah, nor within the entire Bible, is the nation Israel ever identified as “God’s righteous servant.” In fact, just the opposite! Throughout the prior chapters of Isaiah, it is important to note that Isaiah is building a sharp contrast between two different servants: namely, the servant nation of Israel who is lamented as God’s “wayward and disobedient servant”‐‐Isa. 42:17‐25; 43:22‐44:1; 21‐22; 48:1, 4‐5, 8‐10, 12, 18) contraposed to God’s “righteous Messiah servant” (42:1‐4; 52:13‐15; 53:1‐12) who does no violence (53:9), nor has any deceit in his mouth (53:9), who intercedes for his transgressors (53:12),  and whose vivid details throughout Isaiah 53 match the sacrificial mission of Yeshua). It is specifically this “righteous servant” who “bears the iniquities” of many as a “guilt offering” in order to effectuate their “justification” from the guilt of sin before God.]   (12) Therefore I will give him a portion among the great, and he will divide the spoils with the strong, because he poured out his life unto death, [Once again, this is another reference to resurrection of life after death for the suffering servant: namely, because he poured out his life unto death, therefore after his death he will ultimately be given “a portion among the great,” and “will divide the spoils.”]   and was numbered with the transgressors. [Corresponding to this servant, Yeshua was numbered with (or crucified between) two Roman criminals (John 19).]  For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.   [While Yeshua “bore humanity’s sin” on the cross, he prayed, making “intercession” to God for his transgressors and executioners: “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do” (Luke 23:34 KJV).]  

It is impressive that the above prophecy was written by Isaiah 700 years before the birth of Yeshua. This prophecy from Yesha’Yahu (Isaiah) was revealing that the Jewish sacrificial offerings were prophetic: that they ultimately pointed beyond the sacrificial animals to a person (Messiah) who would become “the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (John 1:29 NASB): namely, the (Heb.) asham—i.e.: the “guilt offering” for sin (Lev. 5:6).1

Beliefmap: 
Isaiah 53:2 prophesies that “He has no stately form or majesty.” This is relevant because Jesus too was seen merely as a poor sage, with a trivial pedigree, and coming from an unimportant town. He lacked the glory and trappings of royalty.

Relevant scriptures on Jesus's hometown include:
Matthew 13:55-57 -- Is not this the carpenter’s son? Is not His mother called Mary, and His brothers, James and Joseph and Simon and Judas? And His sisters, are they not all with us? Where then did this man get all these things?” And they took offense at Him. But Jesus said to them, “A prophet is not without honor except in his hometown and in his own household.”
John 1:45-46 --Philip found Nathanael and said to him, “We have found Him of whom Moses in the Law and also the Prophets wrote—Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” Nathanael said to him, “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.”

During his ministry, Jesus and his disciples depended entirely on the donations of others.
Matthew 10:9-11-- Do not acquire gold, or silver, or copper for your money belts, or a bag for your journey, or even two coats, or sandals, or a staff; for the worker is worthy of his support. And whatever city or village you enter, inquire who is worthy in it, and stay at his house until you leave that city.
Luke 9:58 -- And Jesus said to him, “Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.”

Isaiah 53:3 prophesies that “He was despised … we did not esteem him.” This represents a deep similarity between Jesus and the suffering servant because Jesus too was widely hated and rejected by the Jews.

Jn 19:14-15 -- And [Pilate] said to the Jews, “Behold, your King!” So they cried out, “Away with Him, away with Him, crucify Him!”

Several scriptures testify to the Jews' harsh rejection of Jesus (Mark 3:1-6, Luke 22:47-71). For example:
John 19:21 -- the Jews were saying to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews’”
John 8:48 -- The Jews answered and said to Him, “Do we not say rightly that You are a Samaritan and have a demon?” (See Matthew 12:22-24)
Luke 4:16-30 -- And He came to Nazareth,... And He said, “Truly I say to you, no prophet is welcome in his hometown ... they got up and drove Him out of the city, and led Him ... in order to throw Him down the cliff.
Luke 23:18-25 -- But they cried out all together, saying, “Away with this man [Jesus], and release for us Barabbas!” (He was one who had been thrown into prison for ... murder.) ... they were insistent, with loud voices asking that He be crucified. ... he released the man they were asking for who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, but he delivered Jesus to their will.

Isaiah 53:4 prophesies that “Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.” Since Jesus was also regarded as being under the curse of God, this is surely a specific and important connection.

We know Jesus was regarded as the subject of God's wrath because Jesus was crucified. This is relevant because anyone crucified was seen as being under the curse of God. The following scripture was applied by Jews to the crucified: Deuteronomy 21:23 -- his corpse shall not hang all night on the tree... For he who is hanged is accursed of God

Isaiah 53:5 says “But He was pierced through [wounded] for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him.” This is relevant because, like the suffering servant, Jesus was similarly wounded for our transgressions.

Jesus was crucified (Jn 19:16, cf. 20:25).
Acts 2:23 -- this Man, delivered over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you nailed to a cross
Colossians 2:14 -- He has taken [our sin debt] out of the way, having nailed it to the cross.

Isaiah 53:5 says “But He was pierced through for our transgressions,… for our iniquities … by His scourging, we are healed.” This impinges on our question for two reasons. First, the historical Jesus was also scourged. Second, at least in concept, through Jesus's crucifixion, we are also spiritually healed, and this is the kind of healing Isaiah 53 is referring to.

For reports on the historical scourging of Jesus:
Mark 15:15 -- Wishing to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas for them, and after having Jesus scourged, he handed Him over to be crucified.
Jn 19:1 -- Pilate then took Jesus and scourged Him.
Jesus, in concept, died in a way that provided a substitutionary atonement for the wicked. (For scriptures, see comments on v8.1 This is what brings the healing for us.
The focus is on spiritual healing because contextually the sickness is spiritual.
Isaiah 53:5 -- But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging, we are healed.

Isaiah 53:6 prophesies that “All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the Lord has caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him.” This is relevant because Jesus, at least in concept as understood by Christians, also died in a way that provided a substitutionary atonement for the wicked.

Isaiah 53:7 prophesies that “He was oppressed and He was afflicted, yet He did not open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, so He did not open His mouth.” This plays a role in our question because it also describes Jesus perfectly, in his affliction and in his acceptance of being slaughtered.1 (Similarly, for his being a lamb.)

Jesus remained silent when confronted and sentenced by Pilate and the chief priests (Mt 27:12-14; Mark 14:60-61; 15:4-5; John 19:8-9) as well as Herod (Luke 23:8-9). Jesus also turned himself over without a fight the night he was arrested.
Jn 1:29, 36 -- “lamb of God”; (cf. Ex 5:6 -- “Lamb… to slaughter”) Ps 44:22, Rev 5:6.
1 Peter 2:23 -- When they hurled their insults at him, he did not retaliate; when he suffered, he made no threats. Instead, he entrusted himself to Him who judges justly.

Isaiah 53:8 prophesies that “He was cut off out of the land of the living For the transgression of my people, to whom the stroke was due?” This is relevant because Jesus also was executed by crucifixion, and this was regarded as involving God's judgment, being a substitutionary atonement for the transgressions of sinners everywhere.

Isaiah 53:8 says “He was cut off out of the land of the living For the transgression of my people, to whom the stroke was due?” This matters because Jesus too was seen as a substitutionary sacrifice for the transgressions of the guilty.

Scriptures that expound on the substitutionary nature of Jesus's deed include:
1 Peter 2:22 -- and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed.
1 Peter 3:18 -- For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit;
2 Corinthians 5:21 -- He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
Galatians 3:10 -- For as many as are of the works of the Law are under a curse; for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who does not abide by all things written in the book of the law, to perform them.”

Isaiah 53:10 prophesies that “He would render Himself as a guilt offering.” The importance of this verse is that that Jesus's death was precisely understood this way, as a guilt offering.

Bernd Jandowski translates this as “the means of wiping out guilt,”
Bernd Jandowski: “there is no mention of the blood of the Servant, nor is the Servant seen in the role of a sacrificial animal ritually slaughtered by a priestly official.” Instead “The term comes... from contexts in which--as in Genesis 26:10 and 1 Samuel 6:3-4, 9, 18 etc.---guilt-incurring encroachments and their reparation of the theme.” [“He Bore Our Sins: Isaiah 53 and the Drama of Taking Another's Place,” in Suffering Servant, 65.]

But consider two points in response.
The guilt offering was also about guilt-incurring encroachments and their reparation. (for example, “guilt offering" in 1 Sam 6), The point is that the servant serves a substitutionary role.

Isaiah 53:10 says the Servant is sinless. This is relevant because Jesus too was sinless (at least according to tradition). [Note: If one wants to loosen this to being extremely righteous, as Jewish interpretors occasionally want to do (for no good reason), then Jesus fulfills that criterion as well.]

The implication that the servant is sinless comes from multiple points:
The servant is a “guilt offering” which refers to an unblemished lamb. In Hebrew though, blemishes represented uncleanliness and sin, and by contrast, being unblemished signified cleanliness and being free of sin.
The Servant is described as righteous.
The servant reportedly “had done no violence, Nor was there any deceit in His mouth.” Such humility and honesty is characteristic of one innocent and sinless, and calls to mind the “unblemished” guilt offering requirement.

Jesus fits the context of Isaiah 53, fitting Isaiah 42:4,1 and 49:1-7,2 and 50:4-8.3 The coincidences really start to stack up.

Isaiah 42:4 -- “He will not be disheartened or crushed Until He has established justice in the earth; And the coastlands will wait expectantly for His law.” This is relevant because through Christ's church ("the body of Christ"), justice, liberty, rights, equality, and fairness have flourished all over the world in a way unseen in history. The remotest “coastlands” on the Earth are experiencing the spread of this and turning to Christ.

Isaiah 49:1-7 -- Listen to Me, O islands, And pay attention, you peoples from afar.The Lord called Me from the womb;From the body of My mother He named Me.2 He has made My mouth like a sharp sword,In the shadow of His hand He has concealed Me;And He has also made Me a select arrow,He has hidden Me in His quiver.3 He said to Me, “You are My Servant, Israel,In Whom I will show My glory.”4 But I said, “I have toiled in vain,I have spent My strength for nothing and vanity;Yet surely the justice due to Me is with the Lord,And My reward with My God.”5 And now says the Lord, who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant,To bring Jacob back to Him, so that Israel might be gathered to Him(For I am honored in the sight of the Lord,And My God is My strength),6 He says, “It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved ones of Israel;I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth.”7 Thus says the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel and its Holy One,To the despised One,To the One abhorred by the nation,To the Servant of rulers,“Kings will see and arise,Princes will also bow down,Because of the Lord who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel who has chosen You.” This is relevant for several reasons. For example, Jesus too, having been rejected at first by his fellow Jews ("abhorred by the nation"), would say “I have toiled in vain.... Yet surely the justice due to me is with the LORD” and yet also ultimately triumphs, being “a light ot the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth.”

Isaiah 50:4-8 -- The Lord God has opened My ear; And I was not disobedient Nor did I turn back. I gave My back to those who strike Me, And My cheeks to those who pluck out the beard; I did not cover My face from humiliation and spitting. For the Lord helps Me, Therefore, I am not disgraced; Therefore, I have set My face like flint, And I know that I will not be ashamed. He who vindicates Me is near; [Who is among you... obeys the voice of His servant...?] This is relevant for several reasons. For example, Jesus too righteously turned the other cheek and was harassed, spit on, and humiliated on the cross. Jesus too yet was vindicated by God through Jesus's resurrection, and the flourishing of salvation from him.

A. Fruchtenbaum (2010): In Isaiah 52:13-15, God is doing the speaking. He is calling the attention of all to the Suffering Servant. God declares that his Servant will act wisely and his actions will gain him a position of glory. God further states that his Servant will suffer, but this suffering will eventually gain the silent attention of world rulers when they begin to understand the purpose of his suffering. The Servant will be terribly disfigured but will in the end save many. After God has thus drawn the attention of the people to his Servant, the people now respond in 53:1-9. In verses 1-3 they confess their non-recognition of the Servant in his person and calling. In verse 1 they claim to be surprised at what they had just learned from the three preceding verses. In verse 2, they note that at the time that the Servant was with them, there did not seem to be anything special about him. His childhood and growth were no different than those of others. He was not particularly charismatic in his personality that it would attract men to him. His outward features were hardly unique. On the contrary, verse 3 points out that the opposite was true. Instead of drawing the people to him, he was despised and rejected by men in general. He was a man of sorrows, acquainted with personal grief. His rejection was not merely passive; it was active, and the people did their best to avoid him.

In verses 4-6, the people confess that at the time of his suffering, they considered his suffering to be the punishment of God for his own sins. Now, however, they acknowledge that the Servant's suffering was vicarious: He suffered for the sins of the people and not for his own sins. The people confess that it was they who went astray; they each one had gone their own selfish ways, and the punishment of their sins was laid upon the Servant of Jehovah. This
passage, then, is a confession of a change of attitude on the part of the people toward the Servant as they recognized the true nature of his sufferings. The severe judgment which the Servant had suffered led the people to form an opinion of him, since his suffering seemed to mark him out as a special victim of Jehovah's anger. But now confession is made concerning the reversal of this opinion, which marks the beginning of repentance.

In verse 4 those who formerly misunderstood and despised the Servant on account of his miserable condition now are better instructed. They now recognize that the Servant of Jehovah was vicariously suffering for them and took upon himself what was actually due to them. They confess that his sufferings were of an altogether different nature from what they had supposed. They are now bearing witness against themselves, lamenting their former blindness to the mediatorial and vicarious character of the deep agonies of body and soul that were involved in the suffering. The error being confessed is that they had considered his sufferings as a punishment for sins he himself had committed.

In verse 5 the people confess that the vicarious suffering of the Servant of Jehovah resulted in reconciliation and spiritual healing. This verse penetrates more deeply into the meaning of the Servant's sufferings, seeing the connection between his passion and their sins. The connection is two-fold: Chastisement for Our Sins—suffering was the penalty for the people's transgression; Means of Reconciliation—it was the remedy by which the people are
restored to spiritual health. It was for the sins of the people that he was suffering and not for his own sins.

In verse 6 the people confess that the necessity of the sufferings spoken of in the preceding verses was that the people were so wholly estranged from God that substitution was required for reconciliation. They had strayed and selfishly sought their own way; yet Jehovah laid their sins on the Servant. Thus the people confess with penitence that they have long mistaken him whom God has sent to them for their good, even when they had gone astray to
their own ruin. In verses 7-9 the Prophet appears to be doing the speaking as he describes and details the sufferings of the Servant that lead to his death. In verse 7, the Servant is pictured as humbly submitting himself to unjust treatment. He does not speak a word in his own defense. He suffers quietly, never crying out against the injustice done to him.

In verse 8 we find the death of the Servant of Jehovah. Here we are told that after a judicial trial and judgment, he was taken away for execution. The Servant of Jehovah was being executed for the sins of the Prophet's own people, who were the ones who deserved the judgment of judicial execution. But no one seemed to realize the holy purpose of God in this event. Verse 8 is the key verse to the entire passage, in that we learn that this was a sentence of death pronounced in a court of law and then executed. This verse clearly states that he did not deserve the death. Those for whom he was dying never realized the true reason for his death. But, as verses 4-6 have related, they assumed he was dying for his own sins.

In verse 9, the burial of the Servant of Jehovah is described. After his death, those who executed him assigned a criminal's grave for him along with other criminals. A criminal is what they considered him to be, and that is the way he was executed. Yet he would be buried in a rich man's tomb! This is true poetic justice, since in actuality the Servant had done nothing wrong, nor was there anything wrong in his character.

In verses 10-12 we have the results of the sufferings and death of the Servant of Jehovah. These results in the end are very beneficial. In verse 10 it is recorded how God was pleased to allow the Servant to suffer and die. This was the means by which God was going to make the atonement for the people. The death of the Servant was an offering for the sins of the people. The ones who had gone astray and sinned would now be forgiven on the basis of the death of the Servant, for by his substitutionary death he provided the atonement for the people. God punished the Servant in the place of the people and thus the sins of the people were atoned for. This verse further states that the Servant will see his posterity and his days will be prolonged. How can that be if the Servant is killed? The only way that this would be possible is by means of resurrection. So the pleasure of the Lord, the verse concludes, will continue to prosper in his hand, for he will live again because of his resurrection.

Verse 11 declares that God will be satisfied with the work of the Servant. The Servant of Jehovah dies a substitutionary death for the sins of the people. The question now is: "Will God accept this substitution?" And the answer is yes. For God will see the sufferings and death of the Servant, and his justice will be satisfied. Therefore God can make the next statement, that because of his vicarious suffering and death, the righteous Servant will justify many. To justify means to declare righteous. So the Servant who suffered and died and is now resurrected will be able to make many righteous. The people who were sinners and could do nothing because of separation from God will be able to be made righteous by the Servant. This verse concludes by telling us how this is possible: The Servant bears their sins. Their sins are put on the Servant's account, and the account is considered paid in full by the Servant's blood. So God declares that his righteous Servant will cause many to be justified in the knowledge of himself, for he will bear their sins.

Verse 12 records that the Servant will be tremendously and greatly blessed by God in the end above all others. The reasons for this are given in the verse. First of all, he willingly and voluntarily suffered and died. Second, he was humble enough to allow others to consider him a sinner and to consider him as suffering and dying for his own sins. However, third, he actually "Bore the sins of many." For the many who are justified and made righteous are so only because he has put their sins on his account. Fourth and finally, the Servant makes intercession and pleads to God on behalf of the sinners. This, essentially, is the summary of what the content of the passage is.

If the servant is taken to be Israel, logically then the people referred to in the passage are the Gentiles. If the servant is Messiah, then the people are Israel, the Jewish people. Until Rashi, all Jewish theology taught that this passage referred to the Messiah. Since Rashi, most of rabbinical theology has taught that it refers to Israel. If the passage is taken literally and read simply, it speaks of a single individual. 3

Dr. J. B. Doukhan (2012) With Isa 53, Dan 9 shares especially the common idea of a redeemer whose suffering and death mean atonement for the iniquity of the people. Both passages use the same association of three technical words for “iniquity” (ht’ “sin,” ‘awon “iniquity,” pesha‘ “transgression;” Dan 9:24; Isa 53:4–5; cf. Isa 43:24; see above). Both passages allude to the royal origin of this Messiah. In Isa 53, this allusion is given through the usage of the technical word “my servant” (‘abdi), which is one of the most frequent titles for David (see above). In Dan 9 the same allusion is provided through the usage of the technical word nagid (“prince”), which is often used in the Bible to characterize the anointed Davidic king (2 Sam 5:2; 6:21; 7:8; 1 Kgs 1:35; 1 Kgs 14:7; 16:2, etc.)34; in the book of Isaiah the word nagid (“prince”) designates specifically the ideal eschatological Davidic king (Isa 55:3–4), through whom an everlasting covenant will be made and nations will be reached (cf. Isa 52:15). Lastly, the two passages describe in similar language the universal effect of the coming of the Messiah. The same expression larabbim (“to the many”) with the same preposition la (“to the”) is used. In Dan 9:27, the Messiah will confirm (Hiphil form) a covenant “with the many;” likewise in Isa 53:11, the Suffering Servant will bring justification (Hiphil form) to the many (rabim). 4

An Offering to Make


John Goldingay (2014): A feature of this postscript is that the prophet moves to speaking of himself in the third person: “Who among you is in awe of Yahweh, listens to the voice of his servant?” (Is 50:10). He comes back to this third-person way of speaking in the most famous of the passages about Yahweh’s servant: Isaiah 52:13–53:12. I assume, in other words, that he continues to speak about himself here, though the theological significance of the passage is not affected if it was written about him by someone else, or if it is his vision of some other unidentified person being attacked and vindicated. In this vision, Yahweh’s servant has been attacked and is as good as dead, but the vision begins by declaring that this servant is going to be vindicated. The account of the rejection and persecution that has already happened goes over again what we know from the earlier testimonies but portrays it more vividly. The servant has been repudiated and attacked by people. They believed that he was being punished by God. He was a false prophet and he got what he deserved. But they have now come to realize that this assessment must be wrong, and it seems that the key factor in this realization was the way he coped with their attacks—the fact that he did not attack them back. If he did not deserve the persecution that was being meted out to him, then one significance of what was happening was that he was suffering with them when he did not deserve to do so. They deserved to be in exile; he was a person like Jeremiah or Ezekiel, who had been faithful to Yahweh but shared in the suffering of exile when he did not deserve it. Another significance of what was happening was that he was suffering for them in the sense that he was paying the price for ministering to them, despite the fact that they attacked him. But there was something else. He knew that they really needed to be able to make an offering to God to compensate for their unfaithfulness, but precisely because of their unfaithfulness, they had nothing to offer. But the fact that he didn’t deserve his persecution yet was willing to accept it meant it might be a sort of offering he could make to God on their behalf. He could make himself, in his suffering, an offering to God on their behalf, instead of them. You might think that a single person’s self-offering could hardly compensate for a whole people’s rebellion, but the basis on which offerings worked was never that the offering was quantitatively equivalent (on the Day of Atonement a goat stood for the entire people). And one offering of commitment and self-sacrifice on the part of a member of the people might possibly compensate for the people’s rebellion. So he bore “the punishment that made us whole” (Is 53:5). The idea is thus not that God was a judge who was exacting a punishment from his servant instead of from the people. Possibly the idea is that the punishment that the Babylonians and/or Judahites meted out to him was what brought šālȏm to them. But the word for “punishment” is not a word that is ever used for the action of a court. It is more a word that belongs in the context of family life (most of the occurrences are in Proverbs). It denotes chastisement or discipline. The servant was going through the kind of punishing regimen that is often involved in an athlete’s training, not to make him fit but to make them fit. “It was because of my people’s rebellion that
the blow fell on him” (Is 53:8 ). But that will not be the end of the story. In this vision the persecution has happened, and it looks as if it might be the end of the story; the prophet might simply die as a martyr. His grave has been allocated for him. But death will not be the end. He will either be delivered at the last minute or raised from death (there are a number of Old Testament stories about God raising someone from death, so this idea is not inconceivable). One way or the other he will then come to be recognized by the world as well as by his own people. The most striking description of this vindication is that he will receive an extraordinary anointing (Is 52:14).One can see how the chapter came to help people understand Jesus’ significance. It is common to note that the atonement has an objective side and a subjective side—that is, it makes a difference to God and to us. The prophet’s self-sacrifice has both aspects. The prophet reaches out to God with an offering on the people’s behalf (on the basis of God’s having given him the chance to do so). The prophet also reaches out to the people and to the world and draws them to acknowledge God. 5

Who Has Believed Our Message? - Isaiah 53:1-3


Arnold Fruchtenbaum: The second strophe points out that Israel had heard the report of the Messianic Servant in verse 1: Who has believed our message? and to whom has the arm of Jehovah been revealed?

Although they had heard the report, they had not believed it and had not recognized who the arm of Jehovah really was. This verse emphasizes Israel's lengthy period of unbelief even though they had heard of this Messianic Person for a long time.

The humanity of the Servant is spoken of in verse 2: For he grew up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he has no form nor comeliness; and when we see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him.

His humanity is seen in four ways. First, he grew up before him as a tender plant. The word for plant here means “a suckling.” It is a tender twig that grows on a trunk or branch and draws life from it. In fact, men often cut off sucklings because they draw life from the tree and kill it. The point is that as He was growing up and developing, He was sometimes looked upon as merely a suckling, something that needed to be cut off. Secondly, He was a root out of a dry ground. This phrase emphasizes the lowly condition in which the Servant would appear. This is a point Isaiah made earlier in Isaiah 11:1, which was fulfilled when Jesus was born into a poverty stricken family. Thirdly, He had no form or comeliness, meaning He had no outward, physical beauty. All those handsome portraits of Yeshua are dead wrong. Every one of those portraits is a figment of someone else's imagination and, invariably, they contradict the Scriptural portrait of Him. In the Scriptures, Jesus is not seen as someone who was physically beautiful or handsome. Isaiah re-emphasizes this point with the fourth phrase: when we see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. The point is that, from a human perspective, He was more on the ugly side. Nothing about His outward features would attract men to Him.

How the Servant was despised is described in verse 3: He was despised, and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and as one from whom men hide their face he was despised; and we esteemed him not.

Five statements are made in this verse. First: He was despised, and rejected of men. The Hebrew word for men means “men of rank” or “leaders”; He was rejected by the leadership of Israel. The same word is used of Him in an earlier Servant of Jehovah passage, Isaiah 49:7. Secondly, He was a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief. The term a man of sorrows means “a man of pain.” The term acquainted with grief means that He was knowledgeable of diseases. He was confronted with diseases, a product of the fall, and was able to heal those who came to Him with these diseases. Thirdly: and as one from whom men hide their face. Verse 2 stated that He had no outward, physical beauty and, in fact, men were not drawn to Him, for He tended to be on the ugly side. Verse 4 adds that, not only did He not attract men to Him because of His outward features, men were repulsed by those features to some degree. The reason people were attracted to Yeshua was because of His message, His works, and because they felt the love He had for them, not because of His outward features. Fourthly: he was despised, repeating the starting line of the verse. And fifth: we esteemed him not. There is common Hebrew phrase for Him, which translates into English, “may His name and memory be blotted out.” In many of the older Jewish writings, He was often referred to as the “hanged one” or more simply as “that man.” Indeed, Israel did not esteem Him.

3. Surely He Has Borne Our Griefs, And Carried Our Sorrows - Isaiah 53:4-6


Having summarized His humiliation and exaltation, and then having dealt with His basic human development and how He was despised during His life, in this third strophe, Isaiah deals with the concept of substitution.

The substitutionary suffering of the Servant of Jehovah is spoken of in verse 4: Surely he has borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows; yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.

Isaiah uses the plural pronoun our twice in this verse, to emphasize that His suffering was substitutionary. The Servant took upon Himself our sicknesses and our pains. In the Scriptures, the word “sickness” could be used in a physical or spiritual sense or both. While Jesus was here on earth, He healed a great amount of physical sickness as part of His messianic credentials. He healed all those that actually came to Him and, for this reason, Matthew quoted this verse (Mat. 8:16-17). This will be true again when He returns. The presence of the Messiah always carries with it greater advantages than His absence. But the fact that Yeshua physically healed all those who came to Him while He was present carries no such guarantee now that He is absent. The main purpose of His coming was to deal with the issue of sin and this is the central point of this passage. It is written in the context of sin and how the Messiah will deal with it. The sickness is the spiritual sickness that He came to heal by dealing with the root cause: the issue of sin.

Secondly: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. This phrase states that when Israel looked upon His sufferings, they assumed He was suffering for His own sins; that His suffering was a punishment from God. The Hebrew word translated as stricken is a word that means, “to be stricken with something that is shocking, ” “stricken with a hateful disease.” They looked upon Him as having been smitten of God with a very terrible disease. This is why we know that the word “disease” is being used in a spiritual, not a physical sense. Yeshua did not die of a physical disease. He died by execution by means of crucifixion. In this verse, the execution of Jesus was looked upon as having been smitten with a shocking and hateful disease. The disease could not be physical, simply because Yeshua did not die of a disease. The disease here must be a spiritual disease, meaning sin. They believed that He was a sinner, a transgressor. They believed He was suffering for His own sins. In reality, He was suffering for their sins. Hence, Jesus did die of a disease–not physical, but spiritual. The sins of the world were placed on Him and, because of and for these sins, He died. In that sense, Yeshua did die of a disease. In this context, the “diseases” that Jesus took upon Himself were spiritual, not physical.

Whereas in verse 4, there was substitutionary suffering, there is substitutionary death in verse 5: But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.

Four statements are made concerning His substitutionary death. First: he was wounded for our transgressions. The Hebrew word for wounded means “to pierce through.” It always refers to a violent death, not just a slight flesh wound. Why was He pierced through? It was for our transgressions. The transgressions of verse 5 are the “diseases” of verse 4, and once again speaks of spiritual disease; that is, sins. Secondly: he was bruised for our iniquities. The Hebrew word for bruised means “to be crushed.” He was crushed because of our iniquities. Thirdly: the chastisement of our peace was upon him. Literally, the Hebrew reads “the punishment which leads to peace was upon him.” His substitutionary death will lead to personal peace. His suffering was necessary to bring about spiritual peace for those who believe. Fourthly: with his stripes we are healed. The word stripes refers to welts that are raised on the skin, as a natural result of scourging. The word healed refers to the healing of spiritual sickness, not physical sickness; just as the previous phrases dealt with spiritual sickness, not physical sicknesses. It should be pointed out that Matthew 8:16-17 is only an application and not an exact fulfillment, for at the time that the events of Matthew 8:16-17 were taking place, Yeshua had not yet suffered any of the things in this strophe, though it is by these things that the healing comes.

Israel's condition is described in verse 6: All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and Jehovah has laid on him the iniquity of us all.

Israel's condition is described in three ways. First: All we like sheep have gone astray. Secondly: we have turned every one to his own way. Thirdly: Jehovah has laid on him the iniquity of us all. This verse emphasizes the necessity for the suffering of verse 4 and the death of verse 5. He suffered and died because of Israel's straying, Israel's turning away. He had to suffer for the iniquity of all Israel. The Hebrew word iniquity includes three elements: first, the transgression itself; secondly, the guilt incurred as a result of committing the transgression; and thirdly, the punishment incurred because of the guilt. Upon the Messiah was laid the transgression, the guilt, and the punishment for it. This passage is applied to Jesus in I Peter 2:21-25.

4. He Was Oppressed, Yet When He Was Afflicted He Opened Not His Mouth - Isaiah 53:7-9


The fourth strophe picks up with the Servant's sufferings and death, deals with the oppression and afflictions of the Messiah, and terminates with His burial.

The silence of the Servant in the midst of His suffering is described in verse 7: He was oppressed, yet when he was afflicted he opened not his mouth; as a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and as a sheep that before its shearers is dumb, so he opened not his mouth.

He was oppressed; He was afflicted; yet He opened not His mouth in any protest. As a lamb led to the slaughter, as a sheep is silent before its shearers he opened not his mouth. He was totally passive in the face of His tormentors. In the midst of the tremendous sufferings described in verses 4-6, verse 7 states that He was silent as He underwent all that suffering and death. It does not mean that He did not say anything. Yeshua did make statements during His affliction and on the cross. But He did not rail against His tormentors. He did not voice opposition. He did not voice dissent and protest against what was being done to Him. He suffered these things quite willingly in keeping with a previous Servant passage, Isaiah 50:4-9. All four gospel writers emphasize the fact that He suffered in silence: Matthew 26:62- 63; 27:12-14; Mark 14:60-61; 15:3-5; Luke 23:8-9; and John 19:10.

The trial and death of the Servant are dealt with in verse 8: By oppression and judgment he was taken away; and as for his generation, who among them considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living for the transgression of my people to whom the stroke was due?

The trial is found in verse 8a: By oppression and judgment he was taken away. The word for judgment refers to a judicial judgment, a judgment resulting from a trial. According to this phrase, He was tried in a court of law, found guilty, and sentenced to death.

His death is described in verse 8b: as for his generation, who among them considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living for the transgression of my people to whom the stroke was due?

Four points need to be noted in this part of the verse. First: as for his generation who among them considered. The generation is the generation of Jesus' day, for that was the Jewish generation that rejected His Messiahship. Again, verses 1-9 contain Israel's national confession, a confession Israel will make in the closing three days of the Great Tribulation, just preceding the Second Coming. As the Jewish generation of the Tribulation will look back to the time of His First Coming, they will ask the question: as for his generation, who among them considered? This is the same generation that the Gospel of Matthew emphasized over and over again with the phrase this generation. This generation of Jesus' day rejected His messianic claims on the basis of demon possession and, therefore, committed the unpardonable sin (Mat. 12:22-45). The generation of Isaiah 53:8 is the generation of Matthew 12.

Secondly: he was cut off out of the land of the living. To be cut off means “to die a violent death.” To be cut off was also the specific legal penalty for violating the Law of Moses. In other words, He was cut off by execution. He was cut off by suffering the legal punishment of the Law. He was cut off, died a violent death, not because someone had merely attacked Him on the street, but He died a violent death as a penalty under the Law. He was executed in the legal sense. Indeed, when Yeshua died, He died under the penalty of the Law, specifically, Roman law, since Jews did not practice crucifixion. He was condemned to death by a Jewish court for blasphemy. He was then condemned to death by a Roman court. He was then executed on the basis of sedition and rebellion against Rome. When Jesus died, He took upon Himself the legal penal execution. It was a penal substitutionary atonement. The penalty He took upon Himself was the penalty of the Law of Moses.

Thirdly: for the transgression of my people. The term my people can only be the people of Israel. He was cut off for the transgression of my people. This statement points at why He died a violent death. He was executed because of violation of the Law of Moses, not because He had violated the Law, but because Israel had violated the Law. When he was cut off out of the land of the living it was for the transgression of my people. It was for the sins of Israel. It was substitutionary death. This verse is the background to Matthew 1:21, where the angel appeared to Joseph and said: You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he that shall save his people from their sin. The his people of Matthew 1:21 are the my people of Isaiah 53:8; that is, the people of Israel.

Fourthly, Isaiah states: to whom the stroke was due to re emphasize that the Messiah, the Servant, was not killed because of anything He had done, but was cut off out of the land of the living for the transgression of Israel to whom the stroke was due. It should have fallen on Israel. It is Israel that should have been destroyed. But by means of substitution, the stroke fell upon the Servant. Indeed, Yeshua took upon Himself the penalty of the Law, so the stroke fell upon Him, rather than upon Israel. This verse is quoted as applying to Jesus in Acts 8:33.

The burial of the Servant is spoken of in verse 9: And they made his grave with the wicked, and with a rich man in his death; although he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.

This verse would be contradictory without New Testament revelation. The statement: they made his grave with the wicked points out that, since He died a criminal's death, He was assigned a criminal's burial. This was standard practice. If a person was executed under penalty of the Law, he would be buried in an area of the cemetery that was reserved for criminals. His executioners had already assigned Him a grave with the wicked. A hole had already been dug in the criminal section of the cemetery. But God intervened. Isaiah goes on to state: and with a rich man in his death. Nevertheless, by divine justice, He was buried in a rich man's tomb. There were two reasons for this. First, he had done no violence, which refers to outward sin. Secondly, there was not any deceit in his mouth, which refers to inward sin. He was not guilty of either outward or inward sin. His suffering and death were substitutionary. God the Father would not permit Him to be buried in a criminal's grave, but rather, He was buried in a rich man's tomb. So at the very point of His humiliation by death, came the first stage of His exaltation by being buried in a new, unused, rich man's tomb. The fulfillment of this is found in Matthew 27:57-60; Mark 15:42-46; Luke 23:50-54; and John 19:38-42. The confession of Israel ended with verse 9.

5. Yet it Pleased Jehovah To Bruise Him; He Has Put Him To Grief - Isaiah 53:10-12


The fifth strophe details the theological implications and significances of the suffering and death of the Servant, introduced by Isaiah 52:13-15 and described in 53:1-9.

Although in verses 1-9 the Messiah's suffering seemed to be at the hands of men, verse 10 states who was actually in control: Yet it pleased Jehovah to bruise him; he has put him to grief: when you shall make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of Jehovah shall prosper in his hand.

Six statements should be noted in this verse. First: Yet it pleased Jehovah to bruise him. It was God's will. God was pleased to see the Messiah the Servant bruised. The Hebrew word is much stronger than merely bruise; it means, “to crush.” He was totally crushed (v. 5). The word for pleased means that it was God's specific will; it fulfilled His plan.

Secondly: he has put him to grief. The Hebrew word for grief is the same word used earlier that was translated as “disease.” This phrase means that He had put Him to disease. Once again, it is evident that the word “disease” is not used in a physical sense, but in a spiritual sense, a spiritual disease. Yeshua died as an atonement for sin. When He died physically, He died by crucifixion, not by disease. Yet this verse states that God diseased Him. Did Jesus die by a physical disease? In no way! He died by crucifixion. But why did He die by crucifixion? He died by crucifixion because He was dying for the sins of others. Because sin is spiritual sickness, in that sense, God “diseased” the Messiah in that He placed the sins of the world upon Him. He died by a spiritual sickness in that He died because of sin; not His own sin, but our sin. Though various groups like to use this passage to teach physical healing, that is not what this passage is dealing with. In order to be consistent with the usage of the words throughout the passage, the text cannot be speaking of physical disease and sickness, but spiritual.

Thirdly: when you shall make his soul an offering for sin spells out the purpose of His death; His death was an offering for sin. The Hebrew word for offering means “a trespass offering.” He died because of Israel's trespass: violation of the Law of Moses.

The fourth statement is: he shall see his seed. This is another seeming contradiction. How could He see the product and the result of His death and burial? Those who are his seed are those who will benefit from His death. By spiritual rebirth, they become His spiritual children, his seed. According to verses 7-9, the Servant Messiah died and was buried. The answer to the question is that the only way this would be possible is by means of resurrection. So this phrase is a very strong implication that He will be raised from the dead. This was already implied in Isaiah 52:13, which stated: he shall be exalted and lifted up. Here is a second clear implication that even after death and burial, He will live again to see his seed. How is it possible for Him to see his seed? Only if He is resurrected from the dead.

The fifth statement adds to the fourth one: he shall prolong his days. If He were dead and buried, how could He prolong His days? The only way possible is if He is resurrected from the dead. So, for the third time, resurrection is implied.

The sixth statement is: the pleasure of Jehovah shall prosper in his hand. The word pleasure means that God will be pleased by the accomplishments of the death of the Servant. Because the death of the Messiah will accomplish the divine purpose for the atonement is the reason He will be resurrected. Therefore, the verse goes on to state that He shall prosper. Isaiah 52:13 stated: Behold, my servant shall deal wisely, or shall prosper or succeed, and it is reiterated here: He will succeed. His death was not a failure. It is a tremendous success. It did accomplish the purpose for which He died. It did bring the atonement.

The death of the Messiah results in justification in verse 11: He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by the knowledge of himself shall my righteous servant justify many; and he shall bear their iniquities.

Three statements are made in this verse. First: He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied. God will be satisfied by the death of His Servant. His death is a substitutionary death for sin; it was a sin offering that was accepted by God the Father. This is the meaning of propitiation. The second statement is; by the knowledge of himself shall my righteous servant justify many. More literally, the Hebrew reads, “by the knowledge of Him.” In other words, justification will come to those who have a knowledge of the Servant. The Hebrew word for knowledge refers to experiential knowledge. Those who have an experiential knowledge of this Servant will be the ones who will be justified by the Servant. To have an experiential knowledge is to believe and accept His substitutionary death for our sins. The third statement is for those who will own Him: he shall bear their iniquities.

The Servant will be rewarded in verse 12: Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he poured out his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors: yet he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

Therefore, because of everything the Servant did in verses 1-11, He will be greatly rewarded. In the Messianic Kingdom, the Servant will inherit all the kingdoms of the world and will divide a portion and the spoil. The terms the great and the strong refer to his seed who have been justified in the previous verse. The seed that has been justified during this dispensation will share in the rewards of the Kingdom in the next dispensation. Those who are justified because of their faith in the Servant are going to divide the spoil in the Kingdom and have a place of authority. Four more reasons are then given why the Servant will be rewarded: first, he poured out his soul unto death; secondly, He was numbered with the transgressors; thirdly, he bore the sin of many; and fourthly, He made intercession for the transgressors. This re emphasizes the substitutionary nature of His suffering and death. This verse is quoted and applied to Yeshua in Luke 22:37.

The fact that the Servant was going to suffer was spelled out on several occasions, but the great burden of chapter 53 has been to give the reason why the Messiah will suffer. He will suffer by way of substitution. The concept of substitutionary sacrifice and death is stated nine times: four times in verse 5, and once in verses 6, 8, 10, 11, and 12.

AMANDA BORSCHEL-DAN  (2018) A tiny clay piece may be the first-ever proof of the prophet, though a missing letter leaves room for doubt

Confirming Yeshua - Page 2 Sem_tz80

Confirming Yeshua - Page 2 Sem_tz81

The hand of the Prophet Isaiah himself may have created an 8th century BCE seal impression discovered in First Temple remains near Jerusalem’s Temple Mount, according to Hebrew University archaeologist Dr. Eilat Mazar.
“We appear to have discovered a seal impression, which may have belonged to the prophet Isaiah, in a scientific, archaeological excavation,” said Mazar this week in a press release announcing the breathtaking discovery.
Mazar’s team uncovered the minuscule bulla, or seal impression, during renewed excavations at the Ophel, located at the foot of the southern wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The discovery was published on Wednesday in an article, “Is This the Prophet Isaiah’s Signature?” as part of a massive March-June issue of the Biblical Archaeology Review dedicated to its recently retired founding editor, Hershel Shanks. 1
The hand of the Prophet Isaiah himself may have created an 8th century BCE seal impression discovered in First Temple remains near Jerusalem’s Temple Mount, according to Hebrew University archaeologist Dr. Eilat Mazar.
“We appear to have discovered a seal impression, which may have belonged to the prophet Isaiah, in a scientific, archaeological excavation,” said Mazar this week in a press release announcing the breathtaking discovery.
Mazar’s team uncovered the minuscule bulla, or seal impression, during renewed excavations at the Ophel, located at the foot of the southern wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The discovery was published on Wednesday in an article, “Is This the Prophet Isaiah’s Signature?” as part of a massive March-June issue of the Biblical Archaeology Review dedicated to its recently retired founding editor, Hershel Shanks.
The clay impression is inscribed with letters and what appears to be a grazing doe, “a motif of blessing and protection found in Judah, particularly in Jerusalem,” according to the BAR article.

1. Mark Niyr: The Turin Shroud: Physical Evidence of Life After Death? (With Insights from a Jewish Perspective) 2020
2. Beliefmap: Is the Isaiah 53 prophecy fulfilled by Jesus?
3. A. Fruchtenbaum: Jesus Was A Jew February 1, 2010
4. Dr. Jacques B. Doukhan: ON THE WAY TO EMMAUS Five Major Messianic Prophecies Explained 2012
5. John Goldingay: The theology of the book of Isaiah 2014 
6.  Arnold



Last edited by Otangelo on Tue Feb 21, 2023 9:40 pm; edited 6 times in total

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27Confirming Yeshua - Page 2 Empty How did Jesus look like? Wed Dec 21, 2022 7:20 pm

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How did Jesus look like?

The only description, we find in  Isaiah 53.2 says: He had no form or majesty that we should look at him, and no beauty that we should desire him. Maybe that refers to Jesus after he was tortured. Joan E. Taylor (2018) writes in her book: What did Jesus look like:  When Jesus is brought in front of those who accuse him, Pontius Pilate – the Roman governor in charge of Judaea – bids them: ‘Behold the man!’ (John 19:5). At that point Jesus has been whipped, and is mockingly dressed in a crown of thorns and a purple mantle, and that is the most we ever get of a description of him: an impression of a tortured, mocked and humiliated man, the very opposite of glory.

Taylor continues: Jesus Christ is arguably the most famous man who ever lived. His image adorns countless churches, icons, and paintings. He is the subject of millions of statues, sculptures, devotional objects, and works of art. Everyone can conjure an image of Jesus: But what did Jesus really look like?  Jesus: he is the most painted figure in all of the world art, identifiable everywhere. Everyone knows Jesus: he is the most painted figure in all of world art, identifiable everywhere. In film epics Jesus appears in the same way: from the 1902 silent movie, The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ to the Bible miniseries Son of God (2013) Jesus invariably has the recognizable long hair and beard, and the long robe with baggy sleeves. In modern film and dramatized documentaries there is a preference for Jesus to wear a poorly made long tunic and baggy coat in earthy hues, as visualized in Franco Zeffirelli’s influential film Jesus of Nazareth (1977, but this still retains the shape and styling of Jesus’ clothing we are familiar with. The image of Jesus is literally iconic. Thousands of paintings and icons present his face, form and clothing.  However, this image of Jesus was not available to those who used the Gospels in the very first centuries. Preaching from the Gospels to make converts, the earliest missionaries could not provide a mental image of the physical appearance of Christ from these texts. People could apparently imagine Jesus any way they wanted. 1

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Doing a google search: Jesus, the first image that showed up was the following below:

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One of the most popular models of Jesus is a painting done by Warner Sallman in 1940 (Figure above). In this depiction, Jesus appears serious, clean, determined, handsome and blue-eyed. Sallman himself was not influenced by the Letter of Lentulus; it was simply standard to see Jesus in this way. For many, this image is the quintessential Jesus, as he really was in the flesh, or else a model that encapsulates the Christ of faith. The image was given to American servicemen and women during the Second World War, and has created a powerful impression. While it is a beautiful image, it has nothing to do with any evidence about what Jesus looked like, and – like so many other paintings– it misrepresents his ethnicity.

The title of the article on the web, showing Warner Sallmans Jesus' portrait above as a white man is: "How Jesus Christ came to be represented as a white European" 3 J. E. Taylor (2018) We are in the slipstream of centuries of European cultural hegemony, in which the image of Jesus as a European has been the most powerful ‘brand’. In Europe, this was bolstered by a curious piece of literature that aimed to endorse a portrayal of Jesus that would ensure that he was decidedly not Jewish- looking: the Letter of Lentulus. This supposed letter became known in Western Europe in the late fourteenth century; it first appears in manuscripts from this time, with the best of these preserved in the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena. Enormously popular and highly regarded, it was printed in Latin and many European languages. It appeared in collections and stand-alone volumes from the fifteenth century onwards, and later versions of the letter are found even in Syriac, Armenian and Persian. The idea behind it is that there was ancient Roman documentary evidence of Jesus’ trial: a long-lost letter from an official source. However, despite the letter’s inherent claims, it is total fabrication. The many historical inaccuracies means we can dismiss it as having any credibility whatsoever. The letter is apparently written by a Roman official named Lentulus. In the Jena manuscript he is described as Publius Lentulus in Iudea preses senatui populoq(ue) romano: ‘Publius Lentulus, governor in Judaea for the Senate and people of Rome’, but his title could also appear in other versions as Lentulus Hierosolytanorum Praeses , ‘Lentulus governor of Jerusalem’. Such language is anachronistic: the word preses or praeses did not become an official Latin designation for a governor until the third century, though it could sometimes be used honorifically.  The emperor’s name is given as Octavius (Augustus), who died in 14 CE , though some manuscripts correct this to the right emperor, Tiberius (see Luke 3:1–3). There is no recorded governor of Judaea named Lentulus, and we know who they were. There was no separate ‘governor’ of Jerusalem, only a Roman military commander, who is attested in Acts as being the rank of tribune (Acts 21:20–40). This administrative concept of a city ‘governor’, praeses, relates not to the time of Jesus but to the era of Mamluk administration in Palestine, in the thirteenth- sixteenth centuries, when there were city and provincial governors. The whole point of the letter is to describe Jesus’ appearance as if this is the only thing worth reporting. The description of Jesus does not sit well with the kinds of features we have just noted of interest to Graeco-Roman physiognomy, which also argues against it coming from antiquity. It is much more to do with a beautiful visual image suitable for painting. Hair the color of an unripe hazelnut is light brown. A slightly reddish hue to his skin correlates with the biblical mention of David having a reddish complexion (1 Sam. 16:12), but, in a European context, this is a color appropriate to someone who has a sanguine disposition, in accordance with the medieval theory of bodily humors: someone naturally warm, strong and cheerful. From ancient times it was associated with Jupiter, the king of gods.

It may be the letter was originally intended to accompany a venerated painting, but it circulated separately. In terms of the image it presents, the Letter of Lentulus is concerned with visualizing the full body of Jesus: he is tall and straight, and he has nice arms and hands. We can imagine his entire physique in front of us, straight on, and his coloration. What it may bring to mind is the famous image painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Last Supper fresco, created in the closing years of the fifteenth century in the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, just when this letter was being very widely read. More exactly, however, a Leonardo Jesus that matches the description of the Letter can be seen clearly in the recently rediscovered Salvator Mundi (Saviour of the World) painting, re-exhibited in the National Gallery, London, in 2011–12. 1

Stephen E. Jones (2021) Publius Lentulus contains a Shroud-like description of Jesus by an eye-witness contemporary, and therefore is further first-century evidence for the authenticity of the Shroud! In 1969, when I had been a Christian for only a few years, I was promoted to a position in the Mines Department of Western Australia. One of my new workmates was a Seventh-Day Adventist who showed me in the back of his Bible the Letter of Publius Lentulus. From memory it was similar to Wikipedia's account (with the Shroud-like parts in bold):

"Lentulus, the Governor of the Jerusalemites to the Roman Senate and People, greetings. There has appeared in our times, and there still lives, a man of great power (virtue), called Jesus Christ. The people call him prophet of truth; his disciples, son of God. He raises the dead, and heals infirmities. He is a man of medium size (statura procerus, mediocris et spectabilis); he has a venerable aspect, and his beholders can both fear and love him. His hair is of the color of the ripe hazel-nut, straight down to the ears, but below the ears wavy and curled, with a bluish and bright reflection, flowing over his shoulders. It is parted in two on the top of the head, after the pattern of the Nazarenes. His brow is smooth and very cheerful with a face without wrinkles or spots, embellished by a slightly reddish complexion. His nose and mouth are faultless. His beard is abundant, of the color of his hair, not long, but divided at the chin. His aspect is simple and mature, his eyes are changeable and bright. He is terrible in his reprimands, sweet and amiable in his admonitions, and cheerful without loss of gravity. He was never known to laugh, but often to weep. His stature is straight, his hands and arms beautiful to behold. His conversation is grave, infrequent, and modest. He is the most beautiful among the children of men".

The Letter of Lentulus is an epistle of mysterious origin that was first widely published in Italy in the fifteenth century. It purports to be written by a Roman official, contemporary of Jesus, and gives a physical and personal description of Jesus. The letter may have influenced how Jesus was later physically depicted in art. It appears in several Florentine publications from around 1460 along with works of such humanists as Petrarch and Boccaccio. The letter was first printed in Germany in the "Life of Christ" by Ludolph the Carthusian (Cologne, 1474), and in the "Introduction to the works of St. Anselm" (Nuremberg, 1491). But it is neither the work of St. Anselm nor of Ludolph. According to the manuscript of Jena, a certain Giacomo of the Colonna family found the letter in 1421 in an ancient Roman document sent to Rome from Constantinople. It must have been of Greek origin, and translated into Latin during the thirteenth or fourteenth century, though it received its present form at the hands of a humanist of the fifteenth or sixteenth century. Christopher Mylius, the 18th century librarian of Jena, stated the letter was written in golden letters on red paper and richly bound, but lost. In 1899, Ernst von Dobschütz listed over 75 historical manuscripts from Germany, France, and Italy that include the Letter of Lentulus in variant forms. The 19th-century scholar Friedrich Münter believed he could trace the letter down to the time of Diocletian, but this is generally not accepted by present-day scholars. 7

There was a Publius Lentulus who could have been a governor of Jerusalem in Jesus' time As mentioned by Wikipedia above, the Deeds of the Divine Augustus lists a Publius Lentulus as being elected as a Roman Consul during the reign of reign of Augustus (27 BC - AD 14)." The relevant part of that document states: When Marcus Vinicius and Quintus Lucretius were consuls (19 B.C.E.), then again when Publius Lentulus and Gnaeus Lentulus were (18 B.C.E.) ...".5

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Salvator Mundi (c. 1490–1519), Leonardo da Vinci, oil on walnut, 45.4 × 65.6 cm. Private collection.

Joan E. Taylor (2018) Christ is an androgynous (Mona Lisa) figure with light- brown hair that ‘falls smoothly about to his ears, then from his ears in curling locks a bit darker and shinier, flowing over his shoulders’. He has a full, forked beard, but it is subtly blended in with shadows. He does not look like the kind of man who would laugh; he has much gravity; he’s well-postured, with a smooth forehead, clear eyes, no wrinkles, with regular features, and nice hands. Leonardo has perfectly captured a ‘simple and mature’ expression, in line with the Letter. However, the Letter of Lentulus is commonly associated not with a frontal but mwith a profile image. In one diptych by an unknown artist (dated c. 1500), now in the Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht, the Letter of Lentulus (in Latin) is rendered on one side, in golden letters, and on the other there is a painting of Jesus in profile.

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The Utrecht diptych does two things: it transcribes the Letter of Lentulus, which provides a frontal portrayal of Jesus, and yet shows an entirely different version of Jesus’ appearance. It effectively colors in the profile with the hues of the letter’s description. We can imagine this profiled figure turning to us, with his European features, his calm face, his pale skin, clear eyes, his brown hair parted in the middle, falling in a slightly wavy way from his ears to his shoulders. He is not particularly good-looking, but he is assured and somewhat regal. The hand is positioned as it is in Leonardo’s Salvator Mundi: one almost has a side and frontal view of a similar man, though the Utrecht painting has Jesus with very pale skin, as a Flemish man. The reason for the association of the letter with a profi le can be put down to sheer coincidence: the letter became well known just at the time of a magnificent gift of an emerald gem showing Jesus in profile. The gem was apparently gifted to Pope Innocent VIII in 1492 by the Turkish Sultan (the ‘Great Turk’). In the earliest traceable version of this story, it is said there were two heads on this emerald ( in amaraldo), of Christ and of Paul. We find this information recorded on the back of a medal, now in the British Museum, where there are also examples of the medal with Christ on one side and Paul on the other. The belief that the Sultan was providing a genuine portrait of Christ (and Paul) soon became widespread, and the image was copied in medallions, etchings and paintings, sometimes paired with the Letter of Lentulus, but originally with versions of the originating story (in Latin or other languages).

Jesus the Jew

While today it is widely understood that Jesus was Jewish, it is only recently in historical Jesus studies that this has been the case. In 1973 Geza Vermes published an innovative book entitled Jesus the Jew . Here he inserted ‘the Jesus of the Gospels into the geographical and historical realities and into the charismatic religious framework of first-century Judaism’ where ‘Jesus the Galilean hasid or holy man begins to take on substance’.  For Vermes, this holy man is a type of wonder worker similar to other Jewish figures mentioned in rabbinic texts.1

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DailyMail (2015): In 2015, retired medical artist Richard Neave recreated the face of Jesus (pictured), using forensic techniques. The portrait shows the Son of God with a wide face, hazel eyes, a bushy beard, and short curly hair, as well as a tanned complexion. This is in contrast to the typical blonde and blue-eyed images seen in the West. Dr Neave stressed the portrait is that of an adult man living at the same time and place as Jesus, but some experts say his depiction is still likely far more accurate than paintings by the great masters. The team hypothesised Jesus would have had facial features typical of Galilean Semites of his era. Dr Neave and his team X-rayed three Semite skulls from the time, previously found by Israeli archaeologists. However, it contradicts the long-haired image seen in the Shroud of Turin, which is believed, by some, to bear the image of Christ when he was wrapped in a cloth after his death on the cross.6

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In my view, Neave positioned Christ's appearance with a low cranium, large bowridge, and large nose close to or equal to a Neanderthal, rather than a Jewish man from the first century, which I regard as insulting and blasphemous.8

Wikipedia: The depiction of Jesus in pictorial form dates back to early Christian art and architecture, as aniconism in Christianity was rejected within the ante-Nicene period. It took several centuries to reach a conventional standardized form for his physical appearance, which has subsequently remained largely stable since that time. Most images of Jesus have in common a number of traits that are now almost universally associated with Jesus, although variants are seen. The conventional image of a fully bearded Jesus with long hair emerged around AD 300, but did not become established until the 6th century in Eastern Christianity, and much later in the West. It has always had the advantage of being easily recognizable, and distinguishing Jesus from other figures shown around him, which the use of a cruciform halo also achieves. Earlier images were much more varied.

The Earliest Depiction of Jesus

That Jesus was imagined as being a divinity like Dionysus or Hermes, a son of a god like Zeus, appears to lie behind the earliest image we have of him.

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In a scene from the baptistery that depicts Christ’s miraculous works, Christ heals a bedridden man. The man appears twice: in the foreground, he is shown paralyzed, and on the left, he joyfully carries his bed away. The scene signified to viewers the healing quality of baptism in the nearby font, where initiates received forgiveness for sins and began new lives as Christians. Excavated in Dura-Europos, Syria, dating from about 235 ( Yale Art Gallery) 9

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In most pictures before the 6th century, Jesus was portrayed with short hair, as here in the Healing of a bleeding women from the Marcellinus-Peter-Catacomb

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The images found in the ancient Roman catacomb of Commodilla include one of the earliest depictions of a bearded Christ.

By the 6th century the bearded depiction of Jesus had become standard in the East, though the West, especially in northern Europe, continued to mix bearded and unbearded depictions for several centuries. The depiction with a longish face, long straight brown hair parted in the middle, and almond shaped eyes shows consistency from the 6th century to the present. Various legends developed which were believed to authenticate the historical accuracy of the standard depiction, such as the image of Edessa and later the Veil of Veronica.

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Christ the Redeemer, 1533 by Tiziano Vecellio (Titian)

Shroud of Turin

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Many attempts have been made to recreate the image of Jesus based on the man on the Shroud of Turin, with more or less success. 

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My recreation using Artificial Intelligence.

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On the left : My recreation using Artificial Intelligence. Right image: From the YouTube channel: linceul turin

Judaean Clothing

Much is now known about clothing at the time of Jesus, 8 because many fragments of the tunics worn by people in the fi rst and second centuries have been found in caves and tombs bordering the Dead Sea, where the dry climate has allowed its preservation. For example, the caves at Nahal Hever, the ruins of Masada and the cemetery of Khirbet Qazone have all provided excellent fragments of textiles and leather, and even some whole garments and shoes. From the archaeological remains and from comparable art from Egyptian mummy portraits, Pompeii and elsewhere, we can visualize what people wore. It is clear that Judaeans were part of the Mediterranean world and dressed much like everyone else. An ordinary man in Jesus’ world would wear a short tunic, called a chiton , in Greek (in Latin a tunica ) and a woman would wear an ankle-length one. The long version, the stole, in Greek (or stola in Latin), was understood to be women’s clothing, when not worn by high-status men. A higher hemline indicated masculine wear. Thus, in the second-century Acts of Paul and Thecla, Thecla, a disciple of the apostle Paul, dons a short tunic to show her commitment to an ascetic Christian life, dressing like a man.

The short tunic, usually finishing just below the knees or above the calf when belted, is rightly shown as Jesus’ appropriate clothing in catacomb art (Figure below)

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Christ with staff, raising Lazarus (third–fourth century), fresco. Catacombs of the Via Salaria (Giordani), Rome.

Here the artists of the third- fourth centuries are accurately reflecting what continued to be normative dress for non-elite males. Men not in high-status positions were supposed to be ready for action – movement – and to be really active (running, physically laboring), they would ‘gird their loins’ by tucking the chiton up through their legs and tying it (see Ephesians 6:14). Jesus would have worn the standard type of soleae sandals. As with the textiles,
we now have excellent examples of these. Sandals from Masada have been preserved in an area of the bathhouse, the lowest of the northern terraces, where there were the skeletons of a man, woman, and child, with a woolen mantle and the woman’s sandals and braided hair, as well as with broken pottery used for writing. Both whole and fragmentary sandals have been found also in the Judaean desert caves, for example in the Cave of Letters (Figure below), the Cave of Horror, the Caves of the Spear, and the Qumran Caves, with two complete sandals apparently found in the latter location. 

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6th century apse mosaic (530 AC)  Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano - Rome

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Sandal (second century), from Cave of Letters, Nahal Hever, Israel. 

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The clothing worn by Jesus: leather sandals; a simple knee-length tunic with vertical stripes ( clavi ); an average-sized mantle ( tallith ) with fringes ( tsitsith ) and ‘iota’ markings. No fi bula (brooch). Drawing by Joan Taylor.

K. Barthalmai (2020):  We know from John 19:23 that Jesus wore a seamless tunic. This was a single sheet of fabric, perhaps with a neck hole cut out in the center. The poor of ancient times could not afford to dye their clothing, so it was probably the color of undyed wool (wool was by far the most common textile). In addition, we read from the historian Josephus that he describes the Zealots as murderous transvestites wearing chlanidia, which were women’s dyed mantles. The implication here, is that undyed garments were normal for men at the time. Jesus’ tunic was also likely about knee-length. This was standard in the Greco-Roman world, and we can also deduce this from Jesus’ condemnations of scribes & Pharisees in their long robes (Mark 12:38) and the fact that women would normally wear ankle-length tunics. 15

D.CRISPINO (1993): When Jesus sent his Twelve Disciples on their first mission, he admonished them, "...and do not wear two tunics..." (Mk 6:9, Mt. 10:10). For two tunics were commonly worn: a garment worn next to the skin, sometimes had sleeves, sometimes just armholes; it came to the knees and was often woven in one piece, without seams. Over this, a me-il, a wide tunic reaching to the ankles, was sometimes worn. There was also a mantle, nearly square, of 2 or 3 yards, which was wrapped around the body or thrown over a shoulder. It also served as a bed. A girdle and sandals would complete the attire. 14

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Kurzinfo (2012): The Empress St. Helena is known for her pilgrimages to the Holy Land, and pious legend has it that she brought back the Holy Robe of Christ from Jerusalem and entrusted it to her son's new church at Trier. The Holy Robe is the seamless garment said to be worn by Christ during the Crucifixion. According to one tradition, Helena, mother of Constantine the Great discovered the seamless robe in the Holy Land in the year 327 or 328 along with several other relics, including the True Cross. According to different versions of the story, she either bequeathed it or sent it to the city of Trier, where Constantine had lived for some years before becoming emperor. (The monk Altmann of Hautvillers wrote in the 9th century that Helena was born in that city, though this report is strongly disputed by most modern historians.) The Robe first makes an appearance in written documents in the 12th century. In 1512, the high altar of Trier Cathedral was opened and the Robe was found inside, along with other important relics from the Holy Land. 15


Jesus in movies

The first movie made about Jesus Christ was: The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ in 1902.

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Decent films: It is a remarkable relic from the very dawn of cinema. First released in 1902 by France’s Pathé film company, it was expanded and tinkered with for the next three years, reaching its complete form in 1905. The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ was a remarkably in-depth presentation of the Gospel story, running about thirty minutes at its original length and nearly three-quarters of an hour in the expanded version — one of the first long films ever.2

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In almost all major Jesus movies, Jesus is depicted similar to the man on the Shroud of Turin: Beard, and long hair. 

 
1. Joan E. Taylor: What Did Jesus Look Like?  February 8, 2018
2. Decentfilms: The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ (1905)
3. Como Jesus Cristo passou a ser representado como um europeu branco
5. Byron R. McCane: Burial Practices in First Century Palestine 1 Dec 2022
6. Dailymail: Is this the REAL face of Jesus? Forensic experts use ancient Semite skulls to reveal what Christ may have looked like 14 December 2015
7. Wikipedia: Letter of Lentulus
8. Piyush Patel: Neanderthals vs Homo Sapiens: Different Species Or Subspecies? 6 Jan 2022
9. Yale University: Baptistery wall painting: Christ Healing the Paralytic

The Messiah of the Old Testament

T. D. Alexander Christian theology centers on the belief that Jesus of Nazareth is the “Christ” or “Messiah,” synonyms that highlight his status as a divinely appointed savior-king. The New Testament writings abound with references to Jesus as the Christ. The English term “Christ” etymologically means “anointed one” in Greek, as does its synonym “Messiah,” which is derived from Aramaic/Hebrew. The idea that Jesus is the Anointed/Christ/Messiah permeates the New Testament, but these same writings reveal that the title Anointed/Christ/Messiah was only applied to Jesus in a consistent way after his death, resurrection and ascension. Jesus himself largely avoided the designation because it had developed misleading connotations. During his lifetime Jesus re-educated his followers so that they would have a more accurate appreciation of how the concept of Anointed/Christ/Messiah should be understood in the light of Old Testament teaching. While his contemporaries looked for a king who would exercise political and military control from Jerusalem, Jesus taught that his kingdom would not be defined by political boundaries but would embrace people from every nation. His followers believed that after his resurrection and ascension Jesus was seated as king at God’s right hand in heaven, from where they expected him to return in the future to judge all humanity. In recognition of his divinely-given royal authority, every person is under a genuine obligation to acknowledge personally that Jesus is Lord. At the heart of the Christian faith, as it very name suggests, is the belief that Jesus is the Christ or Messiah. The English word Messiah is derived from the Greek term messias, which comes only twice in the New Testament (John 1:41; 4:25), when it is used to transliterate the Aramaic word mešîḥā’. To aid his Greek-speaking readers, John explains the meaning of messias by translating it as christos, the Greek term for “one who has been anointed.”

Since it would have been meaningless to non-Aramaic speakers, the word messias is rarely used in the Greek New Testament. In marked contrast, christos comes almost 530 times, with most of these uses referring directly to Jesus of Nazareth.To the earliest readers of the New Testament in Greek, these expressions conveyed the sense “Jesus the anointed” or “the anointed Jesus.” The repeated use of christos makes it evident that anointing is one of the most significant concepts associated with Jesus in the New Testament.1

Wikipedia: Originating from the concept in Judaism, the Messiah in Christianity is called the Christ—from Greek khristós (χριστός), translating the Hebrew word of the same meaning. 'Christ' became the accepted Christian designation and title of Jesus of Nazareth, as Christians believe that the messianic prophecies in the Old Testament—that he is descended from the Davidic line, and was declared King of the Jews—were fulfilled in his mission, death, and resurrection, while the rest of the prophecies—that he will usher in a Messianic Age and the world to come—will be fulfilled at his Second Coming.2

B. Galan (1973): The Jews expected a liberator, a powerful God-inspired warrior who would challenge and defeat all the enemies of Israel as Moses had done in Egypt. The Messiah they expected would free the people and the land and establish the observance of the law of Moses, restore the throne of David, and rule Israel and all other nations from Jerusalem. However, they witnessed the birth not of the Messiah they wanted but the one they needed—the Messiah who could solve the greatest problems not only of Israel but also of the world. Jesus accomplished this not by the use of force but through obedience and humility. 5

A.Fruchtenbaum (2010): Anyone who sets himself to the task of seeking to know what the Old Testament has to say about the coming of the Messiah soon finds himself involved with a seeming paradox. At times one even seems to be faced with an outright contradiction, for the Jewish prophets gave a two-fold picture of the Messiah who was to come. On the one hand, the inquirer will find numerous predictions regarding the Messiah which portray him as one who is going to suffer humiliation, physical harm, and finally death in a violent manner. This death was stated by the Jewish prophets to be a substitutionary death for the sins of the Jewish people. On the other hand, the inquirer will find that the Jewish prophets also spoke of the Messiah coming as a conquering king who will destroy the enemies of Israel and set up the Messianic Kingdom of peace and prosperity. This is the two-fold picture the Jewish prophets gave of the Messiah. 

For centuries past, during the formulation of the Talmud, our rabbis made serious studies of messianic prophecies. They came up with this conclusion: The Prophets spoke of two different Messiahs. The Messiah who was to come, suffer and die was termed Messiah, the Son of Joseph (Mashiach ben Yosef). The second Messiah who would then come following the first was termed Messiah, the Son of David (Mashiach ben David). This one would raise the first Messiah back to life and establish the Messianic Kingdom of peace on earth. That the Old Testament presents these two lines of messianic prophecy was something that all the early rabbis recognized. The Old Testament never clearly states that there will be two Messiahs. In fact, many of the paradoxical descriptions are found side by side in the same passages, in which it seems that only one person is meant. But for the early rabbis the two-Messiah theory seemed to be the best answer. One of the major sources from which the rabbis developed their concept of the suffering Messiah, the Son of Joseph, was Isaiah 53. The present-day bone of contention regarding what the Old Testament says about the Messiah centers on this chapter. The passage speaks of a servant, the Servant of Jehovah. This servant undergoes a great deal of suffering ending in death. The chapter goes on to state that this suffering is a vicarious suffering, that the death is a substitutionary death for sin. He is suffering and dying for the sins of others. The passage goes on to indicate that this servant is resurrected. The bone of contention is not so much over what the passage says but of whom it speaks. The question today concerns of whom Isaiah was speaking. Did he prophesy concerning the Messiah here? Rabbis say that this is the Christian interpretation of this passage and not the Jewish one. The Jewish interpretation, they would say, is that Isaiah is speaking about the people of Israel, the Jewish people suffering in the Gentile world. This is the Jewish interpretation, the rabbis would say—and it does not speak of the Messiah at all. But to make the passage speak of the collective body of Israel seems almost to force an interpretation. Taken by itself, the passage seems to have only one individual in mind. 3

The Messiah as the Servant of the Lord. 

Michael Rydelnik (2019): Although the Scriptures present the future Redeemer as a King, the prophet Isaiah also depicts Him as the Servant of the Lord. This is His title in the Servant Songs of Isaiah (Isa 42:1-13; 49:1-7; 50:4-11; 52:13–53:12). As God’s unique Servant, “He will bring justice to the nations” (42:1) and restore Israel to the Lord (49:5-6). The Servant will also serve God by obeying Him despite a violent attack and shaming (50:6-7). The Servant’s ultimate work would be to provide a substitutionary sacrifice to pay for the sins of Israel (53:4-6). Isaiah also links his description of the Servant with the fulfillment of the Davidic covenant. God will make “an everlasting covenant” with the Servant, in accordance with “the promises assured to David” (Isa 55:3). This association with the Davidic covenant fits with the promise that the Servant will be a covenant (mediator) for Israel (42:6; 49:8 ). Additionally, J. A. Motyer has identified various links between the royal figure of a Redeemer in Isaiah’s book of Immanuel (Isa 7-12) and the Servant of the Lord in the Servant Songs. For example, both the Servant and the King are endowed with the Spirit (42:1; 11:2), both bring about justice for the nations (42:3; 11:4) and both establish righteousness (9:7; 11:5; 53:11). It is insufficient to see the Redeemer as a mere Servant; He will be a Royal Servant of the Lord. 

A Redeemer from Sin 

The messiah was to be a Redeemer from sin. The most significant passage that shows the Messiah in this way is the fourth Servant Song, Isa 52:13–53:12. One of the main concepts found there is that the Servant was to be a substitutionary sacrifice for sin. The prophet puts the description of the Servant in the mouth of Israel, at a time when the nation will have finally come to believe in Him. They confess that they have gone astray but the “the LORD has punished Him for the iniquity of us all” (Isa 53:5-6). They declare that He was killed, “cut off from the land of the living … struck because of [the] people’s rebellion” (53:8 ). As such, the Servant became a “restitution offering” (‘asham), the same word used for the restitution offering in Lv 5:14–6:7. Not only would He die, but the song hints at His resurrection, saying God “will prolong His days” (53:10). The outcome of the Servant’s death and resurrection will be that He “will justify many, and He will carry their iniquities” (53:11). This summary of the fourth Servant Song details one of the most crucial features of the Messiah—He would provide redemption from sin. A Perfect Ruler. One final aspect of the Messiah in Scripture is that He is always depicted as a perfect ruler who will establish a kingdom of peace, justice, and righteousness. An example of this expectation is in Isa 9:7, where the promised King is described as ruling from the throne of David over a vast kingdom of peace (shalom), having established it “with justice and righteousness from now on and forever.” Just two chapters later, the same King is described as one who will “judge the poor righteously and execute justice for the oppressed of the land” (Isa 11:4). There will be such peace that “the wolf will live with the lamb” (11:6), and His influence will be so great that “the land will be as full of the knowledge of the LORD as the sea is filled with water” (11:9). This expectation of the King is not limited to Isaiah—Jeremiah also anticipates that the Lord will “raise up a Righteous Branch of David. He will reign wisely as king and administer justice and righteousness in the land” (Jer 23:5; cf. 33:15). Similarly, the calendar of redemption as described in Dan 9:24-27 will culminate with the Messiah “bring[ing] in everlasting righteousness.” The psalmist also depicts the future Messianic King as establishing this perfect kingdom, promising that “He will judge Your people with righteousness and Your afflicted ones with justice” (Ps 72:2). At that time, the people will experience peace and righteousness (72:3), and the King will “vindicate the afflicted among the people, help the poor, and crush the oppressor” (72:4). This is no ordinary king from the line of David within the boundaries of the Davidic kingdom. He will “rule from sea to sea and from the Euphrates to the ends of the earth” (72:8 ).


The branch of the Lord

The title “the Branch” is used for the Messiah repeatedly in the OT (Isa 4:2; Jer 23:5; 33:15; Zch 3:8; 6:12). The root word means sprout, growth, or branch. A Phoenician inscription (third century BC) uses the phrase “Tsemach Tsedek” for the rightful heir to the throne. When used this way it refers to a son or scion of a king.15 David used the verb (tsamach) in his last words when reflecting on his hope for the Messiah based on the Davidic covenant: “He has not (yet) made it grow?” (2Sm 23:5, author’s translation).16 Isaiah 4:2 states that the Branch of the Lord will be glorious in His kingdom. This statement views the Messiah as the Son of Yahweh, and the verses that follow describe the cleansing of Israel, similarly described in Zch 3:8-10, a passage that also uses the messianic title “the Branch.” In Jer 23:5-6 and 33:15-16, “the Branch” is the righteous son of David who will save Judah and Israel and execute justice. His deity is recognized by His other title “The LORD [Yahweh] Our Righteousness.” Jeremiah 33:19-26 goes on to assure readers of the coming of the Branch because of God’s faithfulness to His covenants. In Zch 6:12, “the Branch” is the rightful king who unites the priesthood and the monarchy.

Wonderful counselor

In Isa 9:6, the King Messiah is given four glorious dual throne titles, each reflecting His deity.14 In the first one, the word “Wonder” stands in epexegetical construct to Counselor; hence, the child is “a wonder of a counselor” or more simply, “Wonderful Counselor.” The term “wonder” is used exclusively of the acts of God on behalf of His people and the judgment of their enemies (Cf. Ex 3:20; 15:11; 34:10; Jos 3:5; Neh 9:17; 1Ch 16:12; Ps 40:5 [MT 40]; Isa 25:1; 29:14). This wondrous nature of God is especially evident in Jdg 13:15-21, where the name of the Angel of the Lord is “wonderful” (13:18) meaning beyond comprehension. Then the Angel does a “wonderful thing” (13:19) and ascends in the flame of Manoah’s sacrifice. Additionally, the word Counselor reflects a uniquely divine attribute. For example, God needs no counselor (Isa 40:13), and the Messiah has the Spirit of counsel upon Him (Isa 11:2). Ultimately, Isaiah uses both of these titles together to describe the Lord, indicating that God alone is wonderful in counsel (Isa 28:29).



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The son of man

The title “Son of Man” is Jesus’ favorite self-identification and is commonly understood to refer to His full humanity. However, in the interpretation of this title from its OT background, it is more likely an expression of deity. It appears in Dan 7:13-14 in the midst of the vision of the Ancient of Days. In this scene, “thrones were set in place” (7:9) with one obviously for the Ancient of Days. But for whom was the second throne? None other than the other figure present, “One like a son of man” (7:13). This One also is deity, but He appears to be fully human (“like a son of man”). As the Divine Son of Man, He is granted all power and authority: “He was given authority to rule, and glory, and a kingdom; so that those of every people, nation, and language should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and His kingdom is one that will not be destroyed” (7:14). Therefore, when the High Priest asked Jesus to state plainly if He was “the Messiah, the Son of God” and Jesus responded by citing Dan 7:13-14 in Matthew’s Gospel, “‘But I tell you, in the future you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the
Power and coming on the clouds of heaven’” (Mt 26:64), this was taken as Jesus affirming His full deity. The High Priest tore his garments and declared Jesus guilty of blasphemy (26:65). He clearly understood the title “Son of Man” to mean full deity and not mere humanity. The title “Son of Man” is an OT expression for the divine Messiah. 

Mighty God

Some have tried to assert that this phrase in Isa 9:6, commonly translated “Mighty God” (‘el Gibbor) should be understood as “mighty warrior.” However, the title is used consistently of deity (Dt 10:17; Ps 24:8; Jer 32:18; Neh 9:32). In fact, in the nearest context it is used of God (Isa 10:21). Although gibbor can mean “hero,” and ‘el can mean “great,” whenever these two words are used together, they refer to deity. Thus, the born child and the given son, is no less than God Himself.

Father of eternity

This title in Isa 9:6, commonly translated “eternal Father,” indicates the divine eternality of the Messiah. The word translated “eternity” does not merely mean a long time, but rather it refers to “forever.” This is supported by the very next verse that speaks of His reign never-ending. Some have misunderstood this name as a declaration that the child is God the Father. Rather, it is stating that He is the Father of forever, a phrase that means He is the Creator of time or Author of eternity. Thus, the child is identified with the divine Creator whose first act was to create time.

The Lord ( Yahweh) our righteousness

Having already called the Messiah the “Righteous Branch” (Jer 23:5), Jeremiah also uses another messianic title, “Yahweh Our Righteousness” (Jer 23:6). It is most likely that the thought here is not to be construed as a divine epithet because the same title is used of the city of Jerusalem in Jer 33:16. Thus, it should be understood to mean “Yahweh is Our Righteousness.” However, it should not be considered a mere theophoric title without divine significance because theophoric titles generally use the shortened form of God’s name, “Yah.” This is seen in the names like Jeremiah (Yah Exalts) or Elijah (My God is Yah). Only messianic titles use the full name of God, “Yahweh.” This indicates that in some unique way, like the Angel of Yahweh (Ex 3:1-6; Jdg 13:1-23), the Messiah is identified as God Himself.

Prince of peace

The word “prince” used in Isa 9:6 does not necessarily mean “the son of the king.” Rather it means “ruler” or “leader” (Isa 3:14). Here it indicates one who will be the Ruler of Peace. According to Isaiah, Messiah will establish peace between humanity and God (Isa 53:5), and His reign will institute universal peace (Isa 2:4; 11:6-9) for all humanity.

The one Shepherd

In Ps 80:1, God Himself is called the Shepherd of Israel. This makes the messianic title “One Shepherd” even more significant. In Ezk 34, after rebuking the false shepherds of Israel, God promises to restore the nation at the end of days. At that time, God will regather the people from all the lands in which they have been scattered (Ezk 34:13). Then, God will appoint “a single shepherd” (lit. “One Shepherd”) over them, called “My servant David” (Ezk 34:23). Under the care of the One Shepherd, “Yahweh will be their [Israel’s] God” (Ezk 34:24). Ezekiel repeats the same promise in 37:24, looking at the day when Israel is restored to their land and to their God, under the care of the One Shepherd. While the above references refer to the One Shepherd when He will establish the messianic kingdom, Zechariah uses the term “Shepherd” to describe a much different situation. In speaking of the death of the Messiah, He writes, “Sword, awake against My shepherd … Strike the shepherd and the sheep will be scattered” (Zch 13:7). Seemingly before the Messiah ever begins to shepherd the people of Israel, He must be struck and Israel will be scattered. Then God will one day regather them under that Shepherd, and they will know the Lord.

The Light of the Nations

In the Servant Songs, God promises that the Servant will restore Israel to their God (Isa 49:5-6). But these same songs indicate that the Servant’s ministry will go beyond Israel to the whole world. Thus, He will establish justice on earth, and the islands will wait for His instruction (Isa 42:4). Not only will the Servant be a new covenant mediator for the people of Israel, but He will also be “a light for the nations.” In Isa 49:6, God tells His Servant that the task of restoring Israel is insufficient for One so great as He, promising “I will also make you a light for the nations, to be My salvation to the ends of the earth.” The Servant of the Lord is not just the Messiah of Israel but also the Messiah of the whole world.12

The Uniqueness of His Birth

Following the account of the creation, the Old Testament continues with the story of Adam and Eve. Satan in the guise of a serpent deceives Eve and causes her to break the one commandment of God. Adam follows suit. The result is that sin enters the human family and the human experience. Man now stands under the righteous judgment of God. Nevertheless, at the time of the Fall, God provides for future redemption. As he addresses Satan, God says: "And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed: he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel" (Gen. 3:15). Centuries later, Israel had a great prophet in the person of Isaiah. It was left to this prophet to explain the meaning and reason why the Messiah would be only reckoned after the seed of the woman. Isaiah writes, Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel (v. 7:14). The birth of the son in Isaiah 7:14 was also to be a sign—to be unusual in some way. This would be a sign by virtue of the fact that this son would be born of a virgin.( parthenos in Greek in the Septuagint = virgin ). This, then, is the explanation of the mystery of Genesis 3:15. Messiah would be reckoned after the seed of a woman because he would not have a father. Because of a Virgin Birth, he could only be traced through his mother and not his father. Thus, Isaiah 7:14 clarifies the meaning of Genesis 3:15: The Messiah will enter the world by means of the Virgin Birth.

The Place of His Birth

Not only was the means of Messiah's birth prophesied, but so was the place of his birth. This was done by the Prophet Micah, a contemporary of Isaiah. In chapter 5 of his book, verse 2, we read: But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, which are little to be among the thousands of Judah, out of you shall one come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting. Concerning this verse, there is far less disagreement among Orthodox rabbis, since they generally take this to mean that the Messiah will originate from Bethlehem. 

The genealogy of the Messiah
Dr. A. G. Fruchtenbaum (1992): Of the four Gospels, only two actually deal with the birth and early life of Yeshua: Matthew and Luke. For that reason, only these two have genealogies. While both Matthew and Luke tell the story of His birth, they tell it from two different viewpoints. Matthew tells the story of the birth of Yeshua from Joseph’s perspective. In the Gospel of Matthew, Joseph plays the active role while Mary plays a passive role; angels appear to Joseph, but there is no record of angels appearing to Mary; the text reveals what Joseph is thinking and what is going on in his mind, but nothing of what Mary is thinking. On the other hand, Luke tells the same story from Mary’s perspective. In Luke’s Gospel, Mary plays the active role while Joseph plays the passive role; angels appear to Mary, but there is no record of angels coming to Joseph; the text reveals what Mary is thinking and what is going on in her mind, but nothing about what Joseph is thinking. From that context alone, it should be very evident that the genealogy in Matthew would be that of Joseph, since Matthew told the story from Joseph’s perspective; while the genealogy in Luke would be that of Mary, since Luke is telling the story from her perspective.
Different genealogies. Do they contradict each other?
The requirement for the Messiah to be of the line of David (Jeremiah 33:15–17; Isaiah 9:7) is validated by two gospels providing genealogies of Jesus. However, a problem arises when we realize that only one generation, Joseph's father, needs to be traced to meet this requirement. Both genealogies differ beyond this point, so at least one of them is incorrect. Additionally, Joseph's genealogy is irrelevant because he wasn't the biological father of Jesus. Moreover, having a god for a father makes Jesus ineligible to meet the requirement of being in the line of David. Although some argue that the Luke genealogy is for Mary, the text states that it's for Joseph. Furthermore, providing the genealogy of the parent from whom descent from David wouldn't count clashes with the idea that Jesus inherits David's throne and that he was the son of God, resulting in an incompatible clash of two ideas.
Response: While it is true that both Matthew and Luke provide genealogies of Jesus tracing back to David, there are differences between the two. One explanation is that Matthew provides the genealogy of Joseph, Jesus' legal father, while Luke provides the genealogy of Mary, Jesus' biological mother. Another possibility is that the genealogies were constructed for theological rather than historical purposes, emphasizing Jesus' connection to the line of David and to the Jewish people. Regarding the objection that Joseph's genealogy is irrelevant because he was not Jesus' biological father, it is worth noting that in ancient Jewish society, legal adoption was considered just as binding as biological parenthood. So even if Joseph was not Jesus' biological father, he still would have had a legal claim to the Davidic line through his adoption of Jesus as his son.
Why Two Genealogies?
The question that all this raises is: “Why the need for two genealogies to begin with, especially since Jesus was not the “real” son of Joseph, anyway?” The answer usually goes something like this, “Matthew’s genealogy gives the royal line, while Luke’s genealogy gives the real line.” What they mean by this is that, according to Matthew’s account, Joseph was the heir-apparent to David’s throne. Since Jesus was the “adopted” son of Joseph, He could claim the right to sit upon the throne of David by virtue of that adoption. On the other hand, Luke’s genealogy shows that Jesus Himself is a descendant of David through His mother, Mary. But the exact opposite is really true.
1. The Requirement for Kingship in the Kingdom of Judah
To understand the real need for the two genealogies, one must first understand that there were two Old Testament requirements for kingship. One was applied to the southern Kingdom of Judah, with its capital in Jerusalem, while the other was applied to the northern Kingdom of Israel, with its capital in Samaria.
The first requirement was that of Davidic descent. Unless you were a member of the House of David, you could not sit upon the throne in Jerusalem. When there was a conspiracy to do away with the House of David and set up a brand new dynasty as in Isaiah 7, Isaiah warned that any such conspiracy was doomed to failure because no one outside the House of David could sit upon the throne in Jerusalem.
2. The Requirement for Kingship in the Kingdom of Israel
The second requirement was that of divine appointment or prophetic sanction. Unless you had divine appointment or prophetic sanction, you could not sit upon the throne of Samaria. If anyone tried to do so, he would end up by being assassinated. For example, God told Jehu that his line would be allowed to sit upon the throne of Samaria for four generations, and four did so. When the fifth one tried to gain the throne, he was assassinated because he did not have divine appointment or prophetic sanction. Both of these elements will come into view in the need for the two genealogies.1
Matthew’s Genealogy
J. F. Walvoord (2011):  Matthew 1:1–17. The gospel of Matthew is unique in presenting both the life of Christ from a particular point of view and an explanation of why the Old Testament prophecies concerning the kingdom on earth were not fulfilled at the first coming of Christ. Unlike the gospel of Luke, which is designed to set forth a true historical record of the facts concerning Christ (Luke 1:1–4), the gospel of Matthew has the specific purpose of explaining to Jews, who expected their Messiah to be a conquering and glorious King, why, instead, Christ lived among men, died on a cross, and rose again. In keeping with this objective, the gospel of Matthew provides a bridge between the Old Testament prophecies and expectation of the coming of the Messiah of Israel and its fulfillment in the birth and life of Christ. Accordingly, in the gospel of Matthew, the lineage of Jesus was traced back to Abraham and David. The genealogy of Matthew ended with Joseph the husband of Mary. Matthew made clear that Jesus was not the son of Joseph but that Mary was His mother (Matt. 1:16). By contrast, the genealogy of Mary was given in Luke 3:23–37, assuring that Christ is a genuine descendant of David. The genealogy of Matthew supports the concept that Jesus is the legitimate heir to the throne of David through Joseph His father. Even though Joseph was not the human father of Jesus, the right of the royal throne was nevertheless passed through Joseph to Jesus. Accordingly, Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament expectation that a Son of David would reign on the throne of David forever as Gabriel had announced to Mary (Luke 1:32–33). A careful study of Matthew’s genealogy reveals that it was not intended to be a complete genealogy as only fourteen generations were selected from Abraham to David, fourteen from David to the Babylonian exile, and a third fourteen from the Exile to the time of the birth of Jesus. Matthew 1:13–15 records people in the genealogy of Jesus who are not listed in the Old Testament. Likewise, some names in the Old Testament are not included in the genealogy as in the case of Uzziah, who was declared to be the son of Jehoram when actually he was the great-greatgrandson of Jehoram (Matt. 1:9; cf. 2 Kings 8:25; 13:1–15:38; 2 Chron. 22–25). The fact that the New Testament includes some names not in the Old Testament and the Old Testament includes some names not in the New Testament is one of the reasons why it is impossible to take genealogies as a basis for determining the antiquity of the human race, as the Scriptures themselves make plain that this was not the divine intent. Another unusual feature of the genealogies is the prominence of four women who would not normally be included in a genealogy. Each of them has a special background. Tamar (Matt. 1:3) actually got into the line by playing the harlot (Gen. 38:1–30). Rahab the harlot was protected by Joshua when Jericho was captured and became part of the messianic line (Josh. 2:1–6; 6:25). Rahab was declared to be the wife of Salmon, the father of Boaz, and this was revealed only in the New Testament (Matt. 1:5). Only Ruth, who is the subject of a beautiful portrayal in the book of Ruth, had an unspotted record, but even she was not an Israelite. Bathsheba the mother of Solomon, who had formerly been the wife of Uriah, had an adulterous relationship with David that resulted in the murder of her husband (2 Sam. 11:1–12:25). The fact that these women were in the genealogy also put a stop to any Jewish pride. Undoubtedly, Mary also had to withstand the burden of gossip concerning her Son, who was conceived before she was taken by Joseph as his bride.2
Michael Rydelnik (2019): Another point that is uncontested is that the Messiah would be a descendant of King David. From this comes the rabbinical ascription of the title, Messiah the Son of David. Of the numerous passages that might be cited, we will limit ourselves to the following two, both from Isaiah: And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots shall bear fruit. (v. 11:1) And it shall come to pass in that day, that the root of Jesse, that stands for an ensign of the peoples, unto him shall the nations seek; and his resting-place shall be glorious. (v. 11:10) Jesse was the father of David, and thus these passages show that Messiah will come from the House of David. 3
 
Wikipedia: The New Testament provides two accounts of the genealogy of Jesus, one in the Gospel of Matthew and another in the Gospel of Luke. Matthew starts with Abraham, while Luke begins with Adam. The lists are identical between Abraham and David, but differ radically from that point. Matthew has twenty-seven generations from David to Joseph, whereas Luke has forty-two, with almost no overlap between the names on the two lists.⁠ Notably, the two accounts also disagree on who Joseph's father was: Matthew says he was Jacob, while Luke says he was Heli. Traditional Christian scholars (starting with Africanus and Eusebius[3]) have put forward various theories that seek to explain why the lineages are so different, such as that Matthew's account follows the lineage of Joseph, while Luke's follows the lineage of Mary, although both start with Jesus and then go to Joseph, not Mary. 4
The Genealogy in Matthew 1:1-17
Dr. A. G. Fruchtenbaum (1992): Looking at Matthew’s account of Joseph’s line, Matthew broke with Jewish tradition and custom in two ways: first, he skipped names; and, secondly, he mentioned the names of women. The four women he mentioned were: Tamar (v. 3); Rahab (v. 5); Ruth (v. 6); and, in verse 6, the pronoun her refers to Bathsheba. Furthermore, the women he named were not the most significant in the line of the Messiah. For example, he left out a woman like Sarah, who was far more significant. Yet there is a reason for naming these four and not others. First of all, these four women were Gentiles. Early in his Gospel, Matthew hinted at a point, which he made more clearly later: while the primary purpose of the coming of Yeshua was for the lost sheep of the House of Israel, the Gentiles will also benefit from His coming. The second thing about these women is that three of them were involved in specific sexual sins: one was guilty of adultery; one was guilty of incest; and, one was guilty of prostitution. Again, Matthew hinted at a point he made clearer later: that Yeshua came for the purpose of saving sinners. However, these are not the key points of this genealogy. In tracing this genealogy, Matthew went back into time and began with Abraham (v. 2) and traced it to David the king (v. 6). From David’s many sons, he chose one, Solomon (v. 6), and traced the line to verse 11: ... and Josiah begat Jechoniah and his brethren, at the time of the carrying away to Babylon. Jechoniah was part of Joseph’s line, a point that will prove crucial. Then in verse 12, Matthew picked up with Jechoniah and traced it to Joseph (v. 16) who was the stepfather of Jesus. According to Matthew, Joseph was a direct descendant of David through Solomon, but also through Jechoniah. This being true, it means that Joseph was not the heir-apparent to David’s throne. This is evident from Jeremiah 22:24-30:
As I live, says Jehovah, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the signet upon my right hand, yet would I pluck you thence; and I will give you into the hand of them that seek your life, and into the hand of them of whom you are afraid, even into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of the Chaldeans. And I will cast you out, and your mother that bore you, into another country, where ye were not born; and there shall ye die. But to the land whereunto their soul longs to return, thither shall they not return. Is this man Coniah a despised broken vessel? is he a vessel wherein none delights? wherefore are they cast out, he and his seed, and are cast into the land which they know not? O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of Jehovah. Thus says Jehovah, Write ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days; for no more shall a man of his seed prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling in Judah.
The name Coniah is a shortened form of Jechoniah. Because of the kind of man that he was, God pronounced a curse upon him in the days of Jeremiah. The curse has several facets to it, but the last one is so significant that God called upon the whole earth to hear it (v. 29). Then in verse 30, the curse is spelled out: no descendant of Jechoniah will ever have the right to sit upon the throne of David. Until Jeremiah, the first requirement was membership in the House of David. But with Jeremiah, that requirement was limited further; one still had to be a member of the House of David, but apart from Jechoniah. Joseph was a descendant of David, but also through Jechoniah and so he was not the heir-apparent to David’s throne. If Yeshua had been the real son of Joseph, He too would be disqualified from ever sitting upon the throne of David. Neither could He claim the right to sit upon the throne of David by virtue of His adoption by Joseph, because Joseph was not the heir-apparent to David’s throne. That is why, unlike Luke, Matthew began his Gospel with the genealogy, presented the “Jechoniah problem,” and then solved it by means of the Virgin Birth. Luke had no such problem, and so Luke began his Gospel with the Virgin Birth and only as late as chapter 3 did he bother to provide a genealogy. But, as far as the genealogy of Matthew is concerned, if Yeshua had been the “real” son of Joseph, He could not become king, nor could He claim to be king because He was the son of Joseph by adoption. 4
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The administration of redemption in the genealogy of Luke 3
A. Park (2018): The genealogy in the Gospel of Luke contains the great administration of redemption. 
First, this genealogy traces the origin of Jesus Christ all the way up to Adam. Jesus Christ is intimately joined with all human beings who have existed and will exist from the beginning of time to its end. This reaffirms that it was for the salvation of fallen Adam’s descendants that Jesus came to this world. The first man, Adam, was clearly the son of God created in His image, but was unable to fulfill his duty because of disobedience. However, the one and only Son of God, Jesus Christ, came into this world as the last Adam (1 Cor 15:45), who redeemed all mankind and opened up the path for eternal salvation through obedience (Rom 5:12–21). Therefore, this genealogy reveals that God’s own Son Jesus Christ, the representation of Adam, became the new beginning. The history of sin and death that began with Adam has transformed into the history of life through the second Adam, Jesus Christ. The eternal life of Jesus Christ has been given to all of God’s elect. Jesus Christ is the root and basis of our faith and life. This is a mysterious truth which teaches us that all things that come through Jesus Christ are from God and that all things will be restored back to God through Jesus Christ as well.
Second, the fact that the genealogy begins with Jesus Christ and ends with God confirms Jesus Christ’s divine origin (Luke 3:38).20 The Son of God came into this world in order to save fallen mankind. If Jesus’ genealogy ended with the first man Adam, we would have still remained distant and separated from God. However, Jesus Christ the mediator (John 14:6; Gal 3:19–20; 1 Tim 2:5; Heb 8:6; 9:15) embraced all of humanity and reconciled us to God (Eph 2:15–16; Col 1:21–22). We, who once were distant from God, have now been brought near through the blood of Jesus Christ (Eph 2:13). In relation to this, let us direct our attention to where the genealogy is placed in the Gospel of Luke. The genealogy is recorded right after Jesus’ baptism. Because Jesus was sinless, He had no need to be baptized; however, He adamantly insisted that John the Baptist baptize Him. The reason for this was to fulfill “all righteousness” which was necessary for the redemption of mankind (Matt 3:15). Even though Jesus was sinless, He was baptized of His own accord as a sinner to participate in the “baptism of repentance” on behalf of all mankind (Mark 1:4; John 8:46; Rom 8:3–4; 2 Cor 5:21; Phil 2:8; Heb 2:14; 4:15; 7:26; 1 Pet 2:22; 1 Jn 3:5). When Jesus came up out of the water during His baptism, a voice from heaven was heard saying, “You are My beloved Son, in You I am wellpleased.” This was a clear testimony that Jesus Christ is the Son of God (Mark 1:11; John 1:29–34). The Gospel of Luke testifies to Jesus’ sonship through this baptismal event. Immediately after this, in order to
reaffirm this fact, the linear ascending genealogy was recorded.
Third, the genealogy demonstrates that Jesus Christ came as the seed of the woman to fulfill the covenant of salvation of mankind completely. Regarding this, Luke 3:23 states, “as was supposed, the son of Joseph.” The people knew Jesus as “the son of Joseph,” and “the son of a carpenter” (Matt 13:55). Yet, He was born of Mary and conceived by the Holy Spirit, which affirms His messianic role as the seed of the woman. The redemptive significance of Luke’s genealogy is its affirmation of Jesus Christ’s coming according to the covenants as “the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father” (John 1:18) and “in very nature God” (Phil 2:6, NIV). The infinite and eternal One put on a mortal form and died on the cross as the atoning sacrifice for the sins of mankind. God, being sinless and just, cannot condone nor overlook sin. Therefore, He made Jesus Christ pay the price of sin committed by mankind since the fall of Adam. As such, the genealogy in the Gospel of Luke is filled with the amazing message that God, who is greater than all, is in a relationship with humanity whose lives are relatively insignificant and undeserving
of His lovingkindness. The One whose face shines with the light of glory that is seven times brighter than the sun became our Immanuel (Isa 30:26; Matt 17:2), the sinner’s closest friend (Matt 1:23). This shows us the sublime and magnificent value of the saints who have been chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world. Moreover, it reveals to us the burning love and redemptive zeal that God has toward His elect.
The generations in Jesus Christ’s genealogy can be analyzed according to the three divisions set forth in Matt 1:17. The first period from Abraham to David is 14 generations; the second period from David to the deportation to Babylon is 14 generations; and the third period from after the deportation to Babylon to Jesus Christ is 14 generations. The first and second periods are divided by the life of “King David,” and the second and third periods are divided by the “deportation to Babylon.”
First Period—14 Generations from Abraham to David
This is the period of promise—the time from the beginning of Israel’s history, which started with the Abrahamic covenant, up to the establishment of the Unified Kingdom of David.
Second Period—14 Generations of Kings from David to the Deportation to Babylon. The second period is one of disgrace and humiliation, listing the names of kings until eventually the Davidic line lost its kingship and the
Israelites are tragically taken as captives into Babylon. Nevertheless, God did not forget the covenant that He made with David and continued to direct the flow of redemptive history with His sovereign grace and mercy.
Third Period—14 Generations from after the Deportation to Babylon to Jesus Christ
The third period was the time of earnest yearning for restoration from the hardship and disgrace suffered during the 70 years of Babylonian captivity. It was also a time of eager expectation for the Messiah because
the Israelites became despondent by gentile nations’ constant attack when they returned from captivity and began to rebuild the temple.
The Number of Generations Omitted and the Names of the People Recorded
The genealogy in the Gospel of Matthew does not record every consecutive generation; there are many generations omitted in the genealogy. Hence, only four generations—Hezron, Ram, Amminadab and Nahshon (Matt 1:3–4)—from the 430-year period of the slavery in Egypt are recorded in Jesus Christ’s genealogy. If we take into account that there were ten generations in the corresponding time period from Ephraim to Joshua, we can see that many generations were omitted from this same time period in Jesus’ genealogy (1 Chr 7:20–27). The year the Israelites entered Canaan was 1406 BC and the year that David appeared in history was 1010 BC. However, in Jesus’ genealogy, only four people—Salmon, Boaz, Obed and Jesse (Matt 1:5–6)— excluding David, are recorded in the 396-year time span. As discussed, Salmon and Rahab lived during the time when the Canaan conquest began, and Boaz and Ruth lived in the final years during the time of the judges (Ruth 1:1; 4:21–22). In other words, there is more than a 300-year span between Salmon and Boaz. Here, we encounter a shocking fact: after Joshua, the leader of the conquest, and his generation had passed away, the people of the judges’ era, which was a time of spiritual darkness, were almost entirely removed from Jesus’ genealogy. By deleting the people of the time of the judges from the genealogy in Matthew 1, God clearly reaffirms the testimony of the Bible regarding the state of the spiritual darkness during the era of the judges (Judg 2:7–10; cf. Josh 24:31). Those generations of people whose faith and devotion to God had dissipated were entirely removed from Jesus’ genealogy. In the genealogy of Jesus Christ, there are 14 generations recorded from David to Josiah (Matt 1:6–11). Notably, when we compare that to the
genealogy in 1 Chronicles, we see that three generations—Ahaziah, Joash and Amaziah—were omitted (1 Chr 3:11–12). All three are related in some way to the atrocious northern king, Ahab, and his wife, Jezebel (2 Kgs 8:26). Ahab and Jezebel’s daughter, Athaliah, was the person who tried to stop God’s work of redemption by wiping out the royal seed completely through which the Messiah would come (2 Kgs 11:1; 2 Chr 22:10). The three kings, who were related to Athaliah, were removed from the genealogy for committing wicked acts. This fulfilled God’s prophecy through Elijah in 1 Kings 21:21 which said that God would bring about a disaster on Ahab and his household so that all the men of Ahab’s household would be wiped out. Furthermore, three more generations were omitted from Jesus Christ’s genealogy around the time of the exile into Babylon (Matt 1:11–12; 2 Chr 36:1, 5, 11): Jehoahaz (2 Kgs 23:31; 2 Chr 36:1–2), Jehoiakim (2 Kgs 23:36; 2 Chr 36:5), and Zedekiah (2 Kgs 24:18; 2 Chr 36:11). The genealogy of Jesus Christ in Matthew 1 goes through many twists and turns with many generations being cut off, then being reconnected, and cut off again. By considering these people and generations, we can better understand that it was not a simple task for God to send Jesus Christ into this world to save His chosen people. 5
J. A. Limanto (2020): Matthew intended for the omission and this, too, fulfills the context, genre, and purpose of the genealogy.6
 
L. Sanders (2012): A cursory comparison of the genealogies from David to Joseph show that Matthew has far fewer names than Luke in the genealogy. Particularly descending from Zerubbabel, there are not nearly enough names in Matthew for the 500-year period that is represented between Zerubbabel and Jesus. But Matthew is not interested in giving a full genealogy here (unlike the chronogenealogies in Genesis)—he is only interested in establishing Jesus’ claim to the throne, and he gives enough of the genealogy to do so. 7
GotQuestions: The purpose of a genealogy is to document the proof of ancestry from the origin of the line to the person under discussion. Every individual need not be included, but only those necessary to establish descending relationship. The author may legitimately abridge a genealogy to establish a point or to make it simpler. Matthew is correct in the factual material for his purpose, which is to document the ancestry of Jesus Christ, the Messiah, from Abraham.8
The Genealogy in Luke 3:23-38
A. Fruchtenbaum (1992):
Turning to Luke’s genealogy, unlike Matthew, Luke followed strict Jewish custom and procedure in that he mentioned no women and he skipped no names. The rule against naming women in a Jewish genealogy would raise a question: “If you wished to trace a woman’s line but could not use her name, how would you do so?” The answer under Jewish law is, “You would use the name of her husband.”
But that raises another question. “Suppose someone like Luke was doing research and came across a genealogy, how could he tell by looking at the genealogy whether it was that of Mary or that of Joseph since, in either case, Joseph’s name would be found?” The answer is quite simple, but a problem lies in a point of English grammar. It is considered bad English grammar to use the definite article “the” before a proper name. However, in both Greek and Hebrew it is quite allowable. Every single name in Luke’s genealogy has the definite article “the” in front of it except one: the name of Joseph. Someone reading the original language can tell by the missing “the” that this is not really Joseph’s line, but the line of his wife, Mary.
The Jewish Talmud states: “A mother’s family is not to be called a family.” In the Old Testament, there were two cases where a woman’s line was traced by the name of her husband: Ezra 2:61 and Nehemiah 7:63. It is no accident that the Jewish Talmud refers to Mary by her Jewish name, Miriam, and calls her “the daughter of Heli,” just as Joseph is called the son of Heli in verse 23. The rabbis, when they read this genealogy, knew by the missing “the” that this was not the genealogy of Joseph, but was that of his wife, Miriam or Mary, and so referred to her as “the daughter of Heli.”
Unlike Matthew, Luke began with his own time and worked backward into history. He started with the name Joseph as a substitute of Mary and traced it to verse 31: ... the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, ...
According to this verse, Mary, like Joseph, was a descendant of David. However, unlike Joseph, Mary was a descendant of one of David’s other sons, Nathan. As a result, Mary did not have the blood of Jechoniah running through her veins. She was a descendant of David, apart of Jechoniah. Since Jesus was the real son of Mary, He too was a descendant of David, apart from Jechoniah. This means that He fulfilled the first Old Testament requirement for kingship: He was a member of the House of David, apart from Jechoniah.
However, that does not solve the entire problem. At this point of Jewish history, there were a great number of other Jews who were descendants of David, apart from Jechoniah and so Yeshua was not the only one to fulfill the first requirement. Why should He be the king and none of the others? The answer lies in the second Old Testament requirement: that of divine appointment, which will appear in another birth-narrative. But Yeshua alone fulfilled the second Old Testament requirement, that of divine appointment. Since by virtue of His Resurrection He now lives forever, He will have no successors.
Matthew’s genealogy of Jesus
A. Fruchtenbaum (2018):  In his genealogy, Matthew breaks with Jewish tradition and custom. He mentions the names of four women: Tamar, Rahab, Ruth and Bathsheba (who is the one to whom the pronoun “her” in verse six refers). It was contrary to Jewish practice to name women in a genealogy. The Talmud states, “A mother’s family is not to be called a family.” Even the few women Luke does mention were not the most prominent women in the genealogy of Yeshua. He could have mentioned Sarah, but did not. However, Matthew has a reason for naming these four and no others.
First, they were all Gentiles. This is obvious with Tamar, Rahab and Ruth. It was probably true of Bathsheba, since her first husband, Uriah, was a Hittite. Here Matthew hints at something he makes clear later: that while the main purpose of the coming of Jesus was to save the lost sheep of the house of Israel, the Gentiles would also benefit from his coming. Second, three of these women were guilty of sexual sins. Bathsheba was guilty of adultery, Rahab was guilty of prostitution and Tamar was guilty of incest. Again, Matthew only hints at a point he later clarifies: that the purpose of the Messiah’s coming was to save sinners. While this fits into the format of Old Testament genealogy, it is not Matthew’s main point.
The lineage of Joseph, Jesus’ father
Matthew’s genealogy also breaks with tradition in that he skips names. He traces the line of Joseph, the step-father of Jesus, by going back into history and working toward his own time. He starts tracing the line with Abraham (verse 2) and continues to David (verse 6). Out of David’s many sons, Solomon is chosen (verse 6), and the line is then traced to King Jeconiah (verse 11), one of the last kings before the Babylonian captivity. From Jeconiah (verse 12), the line is traced to Joseph (verse 16). Joseph was a direct descendant of David through Solomon, but also through Jeconiah. The “Jeconiah link” is significant in Matthew’s genealogy because of the special curse pronounced on Jeconiah in Jeremiah 22:24-30:
As I live,” declares the LORD,
“even though Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim
king of Judah were a signet ring on my right
hand, yet I would pull you off…
“Is this man Jeconiah a despised, shattered jar?
Or is he an undesirable vessel?
Why have he and his descendants been hurled out
and cast into a land that they had not known?
“O land, land, land, Hear the word of the LORD!!
“Thus says the LORD, ‘Write this man [Jeconiah] down childless,
A man who will not prosper in his days;
For no man of his descendants will prosper
Sitting on the throne of David, Or ruling again in Judah.’
No descendant of Jeconiah would have the right to the throne of David. Until Jeremiah, the first requirement for messianic lineage was to be of the house of David. With Jeremiah, it was limited still further. Now one had to be not only of the house of David, but apart from Jeconiah.
Joseph and Jeconiah
According to Matthew’s genealogy, Joseph had the blood of Jeconiah in his veins. He was not qualified to sit on David’s throne. He was not the heir apparent. This would also mean that no real son of Joseph would have the right to claim the throne of David. Therefore if Jesus were the real son of Joseph, he would have been disqualified from sitting on David’s throne. Neither could he claim the right to David’s throne by virtue of his adoption by Joseph, since Joseph was not the heir apparent.
The purpose of Matthew’s genealogy, then, is to show why Yeshua could not be king if he were really Joseph’s son. The purpose was not to show the royal line. For this reason, Matthew starts his Gospel with the genealogy, presents the Jeconiah problem, and then proceeds with the account of the virgin birth which, from Matthew’s viewpoint, is the solution to the Jeconiah problem. In summary, Matthew deduces that if Jesus were really Joseph’s son, he could not claim to sit on David’s throne because of the Jeconiah curse; but Jesus was not Joseph’s son, for he was born of the virgin Miriam (Matthew 1:18-25).
Luke’s genealogy of Jesus
Unlike Matthew, Luke follows strict Jewish procedure and custom in that he omits no names and mentions no women. However, if by Jewish custom one could not mention the name of a woman, but wished to trace her line, how would one do so? He would use the name of her husband. (Possible Old Testament precedents for this practice are Ezra 2:61 and Nehemiah 7:63.) That would raise a second question: If someone studied a genealogy, how would he know whether the genealogy were that of the husband or that of the wife, since in either case the husband’s name would be used? The answer is not difficult; the problem lies with the English language.
In English it is not good grammar to use a definite article (“the”) before a proper name (“the” Matthew, “the” Luke, “the” Miriam): however, it is quite permissible in Greek grammar. In the Greek text of Luke’s genealogy, every single name mentioned has the Greek definite article “the” with one exception: the name of Joseph (Luke 3:23). Someone reading the original would understand by the missing definite article from Joseph’s name that this was not really Joseph’s genealogy, but his wife Miriam’s.
Furthermore, although many translations of Luke 3:23 read: “…being supposedly the son of Joseph, the son of Eli…,” because of the missing Greek definite article before the name of Joseph, that same verse could be translated as follows: “Being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph the son of Heli…”.1 In other words, the final parenthesis could be expanded so that the verse reads that although Yeshua was “supposed” or assumed to be the descendant of Joseph, he was really the descendant of Heli. Heli was the father of Miriam. The absence of Miriam’s name is quite in keeping with the Jewish practices on genealogies. The Jerusalem Talmud recognized this genealogy to be that of Miriam and not Joseph and refers to Miriam as the daughter of Heli (Hagigah 2:2).
Starting with Adam
Also in contrast to Matthew, Luke begins his genealogy with his own time and goes back into history all the way to Adam. It comes to the family of David in verses 31-32. However, the son of David involved in this genealogy is not Solomon but Nathan. So, like Joseph, Miriam was a member of the house of David. But unlike Joseph, she came from David’s son, Nathan, not Solomon. Miriam was a member of the house of David apart from Jeconiah. Since Jesus was Miriam’s son, he too was a member of the house of David, apart from Jeconiah.
In this way Jesus fulfilled the biblical requirement for kingship. Since Luke’s genealogy did not include Jeconiah’s line, he began his Gospel with the virgin birth, and only later, in describing Yeshua’s public ministry, recorded his genealogy.
However, Jesus was not the only member of the house of David apart from Jeconiah. There were a number of other descendants who could claim equality with Yeshua to the throne of David, for they too did not have Jeconiah’s blood in their veins. Why Jesus and not one of the others? At this point the second biblical requirement for kingship, that of divine appointment, comes into the picture. Of all the members of the house of David apart from Jeconiah, only one received divine appointment. Luke 1:30-33 states:
And the angel said to her, ‘Do not be afraid, Miriam; for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb, and bear a son, and you shall name Him Yeshua. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High: and the Lord God will give him the throne of his father David; and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever; and His kingdom will have no end.’
On what grounds then could Jesus claim the throne of David? He was a member of the house of David apart from Jeconiah. He alone received divine appointment to that throne: “The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David.” 4
Archeological Evidence For The 14 Generations “Error” In Matthew
Matthew reports three times 14 generations. But in the last of the three, there are 13, not 14 generations. How comes?
Evidence-for-the-bible: A problem only arises when counting the number of people from the time of the deportation to Babylon to Jesus Christ. The list comes up short: Third division, there are only 13 generations!:
(1) Shealtiel, (2) Zerubbabel, (3) Abiud, (4) Eliakim, (5) Azor, (6) Zadok, (7) Achim, (8 ) Eliud, (9) Eleazar, (10) Matthan, (11) Jacob, (12) Joseph, and (13) Jesus Christ.
How then can we explain the discrepancy in the genealogies of Jesus? The solution can simply be discovered if someone goes through the trouble of doing some research study, go pass all readily available translations and takes a look at a few of the original texts of the Gospels with the intent of discovering the solution. When the archeological evidence for the 14 generations “error” in Matthew’s genealogy of Jesus is discovered, whatever falls in place and makes great sense, like it should, as the Word of God is perfect. After discovering that some Hebrew manuscripts of the Gospel of Matthew, or including parts of it, had actually been preserved over the centuries, we embarked on our research study and discovered 2 extremely fascinating ones containing the complete genealogy of Jesus. In a previous archeological dig, we discovered one single page of the Gospel of Matthew – Chapter 1 in Hebrew from a manuscript going back to 1576-1600 AD, whose place of origin is Italy, and which is now readily available to see online at the click of a button inside the virtual library of Bodleian Library, which is the primary research study library of the University of Oxford and among the earliest libraries in Europe.
In the Hebrew text of Matthew 1:16 we discover that the Joseph stated there is NOT the husband of Mary. As you can see in the picture shown below, the Hebrew text reads: Yoseph abi Miryam = Joseph father of Mary
Confirming Yeshua - Page 2 Archeo10
We likewise discovered a 2nd witness of the Gospel of Matthew – Chapter 1 in Hebrew, from a Hebrew manuscript going back to 15th-16th century AD, whose place of origin is likewise Italy. As you can see in the picture shown below, the Hebrew text, much like the previous one, reads: Yoseph abi Miryam = Joseph father of Mary
Confirming Yeshua - Page 2 Archeo11
Confirming Yeshua - Page 2 Archeo10
Mary undoubtedly married a man named Joseph, who was the adoptive father of Jesus, but ALSO had a father whose name was Joseph, which was a pretty common name in Israel. The confusion in understanding Jesus’ genealogy in Matthew is due to some conservative Christian Bible scholars, who find it inconceivable that the bloodline of a man would be traced through his mother’s side in a patriarchal society, and when it was, the husband would be named instead of her, and she would remain invisible. Unfortunately, this explanation is also totally made-up! The Word of God had already plainly stated that the Messiah was going to come from a woman. Now that we have learned the archeological evidence for the 14 generations “error” in Matthew’s genealogy of Jesus that Joseph in Matthew 1:16 was the father of Mary and NOT her husband, we have 14 generations(including Mary), instead of 13, from the captivity in Babylon until Christ, as we should according to Matthew 1:17!!9
Why Jesus?
A. Fruchtenbaum (2018):  While Matthew’s genealogy showed why Yeshua could not be king if he really were Joseph’s son, Luke’s genealogy shows why Yeshua could be king. When he returns, he will be king.
Two things may be noted by way of conclusion. First, many rabbinic objections to the messiahship of Jesus are based on his genealogy. The argument goes, “Since Jesus was not a descendant of David through his father, he cannot be Messiah and King.” But the Messiah was supposed to be different. As early as Genesis 3:15, it was proposed that the Messiah would be reckoned after the “seed of the woman,” although this went contrary to the biblical norm. The necessity for this exception to the rule became apparent when Isaiah 7:14 prophesied that the Messiah would be born of a virgin: “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call his name Immanuel.” Whereas all others receive their humanity from both father and mother, the Messiah would receive his humanity entirely from his mother. Whereas Jewish nationality and tribal identity were normally determined by the father, with the Messiah it would be different. Since he was to have no human father, his nationality and his tribal identity would come entirely from his mother. True, this is contrary to the norm, but so is a virgin birth. With the Messiah, things would be different.
In addition, these genealogies present a fourfold portrait of the messianic person through four titles. In Matthew 1:1 he is called the Son of David and the Son of Abraham. In Luke 3:38 he is called the Son of Adam and the Son of God. As the Son of David, it means that Jesus is king. As the Son of Abraham, it means that Jesus is a Jew. As the Son of Adam, it means that Jesus is a man. As the Son of God, it means that Jesus is God. This fourfold portrait of the messianic person as presented by the genealogies is that of the Jewish God-Man King. Could the Messiah be anyone less? 9
The God-Man Concept and the Messiah
A.Fruchtenbaum (2010): Another aspect involving the kingship of the Messiah is the strange God-Man concept concerning the Messiah. Some passages dealing with the kingship of the Messiah add a whole new dimension as to the person of the Messiah, making him a man and yet more than a man. One of these is Isaiah 9:6-7:
For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and of peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it with justice and with righteousness from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of Jehovah of hosts will perform this.
Verse 6 declares that a son is born into the Jewish world who will eventually control the reins of government. Verse 7 identifies him as the messianic descendant of David; it gives a dramatic description of his reign, which will be characterized by peace and justice. But in verse 6 he is given names that can only be true of God himself. "Wonderful Counsellor" and "Prince of Peace" can be true of a man, but "Mighty God" and "Everlasting Father" cannot. This new dimension presented by Isaiah regarding the person of the Messiah is that the Messiah had to be a man, a descendant of David, but also he was to be God as well. This further explains what Isaiah had said two chapters earlier (Isa. 7:14) when he stated: 
Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
In this passage, Isaiah declares that there is going to be a son born of a virgin. Then he is given a name which is said to be Immanuel. In the Bible, when a parent names his child, it shows the thinking of the parents. However, when God gives a person a name, it actually represents his very character, as only God can foresee. So when this child is named by God Immanuel, the name portrays the actual character of the child. What does Immanuel mean? It means: With Us, God. So here we have a child that is born of a virgin who is With Us, God, or God is among us! The Isaiah 9 portion further clarifies that this son is a descendant of David, and he is labeled as God himself. So Isaiah clearly portrays the Messiah as the God-Man. Nor is Isaiah alone in presenting this picture. Jeremiah echoes Isaiah in chapter 23, verses 5-6:
Behold, the days come, says Jehovah, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely; and this is his name whereby he shall be called: Jehovah our righteousness.
Here, too, a descendant of David reigns upon the throne of David, and the character of his reign is described as one of peace and security for Israel. Yet he is given the very name of God, which can only belong to God himself—Adonai Tzidkenu—Jehovah our Righteousness. This is YHVH, the very name God revealed to Moses as being his own personal name—I AM. So once again the future King Messiah of Israel is seen as a man on one hand but as God on the other. As with the sonship concept, the God-Man concept is related to Messiah's kingship. This, then, concludes the picture given of the Messiah in the Old Testament. On the one hand he is a suffering and dying Messiah. On the other he is a conquering and reigning Messiah called God and the Son of God. The solution of the rabbis was to formulate the doctrine of two Messiahs: Messiah, the Son of Joseph, and Messiah, the Son of David. But this is not the only option.
The New Testament confirms Jesus as the Messiah
The primary point of the New Testament is that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah of the Old Testament. While each of the four biographies on the life of Jesus that have come down to us have their own theme, they still all make one primary point: Jesus is the Messiah. The New Testament begins with the words: The book of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah the son of David, the son of Abraham. This opening statement of the New Testament sets the stage for the entire New Testament. His Messiahship, his kingship, and his Jewishness are the dominant claims of the New Testament. This is true of the Gospels, the four biographies of his life, as well as the rest of the writings of the New Testament, which deal with the theology of the life of Jesus. He is clearly portrayed as the Messiah of the Old Testament. To conclude this discussion on what the New Testament says about Jesus, it proclaims him to be the Messiah of the Old Testament. The New Testament solution to the Old Testament paradox is that there will only be one Messiah, and this Messiah would come two times. This seems to be consistent with the Old Testament, since often the Old Testament passages speak of the suffering and the conquering aspects of the Messiah in one and the same passage, giving no indication at all that two persons are meant.3
1. Dr. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum: THE BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE OF THE MESSIAH 1992
2. JOHN F. WALVOORD: Every Prophecy of the Bible: Clear Explanations for Uncertain Times September 1, 2011
3. Michael Rydelnik: The Moody Handbook of Messianic Prophecy: Studies and Expositions of the Messiah in the Old Testament 2019
4. A. Fruchtenbaum: Jesus Was A Jew February 1, 2010
5. Abraham Park: The Unquenchable Lamp of the Covenant: The First Fourteen Generations in the Genealogy of Jesus Christ 2018
6. John A. Limanto: MATTHEW: JESUS’ GENEALOGY AND BIBLICAL INERRANCY DECEMBER 21, 2020
7. Lita Sanders: The genealogies of Jesus 25 December 201
8. GotQuestions: Is there an error in the counting of the 14 generations in Matthew chapter 1?
9. Evidence-For-The-Bible: Archeological Evidence For The 14 Generations “Error” In Matthew



Last edited by Otangelo on Sun Mar 05, 2023 4:22 pm; edited 19 times in total

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Prophecies in the Old Testament confirming Jesus as the Messiah

https://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2435-fullfilled-prophecies-in-the-bible#9893

The Old Testament is filled with prophecies that speak of a coming Messiah, a Savior who would be sent by God to redeem his people. These prophecies were written hundreds of years before the birth of Jesus Christ, yet they were fulfilled in Him with astonishing accuracy. According to many scholars, there are 356 Old Testament prophecies that were fulfilled in Christ. These prophecies cover various aspects of Jesus' life, including his birth, his ministry, his death, and his resurrection.  Each of these prophecies was written hundreds of years before Jesus was born, yet they were fulfilled with astonishing accuracy. The fulfillment of these prophecies serves as powerful evidence that Jesus is indeed the promised Messiah. They demonstrate that God's plan of redemption was in motion long before Jesus was born, and that everything was working together to bring about His salvation plan. As believers, we can take great comfort in the fact that God's promises never fail, and that everything He has promised will come to pass. The fulfillment of these prophecies is a powerful reminder of God's faithfulness, and that we can trust Him in all things.

There is strong evidence to suggest that the Old Testament prophecies were written before the birth of Christ, rather than being post-dictions written after the events took place. Firstly, the Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered in the mid-twentieth century, contain copies of Old Testament books that date back to the second century BCE. These texts include prophecies about the Messiah that were clearly written before the birth of Jesus. Secondly, many of the Old Testament prophecies were quoted by Jesus and the apostles in the New Testament, indicating that they were known and accepted as genuine prophecies before the events took place. For example, in Matthew 2:5-6, the scribes and chief priests tell Herod that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem, quoting from Micah 5:2, which was written around 700 years before Christ's birth. Thirdly, there are historical records from Jewish and non-Christian sources that confirm the existence of these prophecies before the birth of Jesus. For example, the Jewish historian Josephus, who lived in the first century CE, mentions the prophecies about the Messiah in his writings.

Finally, the accuracy and specificity of these prophecies suggest that they were not mere guesswork or post-dictions, but were divinely inspired. The fact that so many prophecies were fulfilled in Christ, and that they cover such a wide range of details about His life, suggests that they were written with supernatural knowledge. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly support the view that the Old Testament prophecies were written before the birth of Christ, and were not post-dictions written after the events took place.

The Qumran scrolls, which were discovered in the mid-twentieth century, are a collection of Jewish texts that date back to the Second Temple period (roughly 530 BCE to 70 CE). These texts include copies of many Old Testament books, as well as other religious and secular texts.

While the exact dating of some of the scrolls is still a matter of debate among scholars, there is strong evidence to suggest that many of the scrolls were written before the birth of Jesus. Firstly, the dating of the scrolls has been determined using a variety of methods, including carbon-14 dating and paleographic analysis of the handwriting. These methods indicate that the majority of the scrolls were written between the third century BCE and the first century CE, with many of them being produced in the two centuries before Christ's birth. Secondly, the content of the scrolls suggests that they were written before the birth of Jesus. The scrolls contain many references to the coming of the Messiah, which suggest that they were written before the time when Jesus was widely accepted as the Messiah. For example, the scroll known as the "Manual of Discipline" contains a reference to a coming "Teacher of Righteousness," who is thought to be a messianic figure. Thirdly, there are linguistic and stylistic differences between the Qumran scrolls and later Jewish texts. For example, the scrolls use a form of Hebrew that is closer to the Hebrew used in the Old Testament, whereas later Jewish texts use a form of Hebrew that has been heavily influenced by Aramaic. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly suggest that the Qumran scrolls were written before the birth of Jesus, and that they provide valuable insights into the religious and cultural context in which Jesus lived and taught.  Scholars generally agree that the majority of the scrolls were written between the third century BCE and the first century CE, with many of them being produced in the two centuries before Christ's birth. Carbon-14 dating has been used to date some of the scrolls, but this method has limitations and can only provide approximate dates. Other dating methods, such as paleographic analysis of the handwriting and linguistic analysis, have also been used to determine the age of the scrolls. In general, the dating of the Qumran scrolls is based on a combination of factors, including the content of the texts, the language and writing style, and comparisons with other texts and artifacts from the same time period. The dating of some of the scrolls remains a matter of debate, and new evidence and methods of analysis may lead to revisions in the dating of the scrolls in the future.

The psalms, the books of Isaiah, and the book of Daniel are especially noteworthy since they contain some of the most remarkable prophecies, fulfilled in Christ. 

Genesis

The book of Genesis contains several remarkable prophecies related to the Messiah, which provide insight into God's plan for salvation from the very beginning of human history. Here are a few examples:

Genesis 3:15 - This verse is known as the protoevangelium or the first gospel, and it promises that the offspring of the woman will crush the head of the serpent. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come to defeat Satan and overcome the power of sin and death.
Genesis 12:3 - In this verse, God promises Abraham that in his offspring all the nations of the earth will be blessed. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come from the line of Abraham and bring salvation to all people.
Genesis 49:10 - In this verse, Jacob blesses his son Judah and prophesies that the scepter shall not depart from Judah until the coming of the one to whom it belongs. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come from the tribe of Judah and rule over God's people.
Genesis 22:18 - In this verse, God promises Abraham that in his offspring all the nations of the earth will be blessed, a repetition of the promise in Genesis 12:3. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come through Abraham's lineage and bring salvation to all people.
Genesis 28:14 - In this verse, God promises Jacob that his offspring shall be like the dust of the earth, and through his offspring all the families of the earth shall be blessed. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come from the line of Jacob and bring salvation to all people.

These prophecies demonstrate God's faithfulness to his promise to send a Savior to rescue humanity from sin and death. They also highlight the continuity of God's plan of redemption throughout the Old and New Testaments.

Exodus

The book of Exodus also contains several remarkable prophecies related to the Messiah, which provide further insight into God's plan for salvation. Here are a few examples:

Exodus 12:5-6 - In the instructions for the Passover, God commands the Israelites to choose a male lamb without blemish for each household, and to slaughter it at twilight on the fourteenth day of the month. This is a foreshadowing of the Messiah who would come as the sacrificial lamb of God, without blemish, to take away the sins of the world.
Exodus 19:5-6 - In this passage, God tells the Israelites that if they obey his voice and keep his covenant, they will be his treasured possession among all peoples, and a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come as the ultimate mediator between God and humanity, establishing a new covenant through his sacrificial death and resurrection.
Exodus 33:19 - When Moses asks to see God's glory, God responds that he will make all his goodness pass before Moses, and will proclaim his name before him. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come as the visible manifestation of God's glory and the perfect revelation of his character and nature.
Exodus 40:34-38 - In this passage, the glory of the Lord fills the tabernacle, indicating God's presence with his people. This is a foreshadowing of the Messiah who would come as the incarnation of God, dwelling among his people and reconciling them to himself.

These prophecies in Exodus demonstrate God's redemptive plan and his desire to dwell among his people. They also point to the ultimate fulfillment of these promises in the person of Jesus Christ.

Leviticus:

The book of Leviticus contains many laws and regulations for the worship and service of God. While it may not seem to have as many direct prophecies related to the Messiah as some other books, there are still several significant references. Here are a few examples:

Leviticus 16 - This chapter describes the annual Day of Atonement, when the high priest would make atonement for the sins of the people by offering sacrifices and entering the Most Holy Place. This is a foreshadowing of the Messiah who would come as the ultimate High Priest, offering himself as the perfect sacrifice for the sins of the world.
Leviticus 23:4-8 - In this passage, God commands the Israelites to observe the Feast of Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread, commemorating their deliverance from slavery in Egypt. These feasts were also significant because they pointed forward to the coming of the Messiah, who would fulfill the meaning of these festivals in his sacrificial death and resurrection.
Leviticus 26:12 - In this passage, God promises to dwell among his people and be their God, indicating his desire for relationship and intimacy with his people. This is a foreshadowing of the Messiah who would come as the embodiment of God's presence and the ultimate means of reconciliation between God and humanity.
Leviticus 17:11 - This verse states that the life of the flesh is in the blood, and that God has given the blood as a means of making atonement for sin. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come as the perfect sacrifice, shedding his blood to atone for the sins of humanity once and for all.

While Leviticus may not contain as many direct prophecies related to the Messiah as some other books of the Bible, it provides important context for understanding the significance of Jesus' sacrificial death and resurrection.

Numbers

The book of Numbers is primarily a historical narrative, chronicling the Israelites' journey through the wilderness and their preparations to enter the Promised Land. While there are fewer direct prophecies related to the Messiah in this book, there are still some significant references. Here are a few examples:

Numbers 24:17-19 - In this passage, the prophet Balaam declares a prophecy about a star that will come out of Jacob and a scepter that will rise out of Israel. This is a reference to the Messiah who would come as the ruler and king of Israel.
Numbers 21:8-9 - In this story, the Israelites are plagued by venomous snakes as a result of their disobedience. God tells Moses to make a bronze serpent and lift it up on a pole, and anyone who looks at it will be healed. Jesus later references this story when he says, "Just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up" (John 3:14). This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come as the ultimate source of healing and salvation.
Numbers 27:18-23 - In this passage, Moses appoints Joshua as his successor to lead the Israelites into the Promised Land. This is a foreshadowing of the Messiah who would come as the ultimate leader and guide for God's people, leading them into the ultimate promised land of eternal life.

While there may be fewer direct prophecies related to the Messiah in the book of Numbers, these examples demonstrate that even in the historical narrative, there are still significant references to the coming of the Messiah and the fulfillment of God's redemptive plan.

The book of Deuteronomy

The book of Deuteronomy contains several prophecies related to the coming Messiah. Here are a few examples:

Deuteronomy 18:15 - In this passage, Moses declares that God will raise up a prophet like himself from among the Israelites, and that the people should listen to him. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come as the ultimate prophet and teacher, delivering the word of God to his people.
Deuteronomy 18:18-19 - In this passage, God promises to raise up a prophet like Moses, and declares that he will put his words in the prophet's mouth. This is another reference to the Messiah who would come as the ultimate spokesman for God, delivering his message to the world.
Deuteronomy 30:6 - In this passage, Moses prophesies that God will circumcise the hearts of his people and make them love him with all their hearts and souls. This is a foreshadowing of the work of the Messiah who would come to bring about spiritual renewal and transformation in the hearts of humanity.
Deuteronomy 32:43 - This verse contains a prophecy that God will avenge the blood of his servants and bring judgment on his enemies. This is a reference to the Messiah who would come as the ultimate judge, bringing justice and righteousness to the world.

These prophecies in Deuteronomy, along with those found in the other books of the Old Testament, provide a rich and detailed picture of the coming of the Messiah and the fulfillment of God's plan for redemption.

Samuel

The books of 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel contain several prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah, as well as the establishment of the Davidic dynasty, which was a foreshadowing of the Messiah's reign. Here are a few examples:

1 Samuel 2:10 - This verse prophesies that God will give strength to his king (referring to the Davidic dynasty) and exalt the horn of his anointed (referring to the Messiah).
2 Samuel 7:12-13 - In this passage, God promises David that he will raise up one of his descendants to establish his kingdom forever. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come as the ultimate king, ruling with justice and righteousness.
2 Samuel 23:1-7 - These verses contain a prophetic poem from David, declaring that the Messiah will come as the ultimate ruler, bringing salvation and justice to the world.
1 Samuel 16:13 - When Samuel anoints David as king, the Spirit of the Lord comes upon him in power. This is a foreshadowing of the coming of the Messiah, who would also be anointed with the Spirit and empowered for his mission.

These prophecies, along with others found throughout the Old Testament, provide a rich and detailed picture of the coming of the Messiah and the fulfillment of God's plan for redemption. They also highlight the importance of the Davidic dynasty in God's redemptive plan, as a foreshadowing of the Messiah's reign.

Chronicles

The books of 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles contain several prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah and the Davidic dynasty, as well as the establishment of God's kingdom on earth. Here are a few examples:

1 Chronicles 17:11-14 - In this passage, God promises David that one of his descendants will sit on the throne forever, and that God will establish his kingdom and never take his love away from him. This is a prophecy of the Messiah who would come as the ultimate king, ruling with justice and righteousness forever.
2 Chronicles 6:16 - In this passage, Solomon declares that God has fulfilled his promise to David by establishing his son on the throne. This is a foreshadowing of the coming of the Messiah, who would be a descendant of David and establish his kingdom forever.
2 Chronicles 7:14 - This well-known verse contains a prophecy of repentance and restoration, declaring that if God's people humble themselves and turn from their wicked ways, he will heal their land. This is a foreshadowing of the work of the Messiah, who would come to bring salvation and redemption to a fallen world.
2 Chronicles 36:22-23 - In this passage, Cyrus, king of Persia, is prophesied to allow the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple. This is a foreshadowing of the coming of the Messiah, who would bring about a new era of restoration and renewal for God's people.

These prophecies, along with others found throughout the Old Testament, provide a rich and detailed picture of the coming of the Messiah and the fulfillment of God's plan for redemption. They also highlight the importance of the Davidic dynasty in God's redemptive plan and the establishment of his kingdom on earth.

Job

The book of Job does not contain any specific prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah. However, it does provide insight into the nature of suffering and the role of God in the midst of it. Job's story serves as a powerful reminder that even in the midst of great pain and suffering, God is present and at work, bringing about his purposes in ways that we may not understand.

In Job 19:25-27, Job expresses his hope in God's ultimate redemption, saying, "I know that my Redeemer lives, and that in the end he will stand on the earth. And after my skin has been destroyed, yet in my flesh I will see God; I myself will see him with my own eyes—I, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!" While this passage does not explicitly refer to the Messiah, it does speak to the hope of ultimate redemption and resurrection that is central to the Christian faith.

Additionally, the book of Job provides a powerful example of faithfulness in the face of suffering. Despite everything that he goes through, Job remains faithful to God, refusing to curse him or turn away from him. This serves as a powerful reminder that even in the midst of great hardship and pain, our faith in God can sustain us and provide us with hope for the future.


The Psalms

The Psalms are a collection of religious songs and poems that were written over a period of several centuries, from around the 10th century BCE to the 5th century BCE. They were written by various authors, including King David, Asaph, the sons of Korah, Solomon, Moses, and others, and were compiled and edited over time to form the book of Psalms as we have it today. The exact dates of when each Psalm was written are not always known, as the Psalms were often written anonymously and were not always accompanied by historical or biographical information. However, scholars have attempted to date the Psalms based on internal evidence, such as references to historical events or cultural practices, and linguistic and literary features that may indicate a particular time period or authorship. Overall, the Psalms are considered to be one of the most important and enduring works of religious literature in the world, and continue to be used as a source of inspiration, comfort, and spiritual guidance by people of many different faiths.

The book of Psalms contains many prophecies and foreshadowings of the Messiah, some of which are among the most remarkable and well-known prophecies in the Old Testament. Here are a few examples:

Psalm 22: This psalm is often called the "Messianic psalm" because of its vivid description of the sufferings of the Messiah. It begins with the haunting words, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" which were quoted by Jesus on the cross. The psalm goes on to describe the piercing of the Messiah's hands and feet, the casting of lots for his clothing, and his cry for deliverance from death.

Psalm 2: This psalm is a royal psalm that speaks of the coming of a king who will be God's chosen one and who will rule the nations with an iron scepter. This psalm is often seen as a prophecy of the Messiah's reign and his victory over his enemies.

Psalm 110: This psalm is another royal psalm that speaks of a king who will be both a priest and a warrior. The psalm describes the Messiah as sitting at God's right hand and ruling in the midst of his enemies, and it foreshadows his victory over death and his eternal reign.

Psalm 16: This psalm speaks of the Messiah's resurrection from the dead, declaring that God will not allow his "holy one" to see decay. This psalm was quoted by the apostle Peter in his sermon on the day of Pentecost, as evidence that Jesus was the promised Messiah.

These are just a few examples of the remarkable prophecies about the Messiah in the book of Psalms. They demonstrate the deep roots of the Messianic hope in the Jewish Scriptures, and they provide powerful evidence of Jesus' identity as the promised Savior.

Isaiah

The book of Isaiah contains several remarkable prophecies related to the Messiah, which were written over 700 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. Some of the most notable prophecies include:

The Virgin Birth (Isaiah 7:14): This prophecy foretells that the Messiah would be born of a virgin. It says, "Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel." Christians believe that this prophecy was fulfilled in the birth of Jesus Christ.

The Suffering Servant (Isaiah 53): This chapter describes a "suffering servant" who would bear the sins of humanity and make atonement for them. It says that he would be "pierced for our transgressions" and "crushed for our iniquities," and that "by his wounds we are healed." Christians believe that this prophecy was fulfilled in the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

The Son of David (Isaiah 9:6-7): This prophecy foretells that the Messiah would be a descendant of King David and would reign over a kingdom that would have no end. It says, "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace." Christians believe that this prophecy was fulfilled in the person of Jesus Christ, who is often referred to as the "Son of David."

The Light to the Nations (Isaiah 42:6): This prophecy foretells that the Messiah would be a light to the nations and would bring salvation to people from all over the world. It says, "I will make you a light for the Gentiles, that my salvation may reach to the ends of the earth." Christians believe that this prophecy was fulfilled in the ministry of Jesus Christ, who preached a message of salvation and love to people of all nations.

Overall, the prophecies related to the Messiah in the book of Isaiah are seen as evidence of God's plan for salvation and the fulfillment of those prophecies in the person of Jesus Christ is considered to be one of the key tenets of the Christian faith.

Jeremiah

The book of Jeremiah contains several prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah. One of the most well-known is found in Jeremiah 23:5-6, where it states, "The days are coming," declares the Lord, "when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, a King who will reign wisely and do what is just and right in the land. In his days Judah will be saved and Israel will live in safety. This is the name by which he will be called: The Lord Our Righteous Savior."

This prophecy speaks of a coming King who will be descended from David, and who will rule with wisdom and justice. This King will be a source of salvation for Judah and safety for Israel. Christians believe that this prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who was born into the line of David and who reigns as King of Kings and Lord of Lords.

Another prophecy related to the Messiah in Jeremiah is found in 31:31-34, where it speaks of a new covenant that God will make with his people. This covenant will not be like the old covenant, which was broken by the people, but will be written on their hearts. Christians believe that this prophecy is fulfilled in the new covenant that Jesus established through his death and resurrection, which allows us to have a personal relationship with God and access to eternal life.

Jeremiah also contains several other prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah, including a description of a righteous Branch who will execute justice and righteousness on the earth (Jeremiah 33:15), and a prophecy that the people of Israel will return to the Lord and be gathered back into their land (Jeremiah 31:10-14).

Hesekiel

The book of Ezekiel contains several prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah. One of the most significant prophecies is found in Ezekiel 34:23-24, where it states, "I will place over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he will tend them; he will tend them and be their shepherd. I the Lord will be their God, and my servant David will be prince among them. I the Lord have spoken."

This prophecy speaks of a coming Shepherd who will tend God's people and be a prince among them. Christians believe that this prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who is often referred to as the Good Shepherd in the New Testament.

Another prophecy related to the Messiah in Ezekiel is found in chapter 37, where it speaks of the valley of dry bones. In this vision, God shows Ezekiel a valley filled with dry bones, which represent the people of Israel who have been scattered and destroyed. However, God tells Ezekiel to prophesy to the bones, and as he does, the bones come together and are covered with flesh and breath. This prophecy is seen as a foreshadowing of the resurrection of the dead, which is a central part of Christian belief and is believed to be fulfilled in the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Ezekiel also contains several other prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah, including a vision of a new temple that will be built in Jerusalem (Ezekiel 40-48), and a prophecy that God will give his people a new heart and a new spirit (Ezekiel 36:26-27).

Daniel

The book of Daniel contains several prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah. One of the most significant prophecies is found in Daniel 9:25-26, where it states, "Know and understand this: From the time the word goes out to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes, there will be seven ‘sevens,’ and sixty-two ‘sevens.’ It will be rebuilt with streets and a trench, but in times of trouble. After the sixty-two ‘sevens,’ the Anointed One will be put to death and will have nothing."

This prophecy speaks of a coming Anointed One, who will be a ruler and will be put to death. Christians believe that this prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who was crucified in Jerusalem during the time period predicted in this prophecy.

Another prophecy related to the Messiah in Daniel is found in chapter 7, where it speaks of the Son of Man. In this vision, Daniel sees a figure like a Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven and being given authority and glory by the Ancient of Days. Christians believe that this prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who referred to himself as the Son of Man and who was given all authority in heaven and on earth.

Daniel also contains several other prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah, including a vision of the end times and the resurrection of the dead (Daniel 12:1-3), and a prophecy that God's kingdom will never be destroyed (Daniel 2:44).

Hosea

The book of Hosea contains several prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah. One of the most significant prophecies is found in Hosea 11:1, where it states, "When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son." Christians believe that this prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who was taken by his parents to Egypt as a child and later brought out of Egypt.

Another prophecy related to the Messiah in Hosea is found in chapter 13, where it speaks of God's wrath against those who reject him. In this chapter, Hosea prophesies that God will send a lion to destroy those who rebel against him. Christians believe that this prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who is referred to in the New Testament as the Lion of Judah and who came to bring judgment on those who reject God.

Hosea also contains several other prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah, including a prophecy that God will heal his people and love them freely (Hosea 14:4-7), and a prophecy that God will restore his people and give them a new name (Hosea 2:16-23).

Micah

The book of Micah contains several prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah. One of the most significant prophecies is found in Micah 5:2, where it states, "But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times." Christians believe that this prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who was born in Bethlehem and who is the ruler over Israel and all nations.

Another prophecy related to the Messiah in Micah is found in chapter 7, where it speaks of God's mercy and faithfulness. In this chapter, Micah prophesies that God will pardon sin and show mercy to his people, and that he will fulfill his promises to them. Christians believe that this prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who came to forgive sin and reconcile humanity to God, and who fulfilled God's promises to his people through his life, death, and resurrection.

Micah also contains several other prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah, including a prophecy that God will gather his people and restore their fortunes (Micah 4:6-7), and a prophecy that God will come to judge the earth and establish his kingdom (Micah 4:1-5).

Zecheriah

The book of Zechariah contains many prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah and the establishment of his kingdom. One of the most well-known prophecies is found in Zechariah 9:9, which states, "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, humble, and mounted on a donkey, even on a colt, the foal of a donkey." Christians believe that this prophecy was fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who entered Jerusalem on a donkey to the cheers of the people, shortly before his crucifixion.

Another significant prophecy related to the Messiah in Zechariah is found in chapter 12, where it speaks of a future day when God will pour out his Spirit on the people of Israel and they will look upon the one they have pierced. Christians see in this a reference to the crucifixion of Jesus, and to the coming of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, which marked the beginning of the Church.

Zechariah also contains many other prophecies related to the Messiah and his kingdom, including a prophecy that God will save his people and gather them from among the nations (Zechariah 10:6-12), and a prophecy that God will strike the shepherd and the sheep will be scattered (Zechariah 13:7), which Christians see as a reference to the crucifixion of Jesus and the scattering of his disciples before his resurrection.

Overall, the book of Zechariah contains many prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah and the establishment of his kingdom, which Christians believe were fulfilled in Jesus Christ and will be further fulfilled at his second coming.

Maleachi

The book of Malachi is the last book of the Old Testament, and it contains several prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah. One of the most notable prophecies is found in Malachi 3:1, which states, "Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming," says the Lord of hosts."

Christians see this prophecy as being fulfilled in John the Baptist, who was the messenger sent to prepare the way for Jesus Christ, who came to his temple and fulfilled the role of the messenger of the covenant. Malachi 4:5-6 also contains a prophecy related to the coming of Elijah, which Christians interpret as a reference to John the Baptist, who came in the spirit and power of Elijah.

Another notable prophecy related to the Messiah in Malachi is found in Malachi 4:2, which states, "But for you who fear My name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings; and you will go forth and skip about like calves from the stall." Christians see this prophecy as referring to the healing and salvation that Jesus Christ brings to those who believe in him.

Overall, the book of Malachi contains several prophecies related to the coming of the Messiah, which Christians see as being fulfilled in Jesus Christ.

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1.  Gen. 3:15 Seed of a woman (virgin birth) Galatians 4:4-5, Matthew 1:18
2.  Gen. 3:15 He will bruise Satan’s head Hebrews 2:14, 1 John 3:8
3.  Gen. 3:15 Christ’s heel would be bruised with nails on the cross Matthew 27:35, Luke 24:39-40
4.  Gen. 5:24 The bodily ascension to heaven illustrated Mark 16:19, Rev. 12:5
5.  Gen. 9:26, 27 The God of Shem will be the Son of Shem Luke 3:23-36
6.  Gen. 12:3 Seed of Abraham will bless all nations Galatians 3:8, Acts 3:25, 26
7.  Gen. 12:7 The Promise made to Abraham’s Seed Galatians 3:16
8.  Gen. 14:18 A priest after the order of Melchizedek Hebrews 6:20
9.  Gen. 14:18 King of Peace and Righteousness Hebrews 7:2
10.  Gen. 14:18 The Last Supper foreshadowed Matthew 26:26-29
11.  Gen. 17:19 Seed of Isaac (Gen. 21:12) Romans 9:7
12.  Gen. 22:8 The Lamb of God promised John 1:29
13.  Gen. 22:18 As Isaac’s seed, will bless all nations Galatians 3:16
14.  Gen. 26:2-5 The Seed of Isaac promised as the Redeemer Hebrews 11:18
15.  Gen. 28:12 The Bridge to heaven John 1:51
16.  Gen. 28:14 The Seed of Jacob Luke 3:34
17.  Gen. 49:10 The time of His coming Luke 2:1-7; Galatians 4:4
18.  Gen. 49:10 The Seed of Judah Luke 3:33
19.  Gen. 49:10 Called Shiloh or One Sent John 17:3
20.  Gen. 49:10 Messiah to come before Judah lost identity John 11:47-52
21.  Gen. 49:10 Unto Him shall the obedience of the people be John 10:16
22.  Ex. 3:13-15 The Great “I AM” John 4:26; 8:58
23.  Ex. 12:3-6 The Lamb presented to Israel 4 days before Passover Mark 11:7-11
24.  Ex. 12:5 A Lamb without blemish Hebrews 9:14; 1Peter 1:19
25.  Ex. 12:13 The blood of the Lamb saves from wrath Romans 5:8
26.  Ex. 12:21-27 Christ is our Passover 1Corinthians 5:7
27.  Ex. 12:46 Not a bone of the Lamb to be broken John 19:31-36
28.  Ex. 15:2 His exaltation predicted as Yeshua Acts 7:55, 56
29.  Ex. 15:11 His Character-Holiness Luke 1:35; Acts 4:27
30.  Ex. 17:6 The Spiritual Rock of Israel 1Corinthians 10:4
31.  Ex. 33:19 His Character-Merciful Luke 1:72
32.  Lev. 1:2-9 His sacrifice a sweet smelling savor unto God Ephesians 5:2
33.  Lev. 14:11 The leper cleansed-Sign to priesthood Luke 5:12-14; Acts 6:7
34.  Lev. 16:15-17 Prefigures Christ’s once-for-all death Hebrews 9:7-14
35.  Lev. 16:27 Suffering outside the Camp Matthew 27:33; Heb. 13:11, 12
36.  Lev. 17:11 The Blood-the life of the flesh Matthew 26:28; Mark 10:45
37.  Lev. 17:11 It is the blood that makes atonement Rom. 3:23-24; 1John 1:7
38.  Lev. 23:36-37 The Drink-offering: “If any man thirst” John 7:37
39.  Num. 9:12 Not a bone of Him broken John 19:31-36
40.  Num. 21:9 The serpent on a pole-Christ lifted up John 3:14-18; 12:32
41.  Num. 24:17 Time: “I shall see him, but not now.” John 1:14; Galatians 4:4
42.  Deut. 18:15 “This is of a truth that prophet.” John 6:14
43.  Deut. 18:15-16 “Had ye believed Moses, ye would believe me.” John 5:45-47
44.  Deut. 18:18 Sent by the Father to speak His word John 8:28, 29
45.  Deut. 18:19 Whoever will not hear must bear his sin Acts 3:22-23
46. Deut. 21:23 Cursed is he that hangs on a tree Galatians 3:10-13
47.  Joshua 5:14-15 The Captain of our salvation Hebrews 2:10
48.  Ruth 4:4-10 Christ, our kinsman, has redeemed us Ephesians 1:3-7
49.  1 Sam. 2:35 A Faithful Priest Heb. 2:17; 3:1-3, 6; 7:24-25
50.  1 Sam. 2:10 Shall be an anointed King to the Lord Mt. 28:18, John 12:15
51.  2 Sam. 7:12 David’s Seed Matthew 1:1
52.  2 Sam. 7:13 His Kingdom is everlasting 2Peter 1:11
53.  2 Sam. 7:14 The Son of God Luke 1:32, Romans 1:3-4
54.  2 Sam. 7:16 David’s house established forever Luke 3:31; Rev. 22:16
55.  2 Ki. 2:11 The bodily ascension to heaven illustrated Luke 24:51
56.  1 Chr. 17:11 David’s Seed Matthew 1:1; 9:27
57.  1 Chr. 17:12-13 To reign on David’s throne forever Luke 1:32, 33
58.  1 Chr. 17:13 “I will be His Father, He…my Son.” Hebrews 1:5
59.  Job 9:32-33 Mediator between man and God 1 Timothy 2:5
60.  Job 19:23-27 The Resurrection predicted John 5:24-29
61.  Psa. 2:1-3 The enmity of kings foreordained Acts 4:25-28
62.  Psa. 2:2 To own the title, Anointed (Christ) John 1:41, Acts 2:36
63.  Psa. 2:6 His Character-Holiness John 8:46; Revelation 3:7
64.  Psa. 2:6 To own the title King Matthew 2:2
65.  Psa. 2:7 Declared the Beloved Son Matthew 3:17, Romans 1:4
66.  Psa. 2:7, 8 The Crucifixion and Resurrection intimated Acts 13:29-33
67.  Psa. 2:8, 9 Rule the nations with a rod of iron Rev. 2:27; 12:5; 19:15
68.  Psa. 2:12 Life comes through faith in Him John 20:31
69.  Psa. 8:2 The mouths of babes perfect His praise Matthew 21:16
70.  Psa. 8:5, 6 His humiliation and exaltation Hebrews 2:5-9
71.  Psa. 9:7-10 Judge the world in righteousness Acts 17:31
72.  Psa. 16:10 Was not to see corruption Acts 2:31; 13:35
73.  Psa. 16:9-11 Was to arise from the dead John 20:9
74.  Psa. 17:15 The resurrection predicted Luke 24:6
75.  Psa. 18:2-3 The horn of salvation Luke 1:69-71
76.  Psa. 22:1 Forsaken because of sins of others 2 Corinthians 5:21
77.  Psa. 22:1 “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” Matthew 27:46
78.  Psa. 22:2 Darkness upon Calvary for three hours Matthew 27:45
79.  Psa. 22:7 They shoot out the lip and shake the head Matthew 27:39-44
80.  Psa. 22:8 “He trusted in God, let Him deliver Him” Matthew 27:43
81.  Psa. 22:9-10 Born the Saviour Luke 2:7
82.  Psa. 22:12-13 They seek His death John 19:6
83.  Psa. 22:14 His blood poured out when they pierced His side John 19:34
84.  Psa. 22:14, 15 Suffered agony on Calvary Mark 15:34-37
85.  Psa. 22:15 He thirsted John 19:28
86.  Psa. 22:16 They pierced His hands and His feet John 19:34, 37; 20:27
87.  Psa. 22:17, 18 Stripped Him before the stares of men Luke 23:34, 35
88.  Psa. 22:18 They parted His garments John 19:23, 24
89.  Psa. 22:20, 21 He committed Himself to God Luke 23:46
90.  Psa. 22:20, 21 Satanic power bruising the Redeemer’s heel Hebrews 2:14
91.  Psa. 22:22 His Resurrection declared John 20:17
92.  Psa. 22:27-28 He shall be the governor of the nations Colossians 1:16
93.  Psa. 22:31 “It is finished” John 19:30, Heb. 10:10, 12, 14, 18
94.  Psa. 23:1 “I am the Good Shepherd” John 10:11, 1Peter 2:25
95.  Psa. 24:3 His exaltation predicted Acts 1:11; Philippians 2:9
96.  Psa. 30:3 His resurrection predicted Acts 2:32
97.  Psa. 31:5 “Into thy hands I commit my spirit” Luke 23:46
98.  Psa. 31:11 His acquaintances fled from Him Mark 14:50
99.  Psa. 31:13 They took counsel to put Him to death Mt. 27:1, John 11:53
100.  Psa. 31:14, 15 “He trusted in God, let Him deliver him” Matthew 27:43
101.  Psa. 34:20 Not a bone of Him broken John 19:31-36
102.  Psa. 35:11 False witnesses rose up against Him Matthew 26:59
103. Psa. 35:19 He was hated without a cause John 15:25
104. Psa. 38:11 His friends stood afar off Luke 23:49
105. Psa. 38:12 Enemies try to entangle Him by craft Mark 14:1, Mt. 22:15
106. Psa. 38:12-13 Silent before His accusers Matthew 27:12-14
107. Psa. 38:20 He went about doing good Acts 10:38
108. Psa. 40:2-5 The joy of His resurrection predicted John 20:20
109. Psa. 40:6-8 His delight-the will of the Father John 4:34, Heb. 10:5-10
110. Psa. 40:9 He was to preach the Righteousness in Israel Matthew 4:17
111. Psa. 40:14 Confronted by adversaries in the Garden John 18:4-6
112. Psa. 41:9 Betrayed by a familiar friend John 13:18
113. Psa. 45:2 Words of Grace come from His lips John 1:17, Luke 4:22
114. Psa. 45:6 To own the title, God or Elohim Hebrews 1:8
115. Psa. 45:7 A special anointing by the Holy Spirit Mt. 3:16; Heb. 1:9
116. Psa. 45:7, 8 Called the Christ (Messiah or Anointed) Luke 2:11
117. Psa. 45:17 His name remembered forever Ephesians 1:20-21, Heb. 1:8
118. Psa. 55:12-14 Betrayed by a friend, not an enemy John 13:18
119. Psa. 55:15 Unrepentant death of the Betrayer Matthew 27:3-5; Acts 1:16-19
120. Psa. 68:18 To give gifts to men Ephesians 4:7-16
121. Psa. 68:18 Ascended into Heaven Luke 24:51
122. Psa. 69:4 Hated without a cause John 15:25
123. Psa. 69:8 A stranger to own brethren John 1:11; 7:5
124. Psa. 69:9 Zealous for the Lord’s House John 2:17
125. Psa. 69:14-20 Messiah’s anguish of soul before crucifixion Matthew 26:36-45
126. Psa. 69:20 “My soul is exceeding sorrowful.” Matthew 26:38
127. Psa. 69:21 Given vinegar in thirst Matthew 27:34
128. Psa. 69:26 The Saviour given and smitten by God John 17:4; 18:11
129. Psa. 72:10, 11 Great persons were to visit Him Matthew 2:1-11
130. Psa. 72:16 The corn of wheat to fall into the Ground John 12:24-25
131. Psa. 72:17 Belief on His name will produce offspring John 1:12, 13
132. Psa. 72:17 All nations shall be blessed by Him Galatians 3:8
133. Psa. 72:17 All nations shall call Him blessed John 12:13, Rev. 5:8-12
134. Psa. 78:1-2 He would teach in parables Matthew 13:34-35
135. Psa. 78:2 To speak the Wisdom of God with authority Matthew 7:29
136. Psa. 80:17 The Man of God’s right hand Mark 14:61-62
137. Psa. 88 The Suffering and Reproach of Calvary Matthew 27:26-50
138. Psa. 88:8 They stood afar off and watched Luke 23:49
139. Psa. 89:9 He calms the wind and the sea Matthew 8:26
140. Psa. 89:27 Firstborn Colossians 1:15, 18
141. Psa. 89:27 Emmanuel to be higher than earthly kings Luke 1:32, 33
142. Psa. 89:35-37 David’s Seed, throne, kingdom endure forever Luke 1:32, 33
143. Psa. 89:36-37 His character-Faithfulness Revelation 1:5; 19:11
144. Psa. 90:2 He is from everlasting (Micah 5:2) John 1:1
145. Psa. 91:11, 12 Identified as Messianic; used to tempt Christ Luke 4:10, 11
146. Psa. 97:9 His exaltation predicted Acts 1:11; Ephesians 1:20
147. Psa. 100:5 His character-Goodness Matthew 19:16, 17
148. Psa. 102:1-11 The Suffering and Reproach of Calvary John 19:16-30
149. Psa. 102:25-27 Messiah is the Preexistent Son Hebrews 1:10-12
150. Psa. 109:25 Ridiculed Matthew 27:39
151. Psa. 110:1 Son of David Matthew 22:42-43
152. Psa. 110:1 To ascend to the right-hand of the Father Mark 16:19
153. Psa. 110:1 David’s son called Lord Matthew 22:44, 45
154. Psa. 110:4 A priest after Melchizedek’s order Hebrews 6:20
155. Psa. 112:4 His character-Compassionate, Gracious, et al Matthew 9:36
156. Psa. 118:17, 18 Messiah’s Resurrection assured Luke 24:5-7; 1Cor. 15:20
157. Psa. 118:22, 23 The rejected stone is Head of the corner Matthew 21:42, 43
158. Psa. 118:26 The Blessed One presented to Israel Matthew 21:9
159. Psa. 118:26 To come while Temple standing Matthew 21:12-15
160. Psa. 132:11 The Seed of David (the fruit of His Body) Luke 1:32, Act 2:30
161. Psa. 129:3 He was scourged Matthew 27:26
162. Psa. 138:1-6 The supremacy of David’s Seed amazes kings Matthew 2:2-6
163. Psa. 147:3, 6 The earthly ministry of Christ described Luke 4:18
164. Prov. 1:23 He will send the Spirit of God John 16:7
165. Prov. 8:23 Foreordained from everlasting Rev. 13:8, 1Peter 1:19-20
166. Song. 5:16 The altogether lovely One John 1:17
167. Isa. 2:3 He shall teach all nations John 4:25
168. Isa. 2:4 He shall judge among the nations John 5:22
169. Isa. 6:1 When Isaiah saw His glory John 12:40-41
170. Isa. 6:8 The One Sent by God John 12:38-45
171. Isa. 6:9-10 Parables fall on deaf ears Matthew 13:13-15
172. Isa. 6:9-12 Blinded to Christ and deaf to His words Acts 28:23-29
173. Isa. 7:14 To be born of a virgin Luke 1:35
174. Isa. 7:14 To be Emmanuel-God with us Matthew 1:18-23, 1Tim. 3:16
175. Isa. 8:8 Called Emmanuel Matthew 1:23
176. Isa. 8:14 A stone of stumbling, a Rock of offense 1Peter 2:8
177. Isa. 9:1, 2 His ministry to begin in Galilee Matthew 4:12-17
178. Isa. 9:6 A child born-Humanity Luke 1:31
179. Isa. 9:6 A Son given-Deity Luke 1:32, John 1:14, 1Tim. 3:16
180. Isa. 9:6 Declared to be the Son of God with power Romans 1:3, 4
181. Isa. 9:6 The Wonderful One, Peleh Luke 4:22
182. Isa. 9:6 The Counsellor, Yaatz Matthew 13:54
183. Isa. 9:6 The Mighty God, El Gibor 1Cor. 1:24, Titus 2:13
184. Isa. 9:6 The Everlasting Father, Avi Adth John 8:58; 10:30
185. Isa. 9:6 The Prince of Peace, Sar Shalom John 16:33
186. Isa. 9:7 Inherits the throne of David Luke 1:32
187. Isa. 9:7 His Character-Just John 5:30
188. Isa. 9:7 No end to his Government, Throne, and kingdom Luke 1:33
189. Isa. 11:1 Called a Nazarene-the Branch, Netzer Matthew 2:23
190. Isa. 11:1 A rod out of Jesse-Son of Jesse Luke 3:23, 32
191. Isa. 11:2 Anointed One by the Spirit Matthew 3:16, 17, Acts 10:38
192. Isa. 11:2 His Character-Wisdom, Knowledge, et al Colossians 2:3
193. Isa. 11:3 He would know their thoughts Luke 6:8, John 2:25
194. Isa. 11:4 Judge in righteousness Acts 17:31
195. Isa. 11:4 Judges with the sword of His mouth Rev. 2:16; 19:11, 15
196. Isa. 11:5 Character: Righteous & Faithful Rev. 19:11
197. Isa. 11:10 The Gentiles seek Him John 12:18-21
198. Isa. 12:2 Called Jesus-Yeshua Matthew 1:21
199. Isa. 22:22 The One given all authority to govern Revelation 3:7
200. Isa. 25:8 The Resurrection predicted 1Corinthians 15:54
201. Isa. 26:19 His power of Resurrection predicted Matthew 27:50-54
202. Isa. 28:16 The Messiah is the precious corner stone Acts 4:11, 12
203. Isa. 28:16 The Sure Foundation 1Corinthians 3:11, Mt. 16:18
204. Isa. 29:13 He indicated hypocritical obedience to His Word Matthew 15:7-9
205. Isa. 29:14 The wise are confounded by the Word 1Corinthians 1:18-31
206. Isa. 32:2 A Refuge-A man shall be a hiding place Matthew 23:37
207. Isa. 35:4 He will come and save you Matthew 1:21
208. Isa. 35:5-6 To have a ministry of miracles Matthew 11:2-6
209. Isa. 40:3, 4 Preceded by forerunner John 1:23
210. Isa. 40:9 “Behold your God.” John 1:36; 19:14
211. Isa. 40:10. He will come to reward Revelation 22:12
212. Isa. 40:11 A shepherd-compassionate life-giver John 10:10-18
213. Isa. 42:1-4 The Servant-as a faithful, patient redeemer Matthew 12:18-21
214. Isa. 42:2 Meek and lowly Matthew 11:28-30
215. Isa. 42:3 He brings hope for the hopeless Mt. 12:14-21; John 4:1-54
216. Isa. 42:4 The nations shall wait on His teachings John 12:20-26
217. Isa. 42:6 The Light (salvation) of the Gentiles Luke 2:32
218. Isa. 42:1, 6 His is a worldwide compassion Matthew 28:19, 20
219. Isa. 42:7 Blind eyes opened. John 9:25-38
220. Isa. 43:11 He is the only Saviour. Acts 4:12
221. Isa. 44:3 He will send the Spirit of God John 16:7, 13
222. Isa. 45:21-25 He is Lord and Saviour Philippians 3:20, Titus 2:13
223. Isa. 45:23 He will be the Judge John 5:22; Romans 14:11
224. Isa. 46:9, 10 Declares things not yet done John 13:19
225. Isa. 48:12 The First and the Last John 1:30, Revelation 1:8, 17
226. Isa. 48:16, 17 He came as a Teacher John 3:2
227. Isa. 49:1 Called from the womb-His humanity Matthew 1:18
228. Isa. 49:5 A Servant from the womb. Luke 1:31, Philippians 2:7
229. Isa. 49:6 He will restore Israel Acts 3:19-21; 15:16-17
230. Isa. 49:6 He is Salvation for Israel Luke 2:29-32
231. Isa. 49:6 He is the Light of the Gentiles John 8:12, Acts 13:47
232. Isa. 49:6 He is Salvation unto the ends of the earth Acts 15:7-18
233. Isa. 49:7 He is despised of the Nation John 1:11; 8:48-49; 19:14-15
234. Isa. 50:3 Heaven is clothed in black at His humiliation Luke 23:44, 45
235. Isa. 50:4 He is a learned counselor for the weary Matthew 7:29; 11:28, 29
236. Isa. 50:5 The Servant bound willingly to obedience Matthew 26:39
237. Isa. 50:6 “I gave my back to the smiters.” Matthew 27:26
238. Isa. 50:6 He was smitten on the cheeks Matthew 26:67
239. Isa. 50:6 He was spat upon Matthew 27:30
240. Isa. 52:7 Published good tidings upon mountains Matthew 5:12; 15:29; 28:16
241. Isa. 52:13 The Servant exalted Acts 1:8-11; Eph. 1:19-22, Php. 2:5-9
242. Isa. 52:14 The Servant shockingly abused Luke 18:31-34; Mt. 26:67, 68
243. Isa. 52:15 Nations startled by message of the Servant Luke 18:31-34; Mt. 26:67, 68
244. Isa. 52:15 His blood shed sprinkles nations Hebrews 9:13-14, Rev. 1:5
245. Isa. 53:1 His people would not believe Him John 12:37-38
246. Isa. 53:2 Appearance of an ordinary man Philippians 2:6-8
247. Isa. 53:3 Despised Luke 4:28-29
248. Isa. 53:3 Rejected Matthew 27:21-23
249. Isa. 53:3 Great sorrow and grief Matthew 26:37-38, Luke 19:41, Heb. 4:15
250. Isa. 53:3 Men hide from being associated with Him Mark 14:50-52
251. Isa. 53:4 He would have a healing ministry Matthew 8:16-17
252. Isa. 53:4 Thought to be cursed by God Matthew 26:66; 27:41-43
253. Isa. 53:5 Bears penalty for mankind’s iniquities 2Cor. 5:21, Heb. 2:9
254. Isa. 53:5 His sacrifice provides peace between man and God Colossians 1:20
255. Isa. 53:5 His sacrifice would heal man of sin 1Peter 2:24
256. Isa. 53:6 He would be the sin-bearer for all mankind 1John 2:2; 4:10
257. Isa. 53:6 God’s will that He bear sin for all mankind Galatians 1:4
258. Isa. 53:7 Oppressed and afflicted Matthew 27:27-31
259. Isa. 53:7 Silent before his accusers Matthew 27:12-14
260. Isa. 53:7 Sacrificial lamb John 1:29, 1Peter 1:18-19
261. Isa. 53:8 Confined and persecuted Matthew 26:47-75; 27:1-31
262. Isa. 53:8 He would be judged John 18:13-22
263. Isa. 53:8 Killed Matthew 27:35
264. Isa. 53:8 Dies for the sins of the world 1John 2:2
265. Isa. 53:9 Buried in a rich man’s grave Matthew 27:57
266. Isa. 53:9 Innocent and had done no violence Luke 23:41, John 18:38
267. Isa. 53:9 No deceit in his mouth 1Peter 2:22
268. Isa. 53:10 God’s will that He die for mankind John 18:11
269. Isa. 53:10 An offering for sin Matthew 20:28, Galatians 3:13
270. Isa. 53:10 Resurrected and live forever Romans 6:9
271. Isa. 53:10 He would prosper John 17:1-5
272. Isa. 53:11 God fully satisfied with His suffering John 12:27
273. Isa. 53:11 God’s servant would justify man Romans 5:8-9, 18-19
274. Isa. 53:11 The sin-bearer for all mankind Hebrews 9:28
275. Isa. 53:12 Exalted by God because of his sacrifice Matthew 28:18
276. Isa. 53:12 He would give up his life to save mankind Luke 23:46
277. Isa. 53:12 Numbered with the transgressors Mark 15:27-28; Luke 22:37
278. Isa. 53:12 Sin-bearer for all mankind 1Peter 2:24
279. Isa. 53:12 Intercede to God in behalf of mankind Luke 23:34, Rom. 8:34
280. Isa. 55:3 Resurrected by God Acts 13:34
281. Isa. 55:4 A witness John 18:37
282. Isa. 55:4 He is a leader and commander Hebrews 2:10
283. Isa. 55:5 God would glorify Him Acts 3:13
284. Isa. 59:16 Intercessor between man and God Matthew 10:32
285. Isa. 59:16 He would come to provide salvation John 6:40
286. Isa. 59:20 He would come to Zion as their Redeemer Luke 2:38
287. Isa. 60:1-3 He would shew light to the Gentiles Acts 26:23
288. Isa. 61:1 The Spirit of God upon him Matthew 3:16-17
289. Isa. 61:1 The Messiah would preach the good news Luke 4:16-21
290. Isa. 61:1 Provide freedom from the bondage of sin John 8:31-36
291. Isa. 61:1-2 Proclaim a period of grace Galatians 4:4-5
292.  Jer. 11:21 Conspiracy to kill Jesus John 7:1, Matthew 21:38
293. Jer. 23:5-6 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31
294. Jer. 23:5-6 The Messiah would be both God and Man John 13:13, 1Ti 3:16
295. Jer. 31:22 Born of a virgin Matthew 1:18-20
296. Jer. 31:31 The Messiah would be the new covenant Matthew 26:28
297. Jer. 33:14-15 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31
298. Eze.34:23-24 Descendant of David Matthew 1:1
299. Eze.37:24-25 Descendant of David Luke 1:31-33
300. Dan. 2:44-45 The Stone that shall break the kingdoms Matthew 21:44
301. Dan. 7:13-14 He would ascend into heaven Acts 1:9-11
302. Dan. 7:13-14 Highly exalted Ephesians 1:20-22
303. Dan. 7:13-14 His dominion would be everlasting Luke 1:31-33
304. Dan. 9:24 To make an end to sins Galatians 1:3-5
305. Dan. 9:24 To make reconciliation for iniquity Romans 5:10, 2Cor. 5:18-21
306. Dan. 9:24 He would be holy Luke 1:35
307. Dan. 9:25 His announcement John 12:12-13
308. Dan. 9:26 Cut off Matthew 16:21; 21:38-39
309. Dan. 9:26 Die for the sins of the world Hebrews 2:9
310. Dan. 9:26 Killed before the destruction of the temple Matthew 27:50-51
311. Dan. 10:5-6 Messiah in a glorified state Revelation 1:13-16
312. Hos. 11:1 He would be called out of Egypt Matthew 2:15
313. Hos. 13:14 He would defeat death 1Corinthians 15:55-57
314. Joel 2:32 Offer salvation to all mankind Romans 10:9-13
315. Jonah 1:17 Death and resurrection of Christ Matthew 12:40; 16:4
316. Mic. 5:2 Born in Bethlehem Matthew 2:1-6
317. Mic. 5:2 Ruler in Israel Luke 1:33
318. Mic. 5:2 From everlasting John 8:58
319. Hag. 2:6-9 He would visit the second Temple Luke 2:27-32
320. Hag. 2:23 Descendant of Zerubbabel Luke 2:27-32
321. Zech. 3:8 God’s servant John 17:4
322. Zech. 6:12-13 Priest and King Hebrews 8:1
323. Zech. 9:9 Greeted with rejoicing in Jerusalem Matthew 21:8-10
324. Zech. 9:9 Beheld as King John 12:12-13
325. Zech. 9:9 The Messiah would be just John 5:30
326. Zech. 9:9 The Messiah would bring salvation Luke 19:10
327. Zech. 9:9 The Messiah would be humble Matthew 11:29
328. Zech. 9:9 Presented to Jerusalem riding on a donkey Matthew 21:6-9
329. Zech. 10:4 The cornerstone Ephesians 2:20
330. Zech. 11:4-6 At His coming, Israel to have unfit leaders Matthew 23:1-4
331. Zech. 11:4-6 Rejection causes God to remove His protection Luke 19:41-44
332. Zech. 11:4-6 Rejected in favor of another king John 19:13-15
333. Zech. 11:7 Ministry to “poor,” the believing remnant Matthew 9:35-36
334. Zech. 11:8 Unbelief forces Messiah to reject them Matthew 23:33
335. Zech. 11:8 Despised Matthew 27:20
336. Zech. 11:9 Stops ministering to those who rejected Him Matthew 13:10-11
337. Zech. 11:10-11 Rejection causes God to remove protection Luke 19:41-44
338. Zech. 11:10-11 The Messiah would be God John 14:7
339. Zech. 11:12-13 Betrayed for thirty pieces of silver Matthew 26:14-15
340. Zech. 11:12-13 Rejected Matthew 26:14-15
341. Zech. 11:12-13 Thirty pieces of silver cast in the house of the Lord Matthew 27:3-5
342. Zech. 11:12-13 The Messiah would be God John 12:45
343. Zech. 12:10 The Messiah’s body would be pierced John 19:34-37
344. Zech. 12:10 The Messiah would be both God and man John 10:30
345. Zech. 12:10 The Messiah would be rejected John 1:11
346. Zech. 13:7 God’s will He die for mankind John 18:11
347. Zech. 13: A violent death Mark 14:27
348. Zech. 13:7 Both God and man John 14:9
349. Zech. 13:7 Israel scattered as a result of rejecting Him Matthew 26:31-56
350. Zech. 14:4 He would return to the Mt. of Olives Acts 1:11-12
351. Mal. 3:1 Messenger to prepare the way for Messiah Mark 1:1-8
352. Mal. 3:1 Sudden appearance at the temple Mark 11:15-16
353. Mal. 3:1 Messenger of the new covenant Luke 4:43
354. Mal. 3:6 The God who changes not Hebrews 13:8
355. Mal. 4:5 Forerunner in spirit of Elijah Mt. 3:1-3; 11:10-14; 17:11-13
356. Mal. 4:6 Forerunner would turn many to righteousness



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M. Rydelnik (2019): There is a prophetic prediction in the OT. There are also other important features to the notion of prophetic fulfillment. To highlight those features, I would suggest that alongside terms such as “fulfillment” we also use the terms “identification” and “exposition.” The OT not only predicts the coming of a Messiah; it also describes and identifies that Messiah. The amazing thing about OT prophecy is not only that the prophets foresaw what would happen. That was miraculous. But equally amazing was that, when it came, the future the prophets foresaw (and here I have in mind the NT) actually followed the plan the prophets had laid out for it. When the future came at a specific time and place, there were people waiting for it. There were those, like Simeon and Anna, who understood it in terms of the OT prophetic vision. In other words, the prophet’s vision was such that it preserved and carried with it a people who both understood the prophets and were there waiting for the fulfillment of their vision. By falling in line with that vision, the NT writers show that they accepted the OT as pre-interpreted, and they also were in fundamental agreement with its interpretation. That interpretation, we can see, began long before the time of its fulfillment. Already within the OT itself we can discover clear signs of an ongoing process of inter-biblical, or (I would prefer to say) intertextual interpretation. In the Pentateuch, for example, the Messiah is a prophetic priest-king like Moses, who will reign over God’s kingdom, bring salvation to Israel and the nations, and fulfill God’s covenants. As I understand it, this messianic vision is part of the compositional strategy of the whole of the Pentateuch. In the Prophets and Writings, we find a full and detailed exposition of the Pentateuch’s messianism. The Hebrew Bible, when viewed in its final historical context (on the eve of the Christian era), is already messianic in a NT sense. When the NT says that the OT is fulfilled in Jesus, it means that we can identify Jesus as the Messiah because He fits the picture of the Messiah in the OT. The proof that the Gospel is true (and I believe there is proof here) lies not only in an accurate prediction, but also in an accurate identification of Jesus with the one promised by the Law and the Prophets. To say it another way, it is only when we have identified Jesus as the OT Messiah that we can speak of verification of OT prophecy by prediction. Thus, the messianic thrust of the NT is not merely an argument that the OT is true prophecy. It also includes the argument that Jesus is the true Messiah.

The OT messianic vision is a fragmented vision that becomes increasingly more cohesive as one moves toward the final stages of the formation of the Hebrew Bible. As Calvin once said, “Those who have carefully … perused the Prophets will agree with me in thinking that their discourses have not always been arranged in a regular order.”  There is a coherent picture behind the composition of the prophetic books and the Pentateuch. The pieces fit into that picture. If we follow the order of the Hebrew Bible—the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings (Tanakh)—the messianic picture becomes increasingly more transparent.1

Genesis

1.  Gen. 3:15 Seed of a woman (virgin birth) Galatians 4:4-5, Matthew 1:18

The prophecy in Genesis 3:15 states that the "seed of the woman" will crush the head of the serpent, which is traditionally interpreted as a reference to the Messiah's victory over sin and death. This prophecy is believed by many Christians to be fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who was born of a virgin, as foretold in Isaiah 7:14.

Galatians 4:4-5 states that "when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law, to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons." This passage emphasizes that Jesus was born of a woman, fulfilling the prophecy in Genesis 3:15, and that he was sent by God to redeem humanity from the bondage of sin.

Matthew 1:18 describes the virgin birth of Jesus, stating that "Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit." This passage emphasizes that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of a virgin, fulfilling the prophecy in Isaiah 7:14.

In summary, the fulfillment of the prophecy in Genesis 3:15 about the "seed of the woman" crushing the head of the serpent is believed by many Christians to be fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who was born of a virgin, as foretold in Isaiah 7:14. The passages in Galatians 4:4-5 and Matthew 1:18 emphasize the miraculous nature of Jesus' birth and his mission to redeem humanity from sin.

2.  Gen. 3:15 He will bruise Satan’s head Hebrews 2:14, 1John 3:8

Genesis 3:15 is a prophecy about the conflict between the serpent (Satan) and the "seed of the woman," which is traditionally interpreted as a reference to the Messiah. The verse states that the seed of the woman will bruise the serpent's head, which is a metaphorical way of saying that the Messiah will ultimately defeat Satan.

Hebrews 2:14 confirms the fulfillment of this prophecy in Jesus Christ, stating that "since the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise partook of the same things, that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil." This passage emphasizes that Jesus, by taking on human nature, was able to defeat the devil and destroy his power.

Similarly, 1 John 3:8 states that "the reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the works of the devil." This passage reinforces the idea that Jesus came to defeat Satan and undo the effects of sin in the world.

In summary, Hebrews 2:14 and 1 John 3:8 confirm the fulfillment of the prophecy in Genesis 3:15 that the seed of the woman would defeat the serpent (Satan). These passages emphasize that Jesus Christ, as the Son of God and the Messiah, came to destroy the works of the devil and to redeem humanity from the power of sin and death.

3.  Gen. 3:15 Christ’s heel would be bruised with nails on the cross Matthew 27:35, Luke 24:39-40

R. Price (2019): Many Christian theologians (going back to Irenaeus) understand v. 15 as the so-called protevangelium, supposedly prophesying Christ’s victory over Satan…. In this allegorical approach, the woman’s offspring is initially Cain, then the whole human race, and ultimately Jesus Christ, the offspring (Heb “seed”) of the woman (see Gal 4:4). The offspring of the serpent includes the evil powers and demons of the spirit world, as well as those humans who are in the kingdom of darkness (see Jn 8:44). According to this view, the passage gives the first hint of the gospel. Satan delivers a crippling blow to the Seed of the woman (Jesus), who in turn delivers a fatal blow to the Serpent (first defeating him through the death and resurrection [1Co 15:55-57] and then destroying him in the judgment [Rev 12:7-9; 20:7-10]).[url=http://www.paultanner.org/English Docs/Private/Price R_2019-Messianic-Interpretation-Of-Gen 3.15.pdf]2[/url]

J. F. WALVOORD (2011) : Genesis 3:14–24. This first prophecy was fulfilled by the spiritual death of Adam and Eve and their ultimate physical death (vv. 7–24; 5:5). In fulfilling the prophecy of death, God added other prophecies, including the curse on the serpent (3:14–15). God prophesied that Eve would give birth to children in pain and that her husband would rule over her. To Adam, God predicted that the ground would be cursed and he would have difficulty raising the food necessary for his continued existence. In the midst of these promises, which enlarged the judgment that had come on mankind because of the entrance of sin, a plan for redemption was also revealed. In pronouncing the curse on the Devil and the serpent, it was prophesied that there would always be enmity between the serpent and the descendants of the woman (v. 15). Referring to one of the woman’s descendants (Christ), God said, “He will crush your head.” In regard to the judgment on Satan, made sure by the cross of Christ, the prophecy was further enlarged, “You will strike his heel” (v. 15). This referred to the fact that Christ would die, but unlike the effect on Satan, His death would be conquered by resurrection. This was fulfilled in Christ’s death and resurrection (Rom. 3:24–25).3

4.  Gen. 5:24 The bodily ascension to heaven illustrated Mark 16:19, Rev. 12:5

Accordingtothescriptures (2015): Some would not consider this to be an illustration of the ascension of Christ, and perhaps, rightly so. It may illustrate more rightly, the pre-trib rapture of the church. The Bible, speaking of types and shadows in the Old Testament now clearly revealed in the New, are not a few. The Bible tells us, "Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples (Gr. tupos): and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come." (1 Corinthians 10:11) Hebrews 11:5 states concerning Enoch, "By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death; and was not found, because God had translated him: for before his translation he had this testimony, that he pleased God." As for Christ, we are told, "Knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him." (Romans 6:9) Christ died for our sins and rose from the dead. Death is no longer able to touch Him, as He is "alive for evermore" (Revelation 1:18). And after He was seen of many witnesses we are told He was "taken up ... into heaven" (Acts 1:11). So we believe that the argument can be made, that, if Enoch illustrates the pre-trib rapture of the saints, the only reason they are able to be raptured, is that Christ died for our sins, was buried, and rose again, and "ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things" (Ephesians 4:10). Jesus said, "because I live, ye shall live also" (John 14:9). "In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him." (1 John 4:9). We only live because Christ lives. He is the first cause of all things, and so too, the resurrection from the dead, as He said, "I am the resurrection, and the life" (John 11:12), and our ascension into heaven, for He "ascended on high [and] led captivity captive" (Psalm 68:18).3

5.  Gen. 9:26, 27 The God of Shem will be the Son of Shem Luke 3:23-36

M.Rydelnik (2019): Ethnically, Shem became the ancestor of the “Shemites” (i.e., Semites), the vast group of the great Middle Eastern peoples, including those who would later be called Arabs and Jews. What this prophecy indicates, therefore, is that God would establish a personal covenant relationship with people in the line of Shem. The family descendants of Shem are also listed as part of the “Table of Nations” in Gn 10:21-31. Most important, however, is that from Gn 11:10 through the book of Revelation, the biblical account deals almost exclusively with Shem’s descendants. Genesis 11:27 introduces us to Abram, a descendant of Shem, and it is with him that God made a special covenant, forming the basis for all of His later dealings in salvation history. According to Gn 9:27, therefore, someday the Gentile peoples will dwell in the tents of the Shemites.6 In other words, Japheth will partake of Shem’s unique privilege—a special relationship to the one true God, as was mentioned above through Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Judah.2

Accordingtothescriptures (2015): It is clear that Jesus Christ, the Messiah, the Son of God, was born of the line of Shem. The question is whether or not this was foretold in Genesis 9:26-27. We are told that "he shall dwell in the tents of Shem". Does the "he" refer to God or Japheth? It is noted that God's spiritual blessings would fall primarily on Shem whose God is Jehovah. And if the "he" be Japheth, from whom the Gentiles descended, I think that this would imply that Japheth would come to share in the spiritual blessings and fellowship of Shem. This would be totally in agreement with the Scriptures for the Gentiles did recieve light and blessings through the descendant of Shem, and the promised Seed, namely Jesus Christ. Nevertheless, if the "he" be God, and it be He who would shine through and tabernacle with Shem, even until the fulness of time when God sent forth His Son, the true Light of the world, when the Word became flesh and dwelt (tabenacled) among us, this also would be in agreement with the Scripture. 3

6.  Gen. 12:3 Seed of Abraham will bless all nations Galatians 3:8, Acts 3:25, 26

M.Rydelnik (2019):  The divine speeches in Gn 12:1-3 and 22:16-18 are integral to the book of Genesis as a whole, and Genesis itself is the first in a series of interrelated books that narrate a coherent story—beginning with creation and ending with the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians. In the context of this broader story the divine promises in Gn 12:1-3 and 22:16-18 help create the expectation that God’s blessing will come to the nations of the earth through a future Davidic King. According to Acts 3:25-26, Peter highlighted this hope when he addressed fellow Jews in Jerusalem: “You are the sons of the prophets and of the covenant that God made with your ancestors, saying to Abraham, And all the families of the earth will be blessed through your offspring. God raised up His Servant and sent Him first to you to bless you by turning each of you from your evil ways.” For Peter, Jesus Christ’s coming fulfilled that aspect of God’s covenant with Abraham that promised a particular “offspring” who would bless the world. 2

J. F. WALVOORD (2011): The covenant with Abram was a major step in divine revelation, indicating that God had selected Abram and his posterity to fulfill His purpose to reveal Himself to the world and bring salvation to mankind. Though only eleven chapters were used to trace the whole history of the world prior to Abram, including creation and all the major events that followed, the rest of the book of Genesis was devoted to Abram and his immediate descendants, indicating the importance of this covenant. The covenant required Abram to leave his country and his people and go to the land that God would show him. The expression you will be a blessing (v. 2), could be translated “be a blessing.” Abram was essential to God’s program of bringing blessing and revelation to the world and ultimately salvation through Jesus Christ 3

7.  Gen. 12:7 The Promise made to Abraham’s Seed Galatians 3:16

Genesis 12:7 is part of the narrative about God's call to Abram (later renamed Abraham) and the promises that God made to him. In this passage, God promises Abram that he will give the land of Canaan to his descendants. Specifically, the passage says, "To your offspring I will give this land."

Galatians 3:16 refers back to this promise made to Abram, and emphasizes that the promise was actually made to Abraham's seed, which is Christ. The passage says, "Now the promises were made to Abraham and to his offspring. It does not say, 'And to offsprings,' referring to many, but referring to one, 'And to your offspring,' who is Christ."

The passage in Galatians is part of a larger argument that Paul is making about the relationship between faith, the law, and the promise that God made to Abraham. Paul is emphasizing that the promise of salvation through faith was made to Abraham and his seed, and that this seed is actually Christ. Paul is making the case that the promise was not only about the land of Canaan, but about the ultimate redemption and salvation that would come through Christ.

In summary, Genesis 12:7 is a promise that God made to Abram (later Abraham) about the land of Canaan being given to his descendants. Galatians 3:16 refers back to this promise and emphasizes that it was actually made to Abraham's seed, which is Christ. The passage in Galatians is part of a larger argument about the promise of salvation through faith, and the role that Christ plays in fulfilling that promise.

8.  Gen. 14:18 A priest after the order of Melchizedek Hebrews 6:20

Genesis 14:18 describes an encounter between Abram (later renamed Abraham) and a mysterious figure named Melchizedek, who is described as the king of Salem and a priest of God Most High. Melchizedek blesses Abram and receives a tenth of the spoils from Abram's victory over his enemies.

Hebrews 6:20 refers back to this encounter and the priesthood of Melchizedek. The passage says, "where Jesus has gone as a forerunner on our behalf, having become a high priest forever after the order of Melchizedek." The author of Hebrews is drawing a parallel between the priesthood of Melchizedek and the priesthood of Jesus Christ, emphasizing that Jesus is a high priest in the same order as Melchizedek.

The author of Hebrews goes on to explain that the priesthood of Melchizedek is superior to the priesthood of the Levites, because Melchizedek was a priest of God Most High before the law was given to Moses. The author argues that Jesus, as a priest in the order of Melchizedek, is also superior to the Levitical priests, because he is not bound by the limitations of the law.

In summary, Genesis 14:18 describes an encounter between Abram and Melchizedek, who is a priest of God Most High. Hebrews 6:20 refers back to this encounter and emphasizes that Jesus Christ is a high priest in the order of Melchizedek. The author of Hebrews argues that the priesthood of Melchizedek is superior to the Levitical priesthood, and that Jesus, as a priest in this order, is also superior to the Levitical priests.

9.  Gen. 14:18 King of Peace and Righteousness Hebrews 7:2

Genesis 14:18 describes Melchizedek as the king of Salem, which means "peace," and a priest of God Most High. There is no specific mention in this passage of Melchizedek being described as a king of righteousness.

Hebrews 7:2 refers to Melchizedek as the "king of Salem, that is, king of peace." The author of Hebrews is drawing a parallel between Melchizedek and Jesus Christ, who is also described as the Prince of Peace. The author is emphasizing the idea of peace and righteousness, which are key themes in the New Testament.

The author goes on to explain that Melchizedek was not only a king of Salem, but also a priest of God Most High. This dual role of king and priest was unique in the Old Testament, as the roles of king and priest were normally separate. The author argues that Jesus Christ, as both king and high priest, is also unique and superior to the Levitical priests.

In summary, Genesis 14:18 describes Melchizedek as the king of Salem, and Hebrews 7:2 refers to him as the "king of Salem, that is, king of peace." The author of Hebrews is drawing a parallel between Melchizedek and Jesus Christ, emphasizing the themes of peace and righteousness. The author also emphasizes the unique role of Melchizedek as both king and priest, and argues that Jesus Christ, as both king and high priest, is also unique and superior to the Levitical priests.

10.  Gen. 14:18 The Last Supper foreshadowed Matthew 26:26-29

Genesis 14:18 describes an encounter between Abram (later renamed Abraham) and Melchizedek, the king of Salem and a priest of God Most High. During the encounter, Melchizedek brings out bread and wine and blesses Abram.

Matthew 26:26-29 describes the Last Supper, which was a Passover meal that Jesus shared with his disciples. During the meal, Jesus took bread, gave thanks, broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, "Take, eat; this is my body." He also took a cup of wine, gave thanks, and gave it to his disciples, saying, "Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins."

This can be seen as a foreshadowing of the Last Supper in the encounter between Abram and Melchizedek. The bread and wine that Melchizedek brings out are seen as a type of the bread and wine that Jesus would later offer at the Last Supper. The blessing that Melchizedek gives to Abram is seen as a type of blessing that Jesus would later give to his disciples through bread and wine.

In summary, while there is no direct mention of the Last Supper in Genesis 14:18, we can see it as a foreshadowing of this event in the encounter between Abram and Melchizedek, in the sharing of bread and wine and the blessing given by Melchizedek.

11.  Gen. 17:19 Seed of Isaac (Gen. 21:12) Romans 9:7

Genesis 17:19 records God's promise to Abraham that Sarah would bear him a son, Isaac. God declares that through Isaac, Abraham's offspring will be established as an everlasting covenant. This promise is fulfilled in Genesis 21:1-3 when Sarah gives birth to Isaac.

Romans 9:7 is part of a larger passage in which the Apostle Paul is discussing the relationship between Israel and God's promises. Paul refers to Abraham's two sons, Ishmael and Isaac, and notes that although Ishmael was Abraham's firstborn son, God chose to establish his covenant through Isaac.

In Romans 9:7, Paul emphasizes the fact that Isaac was the son of the promise, and that his descendants, not Ishmael's, are considered to be the true children of Abraham. This distinction is important because it underscores the idea that God's promise to Abraham was based on his grace and not on human merit.

In summary, Genesis 17:19 and 21:1-3 record God's promise to Abraham that his offspring would be established through his son Isaac, and Romans 9:7 emphasizes the fact that Isaac was the son of the promise and the true child of Abraham, through whom God's covenant would be fulfilled.

12.  Gen. 22:8 The Lamb of God promised John 1:29

In Genesis 22:8, God commands Abraham to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice, and Abraham responds by saying, "God will provide for himself the lamb for a burnt offering, my son." This statement can be interpreted as a foreshadowing of the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ, who is often referred to as the "Lamb of God."

In John 1:29, John the Baptist sees Jesus coming towards him and declares, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!" This statement can be seen as a fulfillment of the promise in Genesis 22:8, that God would provide a lamb for a burnt offering.

The sacrifice of Isaac in Genesis 22 is a type or foreshadowing of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Just as God provided a substitute sacrifice for Isaac, sparing his life, so too did God provide a substitute sacrifice in Jesus Christ, who died in the place of all humanity, taking upon himself the punishment for our sins.

In summary, while there is no direct mention of the Lamb of God in Genesis 22:8, we can see a foreshadowing of Jesus Christ as the Lamb of God in Abraham's statement that God would provide a lamb for a burnt offering. This promise is seen as fulfilled in John 1:29, where John the Baptist identifies Jesus as the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world.

13.  Gen. 22:18 As Isaac’s seed, will bless all nations Galatians 3:16

Genesis 22:18 is part of God's promise to Abraham after he demonstrated his willingness to sacrifice Isaac. God says to Abraham, "In your offspring shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice." This promise is repeated multiple times throughout the Old Testament, and is often understood to refer to the coming of the Messiah, who would bless all nations by providing salvation.

In Galatians 3:16, the Apostle Paul interprets this promise as referring to Jesus Christ. Paul writes, "Now the promises were made to Abraham and to his offspring. It does not say, 'And to offsprings,' referring to many, but referring to one, 'And to your offspring,' who is Christ." Paul is arguing that the promise to bless all nations through Abraham's offspring was ultimately fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who was a descendant of Abraham.

Paul goes on to argue that through faith in Christ, both Jews and Gentiles are united as children of Abraham and heirs to the promise. This interpretation of the promise to Abraham is a central theme in Paul's theology, and is seen as an important affirmation of the universality of the gospel message.

In summary, Genesis 22:18 promises that all nations will be blessed through Abraham's offspring, which is interpreted in Galatians 3:16 as referring to Jesus Christ. This promise is seen as a central theme in the New Testament, and underscores the universality of the gospel message.

14.  Gen. 26:2-5 The Seed of Isaac promised as the Redeemer Hebrews 11:18

Hebrews 11:18 references the promise made to Abraham regarding his offspring through Isaac, and interprets it as a prophecy of the coming of Jesus Christ. The author writes, "Of whom [Abraham] it was said, 'Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.'" The author is highlighting the faith of Abraham and his obedience to God's command to sacrifice Isaac, even though he believed that God would still fulfill His promise through Isaac's descendants.

The author of Hebrews goes on to explain that the ultimate fulfillment of this promise came through Jesus Christ, who is the ultimate Redeemer and Savior of all people. Through His sacrificial death and resurrection, Jesus fulfilled the promise to Abraham and brought salvation to all who believe in Him.

In summary, while Genesis 26:2-5 does not specifically mention the Seed of Isaac as the Redeemer, the promise made to Abraham and his descendants is significant because it foreshadows the coming of the Messiah, who would bring salvation to all peoples. Hebrews 11:18 interprets this promise as a prophecy of the coming of Jesus Christ, who is the ultimate Redeemer and Savior of all people.

15.  Gen. 28:12 The Bridge to heaven John 1:51

Genesis 28:12 describes Jacob's dream in which he sees a ladder or a stairway that reaches from earth to heaven, with angels ascending and descending on it. This vision is significant because it represents the connection between heaven and earth, and the means by which God communicates with humanity.

In John 1:51, Jesus references Jacob's ladder when He says to Nathanael, "Truly, truly, I say to you, you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man." Jesus is saying that He is the connection between heaven and earth, the "bridge" or "ladder" that Jacob saw in his dream. Jesus is the means by which we can communicate with God and receive His grace and salvation.

In this way, the reference to Jacob's ladder in John 1:51 emphasizes the centrality of Jesus in our relationship with God. Jesus is not just a human teacher or prophet, but the Son of God who connects us to the divine realm and opens up the possibility of eternal life.

16.  Gen. 28:14 The Seed of Jacob Luke 3:34

Genesis 28:14 is a prophetic promise made by God to Jacob (who later became known as Israel) in which God promised that through Jacob's descendants, all the families of the earth would be blessed. The exact wording of the promise is: "Your descendants shall be as the dust of the earth; you shall spread abroad to the west and the east, to the north and the south; and in you and in your seed all the families of the earth shall be blessed" (Genesis 28:14).

Luke 3:34 is a genealogy of Jesus Christ, tracing his lineage back through his earthly father Joseph to Adam. In this genealogy, Luke includes the name of Jacob, but he lists him as "Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham" (Luke 3:34), rather than using the name Israel as Genesis does.

The connection between these two passages is that Jesus can be considered to be the ultimate fulfillment of the promise made to Jacob in Genesis 28:14. Through Jesus, all the families of the earth are blessed, as he is believed to be the Savior of the world who brings forgiveness of sins and eternal life to all who believe in him. The inclusion of Jacob in Jesus' genealogy is significant because it emphasizes the continuity of God's plan of salvation throughout history, from the time of Abraham and Jacob down to the birth of Jesus.

17.  Gen. 49:10 The time of His coming Luke 2:1-7; Galatians 4:4

Genesis 49:10 is part of Jacob's blessing to his sons before his death, in which he prophesies about their future. In verse 10, he says, "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until tribute comes to him; and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples." This verse refers to the coming of a ruler from the tribe of Judah who will receive tribute and obedience from the peoples.

Luke 2:1-7 and Galatians 4:4 both provide information about the time of Jesus' birth, which is significant because Jesus is the ruler from the tribe of Judah who fulfills the prophecy of Genesis 49:10. Luke 2:1-7 describes how Caesar Augustus issued a decree that all the world should be registered, which led Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born. Galatians 4:4 says, "But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law."

Taken together, these passages suggest that Jesus' birth was not a random event, but one that was planned and prophesied long before. The prophecy of Genesis 49:10 foretold the coming of a ruler from the tribe of Judah who would receive tribute and obedience from the peoples, and Jesus' birth fulfilled this prophecy. The timing of Jesus' birth, as described in Luke 2:1-7 and Galatians 4:4, also suggests that it was part of God's plan and purpose for the redemption of humanity.

18.  Gen. 49:10 The Seed of Judah Luke 3:33

Genesis 49:10 is part of Jacob's blessing to his sons before his death, in which he prophesies about their future. In verse 10, he says, "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until tribute comes to him; and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples." This verse refers to the coming of a ruler from the tribe of Judah who will receive tribute and obedience from the peoples.

Luke 3:33 is a genealogy of Jesus that traces his lineage back to Adam, through the line of Judah. In this genealogy, Luke identifies Jesus as the "son of Judah," or the descendant of the tribe of Judah, fulfilling the prophecy of Genesis 49:10.

Taken together, these passages suggest that Jesus is the ruler from the tribe of Judah who fulfills the prophecy of Genesis 49:10. His lineage from the tribe of Judah is confirmed in Luke's genealogy, and his role as ruler and leader is affirmed throughout the New Testament. Jesus' fulfillment of this prophecy is seen as evidence of his divine identity and authority as the Messiah.

19.  Gen. 49:10 Called Shiloh or One Sent John 17:3

Genesis 49:10 is part of Jacob's blessing to his sons before his death, in which he prophesies about their future. In verse 10, he says, "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until tribute comes to him; and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples." Some scholars interpret the word "Shiloh" in this verse to mean "the one to whom it belongs" or "the one to whom the scepter belongs," and see it as a reference to the coming Messiah.

John 17:3 is part of Jesus' prayer for his disciples before his arrest and crucifixion. In this prayer, Jesus says, "And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent." The phrase "whom you have sent" refers to Jesus as the one sent by God to accomplish his mission of salvation.

While Genesis 49:10 and John 17:3 do not explicitly refer to each other, we can see a connection between the two. They see Genesis 49:10 as a prophecy of the coming Messiah, who will be the one to whom the scepter belongs and who will bring tribute and obedience from the peoples. They see John 17:3 as confirming Jesus' identity as the Messiah, who was sent by God to accomplish his mission of salvation. Together, these passages emphasize the importance of Jesus as the promised Messiah who brings eternal life to those who believe in him.

20.  Gen. 49:10 Messiah to come before Judah lost identity John 11:47-52

M. Rydelnik (2019): One of the earliest, most cited, and most important of the messianic texts of the OT is Gn 49:8-12. Ancient Jewish and Christian tradition held unanimously to the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch and thus of its first book, Genesis.32 The biblical chronology itself locates Moses and his penning of the treatise at c. 1400 BC and in the Plains of Moab, just across the Jordan River, 15 miles east of Jericho. The metanarrative of the OT is the account of God’s person and purposes as displayed in creation, redemption, and restoration. This passage embraces the second and third phases in that it describes the vehicle of salvation and the eventual eschatological outcome of God’s merciful “new beginning.” The framework of the “mini-narrative” exemplified in this text is covenant, the proactive extension by Yahweh of promises— both unconditional and conditional—that constitute a bridging between Himself and His broken image, namely, humankind. The process of reconciliation began virtually as early as Eden with the pledge by Yahweh that the head of Evil would be crushed at the cost of the bruising of the heel of Righteousness (Gn 3:15). It later took the form of the selection of Shem as the progenitor of a people who would be custodians of the promise, the most prominent individual of whom was Abraham (Gn 11:10-32). The historical narrowing and sifting of the covenant development passed through Isaac, Jacob, and here, in our text, culminated in Judah. However, Judah was just a stopping-place, as it were, as both an individual and a subsequent tribe. The resumption of the messianic trajectory climaxed in David, king of Judah and all Israel (2Sm 2:4; 5:3). To him and through him coursed the stream of redemptive hope, a stream that both poets and prophets predictively proclaimed to be finally and perfectly a stream of “living water” embodied in and announced by Jesus Christ, “son of David” and Son of God, and the Shiloh of Jacob’s blessing. 2

Accordingtothescriptures (2015): The Seed was first mentioned in Genesis 3:15, then confirmed to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. Now it is confirmed to Judah. The leadership, according to Jacob, was to go to Judah, but this did not happen for over six hundred years. Moses came from Levi, Joshua from Ephraim, Gideon from Manasseh, Samson from Dan, Samuel from Ephraim and Saul from Benjamin. But when David finally became king, Judah became the dominant tribe from that time on. Judah held the sceptre and did not relinquish it until after Shiloh came. There were many prophecies in the OT pertaining to the coming Christ. "there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel... Out of Jacob shall come he that shall have dominion" (Numbers 24:17, 19) and again, "But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting." (Micah 5:2) This led the wise men of the east to come to Jerusalem saying, "Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him." (Matthew 2:2) From this they knew that out of Bethlehem, from the tribe of Judah, "shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel." (v. 6) In that day, genealogical records were readily available in the Temple. But after the Messiah died for our sins and rose again from the dead for our justification, in AD 70, the temple was destroyed with all its genealogical records. The Jews were then scattered to the nations of the world, so we could truly say from that time, the Sceptre departed from Judah, for with no certainty can any Jew prove he is from the tribe of Judah. So with this certainty, we knew that Shiloh has come, for He is the "Lion of the tribe of Judah"5

J. F. Walvoord (2011): The most significant prophecy given was that the scepter, referring to the future Messiah, would come from the tribe of Judah. Jacob predicted, “The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs and the obedience of the nations is his” (v. 10). This was fulfilled in Christ (Rev. 2:27; 12:5; 19:15). This clearly refers to Christ coming from the family of David, which is a part of the tribe of Judah. 3

21.  Gen. 49:10:  Unto Him shall the obedience of the people be John 10:16

Genesis 49:10 is a verse from the Hebrew Bible that is part of Jacob's final blessings for his sons. The verse reads, "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until tribute comes to him; and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples." This verse has traditionally been interpreted as a prophecy that the Messiah would come from the tribe of Judah.

John 10:16 is a passage from the New Testament in which Jesus says, "And I have other sheep that are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they will listen to my voice. So there will be one flock, one shepherd." Some interpreters have suggested that this passage is related to the prophecy in Genesis 49:10, in that it suggests that the Messiah (who is identified as Jesus) will not only gather the people of Judah, but also people from other nations.

The phrase "to him shall be the obedience of the peoples" in Genesis 49:10 can be understood as a reference to the Messiah's universal authority over all nations. Similarly, in John 10:16, Jesus is portrayed as the shepherd who gathers not only the Jewish people but also people from other nations, thus establishing one flock under his leadership. This interpretation suggests that Jesus is the fulfillment of the prophecy in Genesis 49:10, as he brings together people from all nations under his leadership.

Exodus

22.  Ex. 3:13-15 The Great “I AM” John 4:26; 8:58

Exodus 3:13-15 is a passage from the Hebrew Bible in which God speaks to Moses from a burning bush and reveals His name to him. Moses asks God what name he should use when the Israelites ask him who sent him, and God responds, "I am who I am" or "I will be who I will be." God then tells Moses to tell the Israelites that "I AM" has sent him.

In the New Testament, John 4:26 and John 8:58 both contain references to Jesus using the phrase "I am." In John 4:26, Jesus speaks to a Samaritan woman and reveals himself as the Messiah, saying "I who speak to you am he." In John 8:58, Jesus is speaking to a group of Jews and says, "Before Abraham was, I am." This statement causes the Jews to take up stones to throw at him, as they believe he is committing blasphemy by equating himself with God.

The phrase "I am" in these New Testament passages is significant because it echoes the divine name revealed to Moses in Exodus 3:14. By using this phrase, Jesus is making a claim to divinity and identifying himself with the God who revealed himself to Moses. This is particularly clear in John 8:58, where Jesus' use of the phrase "I am" is explicitly tied to his assertion of pre-existence before Abraham, a claim that would be blasphemous if made by anyone who was not divine.

Overall, the references to "I am" in both Exodus 3:14 and the New Testament are significant because they reveal the divine nature of God and Jesus, respectively. The phrase emphasizes the eternal, unchanging, and self-existent nature of the divine, and underscores the profound relationship between God and humanity.

23.  Ex. 12:3-6 The Lamb presented to Israel 4 days before Passover Mark 11:7-11

Exodus 12:3-6 describes the instructions given to the Israelites for the Passover. They were to select a lamb on the tenth day of the first month and keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month, when they were to slaughter it and eat it as part of the Passover meal. This lamb was to be without blemish, a male of the first year, and it was to be kept separate from the rest of the flock.

Mark 11:7-11 describes Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, which took place a few days before his crucifixion during the week of Passover. In this event, Jesus rode on a donkey and the people shouted, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!" and spread palm branches and cloaks on the road before him.

There is no direct connection between these two passages. However, some scholars have noted that Jesus' entry into Jerusalem on a donkey may have been seen as a symbolic reenactment of the selection of the Passover lamb. Just as the Israelites selected a lamb for sacrifice and kept it separate for four days before Passover, Jesus was being "presented" to the people of Jerusalem as the Lamb of God who would be sacrificed for the sins of the world. In this interpretation, the events of the triumphal entry foreshadowed Jesus' sacrificial death on the cross, which would take place a few days later during the Passover festival.



24.  Ex. 12:5 A Lamb without blemish Hebrews 9:14; 1Peter 1:19

Exodus 12:5 refers to the instructions given to the Israelites for the Passover. They were commanded to select a lamb without blemish and to sacrifice it as an offering to God. The blood of the lamb was to be put on the doorposts and lintel of their homes, and when the Lord passed over Egypt to strike down the firstborn, he would "pass over" the houses with the blood on the doorposts and lintel.

Hebrews 9:14 and 1 Peter 1:19 both refer to Jesus Christ as the ultimate sacrificial Lamb without blemish. He is described as the perfect sacrifice who offered himself once and for all to atone for the sins of humanity. Through his death and resurrection, believers are redeemed and reconciled to God.

The Lamb without blemish, therefore, is a symbolic representation of the sinless and perfect nature of Jesus Christ, who willingly gave himself up as a sacrifice for the forgiveness of sins. This image has powerful theological significance in both the Old and New Testaments and is a central element of Christian doctrine.

25.  Ex. 12:13 The blood of the Lamb saves from wrath Romans 5:8

Exodus 12:13 describes the instructions given to the Israelites during the first Passover. They were commanded to take some of the blood from the lamb that had been sacrificed and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of their houses. This was a sign for the Lord to "pass over" their homes and spare them from the plague of the death of the firstborn.

Romans 5:8 is a verse in which the Apostle Paul speaks about God's love for humanity, saying, "But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us." This verse is part of a larger passage in which Paul explains that through Jesus Christ, humanity can be reconciled to God and be saved from the wrath of God that comes as a result of sin.

The connection between these two passages is that they both speak about the idea of salvation through the shedding of blood. In the Passover, the blood of the lamb was a sign of God's protection and salvation from the wrath of God. In the Christian faith, Jesus is seen as the "Lamb of God" whose sacrifice on the cross shed his blood to save humanity from sin and the wrath of God.

Thus, the Passover lamb can be seen as a foreshadowing of Jesus, who would offer himself as the ultimate sacrifice for the sins of the world. Both the Passover lamb and the sacrifice of Jesus show how the shedding of blood is necessary for the salvation of God's people.

26.  Ex. 12:21-27 Christ is our Passover 1Corinthians 5:7

Exodus 12:21-27 describes the instructions given to the Israelites for the Passover. They were commanded to take a lamb without blemish, sacrifice it, and mark their doorposts with its blood. The Lord would then "pass over" their houses and not allow the destroyer to enter and kill their firstborn. This was to be an annual observance for the Israelites to remember their deliverance from slavery in Egypt.

1 Corinthians 5:7 says, "Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed." Here, the apostle Paul is writing to the church in Corinth, instructing them to purify themselves from sin and immorality. He uses the imagery of the Passover lamb to illustrate that just as the Israelites were delivered from slavery and death through the blood of the lamb, so too are believers delivered from sin and death through the sacrifice of Christ.

The phrase "Christ, our Passover lamb" emphasizes the sacrificial nature of Christ's death and the idea that he is the ultimate sacrifice for our sins. Through his death and resurrection, we are reconciled to God and delivered from the penalty of sin. The Passover lamb was a foreshadowing of the sacrifice of Christ, and the parallel between the two emphasizes the continuity of God's plan of salvation throughout history.

27.  Ex. 12:46 Not a bone of the Lamb to be broken John 19:31-36

Exodus 12:46 is part of the instructions given to the Israelites for the Passover. They were commanded to take a lamb without blemish, sacrifice it, and roast it whole. They were also instructed not to break any of its bones.

John 19:31-36 describes the events surrounding the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. When the soldiers came to break the legs of those who were crucified, they found that Jesus was already dead, so they did not break his legs. This fulfilled the prophecy in Psalm 34:20 that says, "He protects all his bones; not one of them will be broken."

The connection between these two passages is that Jesus Christ is the ultimate Passover lamb, and like the Passover lamb, none of his bones were broken. This is significant because the Passover lamb was to be a perfect sacrifice without blemish, and breaking any of its bones would have made it unfit for sacrifice. Similarly, Jesus was without sin, and his body was not marred or broken, making him the perfect sacrifice for the sins of humanity.

The fulfillment of this prophecy emphasizes the divine nature of Jesus and the fact that his death was not the result of a human plan, but rather the fulfillment of God's redemptive plan for humanity. It also serves as a reminder that Jesus is the ultimate sacrifice for our sins, and through faith in him, we can be reconciled to God and receive the gift of eternal life.

J. F. Walvoord (2011): Exodus 12:46; cf. Numbers 9:12. The Passover lamb was a type of Christ. The fact that no bones were broken is a foreshadowing of Christ’s sacrifice without a bone being broken (John 19:36).30

28.  Ex. 15:2 His exaltation predicted as Yeshua Acts 7:55, 56

Exodus 15:2 is a song of praise that Moses and the Israelites sang to the Lord after he had miraculously delivered them from the hands of the Egyptians. The verse says, "The Lord is my strength and my song, and he has become my salvation; this is my God, and I will praise him, my father's God, and I will exalt him."

Acts 7:55-56 describes the vision that Stephen, one of the seven deacons chosen to serve in the early church, had just before he was stoned to death. He saw Jesus standing at the right hand of God and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God."

The connection between these two passages is that the exaltation of Jesus Christ is predicted in Exodus 15:2 as "Yeshua" (which is a Hebrew name that means "salvation" or "deliverance"). In Acts 7:55-56, we see the fulfillment of this prediction as Stephen sees Jesus standing at the right hand of God, which is a position of honor and authority.

This connection emphasizes the continuity of God's plan of salvation throughout history and the fact that Jesus was not just a man, but also the divine Son of God. The exaltation of Jesus demonstrates his power and authority, and through faith in him, believers can receive the gift of salvation and eternal life.

29.  Ex. 15:11 His Character-Holiness Luke 1:35; Acts 4:27

Exodus 15:11 is part of the song of praise that Moses and the Israelites sang to the Lord after he had miraculously delivered them from the hands of the Egyptians. The verse says, "Who is like you, O Lord, among the gods? Who is like you, majestic in holiness, awesome in glorious deeds, doing wonders?"

Luke 1:35 is part of the announcement made to Mary by the angel Gabriel that she would conceive a child who would be the Son of God. The verse says, "And the angel answered her, 'The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy—the Son of God.'"

Acts 4:27 is part of the prayer that the disciples prayed after Peter and John were arrested and threatened by the Jewish leaders for preaching the gospel. The verse says, "For truly in this city there were gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel."

The connection between these passages is that they all highlight the holiness of God and of Jesus Christ. In Exodus 15:11, the Israelites praised God for his holiness, which is a key attribute of his character. In Luke 1:35, the angel Gabriel announced that the child to be born to Mary would be called holy, emphasizing the divine nature of Jesus. In Acts 4:27, the disciples prayed to God and referred to Jesus as his "holy servant," recognizing his perfect and sinless nature.

This connection underscores the importance of holiness in the Christian faith and the fact that God's holiness is manifested in the person of Jesus Christ. The holiness of God and of Jesus Christ sets them apart from all other beings, and through faith in Jesus, believers can be reconciled to God and made holy themselves.



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30.  Ex. 17:6 The Spiritual Rock of Israel 1Corinthians 10:4

1 Corinthians 10:4 says, "and all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ."
This verse is referring back to the Israelites' experience in the wilderness, as recorded in the Old Testament. The Israelites were led out of slavery in Egypt by Moses and journeyed through the wilderness for forty years before finally entering the Promised Land.

During their time in the wilderness, the Israelites were sustained by God through various miraculous means. One of these means was a rock from which water flowed, providing the Israelites with the water they needed to survive. This rock is first mentioned in Exodus 17:6, which reads, "Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb, and you shall strike the rock, and water shall come out of it, and the people will drink."

In 1 Corinthians 10:4, Paul is drawing a comparison between the Israelites' experience in the wilderness and the Christian life. He describes the water that flowed from the rock as a "spiritual drink," and the rock itself as a "spiritual rock." Paul goes on to explain that the rock "followed them," suggesting that it was a continual source of sustenance for the Israelites.

Finally, Paul identifies the rock as Christ, emphasizing the idea that Christ is the ultimate source of sustenance and spiritual nourishment for believers. The water that flowed from the rock in the wilderness is a metaphor for the living water that Christ offers to those who believe in Him, as described in John 4:14: "but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him shall never thirst; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life."

31.  Ex. 33:19 His Character-Merciful Luke 1:72

Exodus 33:19 says, "I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion." This statement was made by God to Moses when he asked to see God's glory.

Luke 1:72 is a verse from the song of Zechariah, the father of John the Baptist, after his son was born. In this song, Zechariah praises God for the coming of the Messiah and for His faithfulness to His promises to the people of Israel. The verse says, "To show mercy toward our fathers, And to remember His holy covenant."

The connection between these two verses is that both speak of God's character as merciful. In Exodus 33:19, God declares that He will show mercy to those whom He chooses to show mercy, indicating that His mercy is not based on human merit or worthiness, but on His own sovereign choice.

In Luke 1:72, Zechariah praises God for His mercy toward the fathers of Israel, emphasizing God's faithfulness to His promises and His covenant. Throughout the Bible, God's mercy is a central aspect of His character, demonstrated in His compassion and forgiveness towards sinful humanity.

Together, these verses highlight the truth that God is a merciful and compassionate God, who chooses to extend His grace and mercy to those whom He chooses. His mercy is not earned or deserved, but is freely given to all who come to Him in faith and repentance.

Leviticus

32.  Lev. 1:2-9 His sacrifice a sweet smelling savor unto God Ephesians 5:2

Leviticus 1:2-9 provides instructions for the burnt offering, a sacrifice made to atone for sins and express devotion to God. In this passage, God commands the Israelites to bring a male animal, without blemish, and to kill it at the entrance of the tent of meeting. The priests would then sprinkle the blood on the altar, and the animal would be cut into pieces and burnt on the altar. The burnt offering was said to be a "sweet-smelling aroma" to God.

Ephesians 5:2 says, "and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma." Here, Paul is encouraging the Ephesian believers to imitate Christ's sacrificial love by living lives of sacrificial love toward one another.

The connection between these two passages is that both speak of sacrifices that are pleasing to God. The burnt offering in Leviticus was a physical sacrifice that was pleasing to God when done according to His instructions. Similarly, Christ's sacrifice on the cross was a spiritual sacrifice that was pleasing to God and satisfied the debt of sin for all who believe in Him.

The phrase "sweet-smelling aroma" or "fragrant aroma" is used in both passages to describe the sacrifices. This language communicates the idea that the sacrifices are pleasing to God in the same way that a pleasant scent is pleasing to our senses. The aroma of the burnt offering represents the pleasing obedience of the Israelites, while the aroma of Christ's sacrifice represents the pleasing obedience of Christ on behalf of all who believe in Him.

Together, these passages emphasize the importance of obedience and sacrificial love in our relationship with God. Just as the burnt offering was a physical act of obedience and devotion to God, Christ's sacrifice was the ultimate act of love and obedience to God that brings salvation to all who believe in Him.

33.  Lev. 14:11 The leper cleansed-Sign to priesthood Luke 5:12-14; Acts 6:7

Leviticus 14:11 describes the ritual for the cleansing of a leper. In the Old Testament, leprosy was a serious disease that not only affected a person's health, but also made them ritually unclean and separated them from the community. The cleansing process required a priest to examine the leper and declare them clean if the disease had healed. The priest would then perform a series of rituals involving blood, oil, and water to purify the person and restore them to the community.

Luke 5:12-14 describes an incident in which Jesus healed a man with leprosy. The man approached Jesus, asking to be healed, and Jesus touched him, saying, "I am willing, be cleansed." The man was instantly healed, and Jesus instructed him to go and show himself to the priest, in accordance with the law.

Acts 6:7 is a verse that describes the growth of the early Christian church. It says, "The word of God kept on spreading; and the number of the disciples continued to increase greatly in Jerusalem, and a great many of the priests were becoming obedient to the faith."

The connection between these three passages is that they all relate to the theme of cleansing and restoration. In Leviticus, the cleansing of the leper was a sign of restoration to the community and a return to a state of ritual purity. In Luke, the healing of the leper by Jesus was a physical restoration that allowed the man to return to the community. And in Acts, the conversion of the priests to the faith of the early Christians represents a spiritual restoration and a return to the community of believers.

Together, these passages demonstrate the power of God to cleanse and restore those who are separated from the community due to disease, sin, or other factors. The cleansing of the leper in Leviticus and Luke, and the conversion of the priests in Acts, show that God's restorative power extends to both physical and spiritual dimensions of human experience, and that He desires to bring healing and wholeness to all who come to Him in faith.

34.  Lev. 16:15-17 Prefigures Christ’s once-for-all death Hebrews 9:7-14

Leviticus 16:15-17 describes the Day of Atonement, which was the annual ritual where the high priest would enter the Holy of Holies in the tabernacle or temple to make atonement for the sins of the people. The high priest would take the blood of a bull and sprinkle it on the mercy seat, the cover of the Ark of the Covenant, and then do the same with the blood of a goat, representing the sins of the people. The blood was used to make atonement for the sins of the people and to cleanse the sanctuary.

Hebrews 9:7-14 draws a comparison between the Day of Atonement described in Leviticus and the once-for-all sacrifice of Jesus Christ. The passage describes how the high priest entered the Most Holy Place once a year, but Jesus, as the high priest of the new covenant, entered the Most Holy Place in heaven to offer His own blood to atone for the sins of the people. The author of Hebrews explains that the blood of animals, which was used in the Old Testament sacrifices, could not permanently remove sin, but that Jesus' sacrifice of Himself on the cross was sufficient to cleanse us from all sin.

The connection between these two passages is that the Day of Atonement in Leviticus foreshadows the ultimate atonement that Jesus provided through His death on the cross. The blood of the animals used in the Old Testament sacrifices was a temporary covering for sin, but Jesus' sacrifice of Himself was a once-for-all sacrifice that permanently removed the penalty of sin. The sprinkling of blood on the mercy seat and the cleansing of the sanctuary in Leviticus point to the ultimate cleansing of sin through the sacrifice of Christ.

Furthermore, Hebrews 9:14 states that Jesus' sacrifice not only cleanses us from sin, but also purifies our consciences from dead works to serve the living God. This means that Christ's sacrifice not only removes the penalty of sin, but also frees us to live a life of service to God. The sacrifice of Christ is a complete and final sacrifice that provides not only forgiveness but also transformation and empowerment to live for God.

In summary, Leviticus 16:15-17 and Hebrews 9:7-14 demonstrate that the Old Testament sacrifices were a foreshadowing of the ultimate atonement that Jesus provided through His death on the cross, which is a once-for-all sacrifice that cleanses us from sin and empowers us to serve God.

35. Lev. 16:27 Suffering outside the Camp Matthew 27:33; Heb. 13:11, 12

Leviticus 16:27 describes the ritual for the Day of Atonement in which the high priest would make atonement for the sins of the people by offering a bull for his own sins and a goat for the sins of the people. The blood of these animals would be taken into the Holy of Holies, and the carcasses would be burned outside the camp.

Matthew 27:33 describes the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, in which He was led outside the city of Jerusalem to be crucified. The verse states, "And when they came to a place called Golgotha, which means Place of a Skull."

Hebrews 13:11-12 draws a connection between the animal sacrifices in Leviticus and the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross. The author of Hebrews writes, "For the bodies of those animals whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside the camp. Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people through His own blood, suffered outside the gate."

The connection between these three passages is that they all speak to the idea of suffering and sacrifice outside the camp or outside the city. In Leviticus, the carcasses of the bull and goat were burned outside the camp as a way of symbolizing the removal of sin from the community. In Matthew, Jesus was led outside the city of Jerusalem to be crucified, identifying with the sinners and outcasts who were executed outside the city walls. In Hebrews, Jesus' sacrifice outside the gate of the city is presented as a way of sanctifying the people through His own blood.

Together, these passages show that the idea of suffering and sacrifice outside the camp or outside the city has important symbolic significance in the context of atonement and sanctification. Jesus' willingness to suffer outside the gate of the city demonstrates His identification with sinners and His willingness to take on the penalty of their sins. This act of sacrifice is presented as the ultimate way of making atonement and sanctifying the people.

36.  Lev. 17:11 The Blood-the life of the flesh Matthew 26:28; Mark 10:45

Leviticus 17:11 states, "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."

In Matthew 26:28, Jesus is sharing the Passover meal with His disciples before His crucifixion. He takes the cup and says, "This is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins."

In Mark 10:45, Jesus is speaking to His disciples about the nature of His mission. He says, "For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many."

The connection between these passages is that they all speak to the idea of the blood being the means of atonement for sin. In Leviticus, the blood of animals was offered on the altar as a means of atoning for the sins of the people. The life of the animal was in its blood, and the blood represented the sacrifice of life as a means of atonement.

In the New Testament, Jesus presents Himself as the ultimate sacrifice, whose blood is poured out for the forgiveness of sins. He identifies His blood as the means of establishing a new covenant between God and humanity. His life is given as a ransom for many, representing the ultimate sacrifice for the sins of the world.

Together, these passages demonstrate the continuity between the Old Testament sacrificial system and the ultimate sacrifice of Jesus Christ. The blood of the animals in Leviticus prefigured the blood of Jesus, which would be poured out as a means of atoning for the sins of humanity. The life of the flesh is in the blood, and the shedding of blood represents the sacrifice of life as a means of atonement. Jesus' willingness to give His life as a ransom for many demonstrates the ultimate act of sacrifice and love, and provides the means for forgiveness and reconciliation between God and humanity.

37.  Lev. 17:11 It is the blood that makes atonement Rom. 3:23-24; 1John 1:7

Leviticus 17:11 says, "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it for you on the altar to make atonement for your souls, for it is the blood that makes atonement by the life that is in it." This passage is referring to the Old Testament practice of animal sacrifices as a way of atoning for sin. According to the law, the shedding of an animal's blood was necessary to atone for the sins of the people.

Romans 3:23-24 says, "for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus." This passage in the New Testament is speaking of the atonement for sin that comes through faith in Jesus Christ. It is not the blood of animals that makes atonement for sin, but rather the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross.

1 John 1:7 says, "But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin." This passage is also speaking of the atonement for sin that comes through faith in Jesus Christ. The blood of Jesus is the only means of atonement that is effective in cleansing us from all sin.

In summary, Leviticus 17:11 speaks of the Old Testament practice of animal sacrifices, while Romans 3:23-24 and 1 John 1:7 speak of the atonement for sin that comes through faith in Jesus Christ and the shedding of his blood on the cross.

38.  Lev. 23:36-37 The Drink-offering: “If any man thirst” John 7:37

Leviticus 23:36-37 is a passage from the Old Testament that describes the drink offering that was to be made during the Feast of Tabernacles. The passage reads:

"For seven days present food offerings to the Lord, and on the eighth day hold a sacred assembly and present a food offering to the Lord. It is the closing special assembly; do no regular work. (36) Present as an aroma pleasing to the Lord a food offering consisting of a burnt offering of one bull, one ram and seven male lambs a year old, all without defect. (37) With the bull offer a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with oil; with the ram, two-tenths; (37) and with each of the seven lambs, one-tenth."

This passage describes the offering of food and drink that was to be made during the Feast of Tabernacles, which was one of the most important feasts in the Jewish calendar. The drink offering was a symbolic act of pouring out a portion of wine as an offering to God.

John 7:37, on the other hand, is a passage from the New Testament in which Jesus speaks to a crowd of people during the Feast of Tabernacles. The passage reads:

"On the last and greatest day of the festival, Jesus stood and said in a loud voice, 'Let anyone who is thirsty come to me and drink.'"

This passage has been interpreted by many Christians to mean that Jesus is the source of spiritual sustenance, and that those who come to him will find satisfaction for their spiritual thirst.

While these two passages may seem to be connected due to their mention of thirst and the Feast of Tabernacles, they are actually quite different in their meaning and significance. The drink offering described in Leviticus was a physical act of offering wine to God, while the invitation given by Jesus in John 7:37 is a spiritual invitation to come to him for salvation and eternal life.

Numbers

39.  Num. 9:12 Not a bone of Him broken John 19:31-36

Numbers 9:12 refers to the Passover lamb which was to be eaten by the Israelites during their exodus from Egypt. God commanded that none of the bones of the lamb were to be broken. This was to be a sign of the lamb's purity and integrity, and also served to fulfill the ritual requirements of the Passover feast.

John 19:31-36 is a passage from the New Testament which speaks of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. After Jesus died on the cross, the Roman soldiers who were responsible for his execution broke the legs of the two criminals who were crucified alongside him. However, when they came to Jesus, they found that he was already dead and did not break his legs. This was done to fulfill the prophecy from Numbers 9:12 that none of the bones of the Passover lamb would be broken.

This parallel between the Passover lamb and Jesus Christ as the sacrificial lamb of God is significant. Jesus is often referred to as the Lamb of God, and his sacrifice on the cross was seen as the ultimate fulfillment of the sacrificial system established in the Old Testament. By not allowing Jesus' bones to be broken, God was once again demonstrating the purity and integrity of the sacrifice that Jesus made for the sins of the world.

40.  Num. 21:9 The serpent on a pole-Christ lifted up John 3:14-18; 12:32

Numbers 21:9 is a passage from the Old Testament that tells the story of the Israelites who were wandering in the wilderness and were being bitten by poisonous snakes. The passage reads:

"So Moses made a bronze snake and put it up on a pole. Then when anyone was bitten by a snake and looked at the bronze snake, they lived."

This passage describes the method that God used to heal the Israelites from the poisonous snake bites. God instructed Moses to make a bronze serpent and put it on a pole, and anyone who looked at it would be healed.
In the New Testament, Jesus referred to this story in his conversation with Nicodemus, a Pharisee and a ruler of the Jews. In John 3:14-18, Jesus said:

"Just as Moses lifted up the snake in the wilderness, so the Son of Man must be lifted up, that everyone who believes may have eternal life in him. For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life."

Jesus used the story of the serpent on a pole to teach Nicodemus about the significance of his own death on the cross. Just as the Israelites were healed by looking at the bronze serpent, Jesus would provide healing and eternal life to all who believe in him.

In John 12:32, Jesus again referred to his own death on the cross, saying, "And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself." This statement reinforces the idea that Jesus' death on the cross was an act of redemption that would draw all people to him.

In summary, the story of the serpent on a pole in Numbers 21:9 was used by Jesus in the New Testament to illustrate the significance of his own death on the cross, which provides healing and eternal life to all who believe in him.
The serpent that was made of bronze and elevated on a pole is a type of Christ crucified (John 3:14–15).

41.  Num. 24:17 Time: “I shall see him, but not now.” John 1:14; Galatians 4:4

M. Rydelnik (2019): Balaam’s fourth discourse is placed in the prophetic context of “the last days”—a period of time that is defined elsewhere in the Torah as a period long after the rule of David. Also noted was the literary relationship of the third and fourth discourses, a relationship that makes explicitly clear that the rising star of the fourth discourse is the coming king of the third discourse, the Messiah King of whom Jacob prophesied in Gn 49:1, 8-12. Finally, the numerous allusions to earlier promises in the Pentateuch suggest that the fourth discourse, like the third, provides the climactic expression of God’s promises to Abraham and his seed. God’s purposes for Adam, His prophecy in Gn 3:15, and His promises to Abraham would all be fulfilled in the coming Messiah. In a very real sense, Paul’s interpretation of God’s promises to the seed of Abraham in Gal 3:16 is neither novel, nor creative, but well-rooted in the promises’ literal, grammatical-historical meaning.1

Deuteronomium

42.  Deut. 18:15 “This is of a truth that prophet.” John 6:14

Deuteronomy 18:15 is a prophecy spoken by Moses to the Israelites, in which he tells them that God will raise up a prophet like him from among their brothers. This prophet will speak the words of God and the people should listen to him. This prophecy is seen by many as a reference to the coming of Jesus Christ, as he is considered to be the ultimate prophet who speaks the words of God.

John 6:14 is a passage from the New Testament that describes the reaction of the people who witnessed Jesus feed the 5,000 with only five loaves of bread and two fish. The people recognized the power and authority of Jesus and saw him as a prophet. They even went so far as to say that he was the prophet that was foretold by Moses in Deuteronomy 18:15.

In this way, John 6:14 connects the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:15 with the ministry of Jesus Christ. The people saw Jesus as a prophet who spoke the words of God, and many recognized him as the fulfillment of the prophecy given by Moses. This recognition of Jesus as a prophet was an important step in the development of the people's understanding of his identity as the Messiah, the Son of God.

43.  Deut. 18:15-16 “Had ye believed Moses, ye would believe me.” John 5:45-47

Deuteronomy 18:15-16 is a passage from the Old Testament in which Moses prophesies about a future prophet who would come after him. The passage reads:

"The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your fellow Israelites. You must listen to him. For this is what you asked of the Lord your God at Horeb on the day of the assembly when you said, ‘Let us not hear the voice of the Lord our God nor see this great fire anymore, or we will die.'"

This passage is a reference to the coming of Jesus Christ, who was the prophet that Moses prophesied about. Jesus is often referred to as the "prophet like Moses" because he performed miracles, delivered God's message, and led his followers like Moses did.

In John 5:45-47, Jesus is speaking to the Jews who were questioning his authority, and he refers to Moses' prophecy in Deuteronomy. The passage reads:

"But do not think I will accuse you before the Father. Your accuser is Moses, on whom your hopes are set. If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote about me. But since you do not believe what he wrote, how are you going to believe what I say?"

Jesus is essentially telling the Jews that if they truly believed what Moses had written in Deuteronomy about the coming of a prophet like him, they would also believe in Jesus. However, because they did not believe what Moses wrote, they were not able to believe in Jesus.

In summary, Deuteronomy 18:15-16 is a prophecy about the coming of Jesus Christ, who is referred to as the "prophet like Moses." In John 5:45-47, Jesus references this prophecy and tells the Jews that if they truly believed what Moses wrote, they would also believe in him.

J. F. Walvoord (2011): Deuteronomy 18:15–18. The coming of a great prophet, who would be like Moses, was revealed. They should listen to Him, or God would hold them to account. This was fulfilled by Christ (John 1:21–45; 6:14; Acts 3:22–23; 7:37).30

44.  Deut. 18:18 Sent by the Father to speak His word John 8:28, 29

Deuteronomy 18:18 is another prophecy spoken by Moses in which he says, "I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers. And I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him." This prophecy is a promise that God will send a prophet who will speak His word to the people.

In John 8:28-29, Jesus speaks of his relationship with the Father and his mission to speak the Father's word to the people. Jesus says, "When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me. And he who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him."

This passage in John 8:28-29 highlights the idea that Jesus was sent by the Father to speak His word to the people. Jesus is speaking of his obedience to the Father's will and his willingness to do what the Father has commanded him to do. This passage reinforces the idea that Jesus was not speaking on his own authority, but rather was sent by the Father to speak His word.

Thus, there is a connection between Deuteronomy 18:18 and John 8:28-29 in that both speak of a prophet who is sent by God to speak His word. Jesus is seen as the fulfillment of the prophecy in Deuteronomy, and in John's gospel, Jesus is depicted as the one who is sent by the Father to speak His word and do His will.

45.  Deut. 18:19 Whoever will not hear must bear his sin Acts 3:22-23

Deuteronomy 18:19 is a passage from the Old Testament that speaks about the importance of heeding the words of the prophet that God will raise up. The passage reads:

"Whoever does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will call to account."

In this passage, God warns that those who do not listen to the words of the prophet will be held accountable for their actions.

In Acts 3:22-23, Peter refers to this passage when he is speaking to the people after healing a lame man. The passage reads:

"For Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own people; you must listen to everything he tells you. Anyone who does not listen to him will be completely cut off from their people.'"
Peter uses this passage to emphasize the importance of listening to Jesus, who is the prophet that Moses prophesied about. He warns the people that if they do not listen to Jesus, they will be cut off from their people, just as Deuteronomy 18:19 warned that those who do not listen to the prophet will be held accountable for their actions.

In summary, Deuteronomy 18:19 warns that those who do not listen to the words of the prophet will be held accountable for their actions. In Acts 3:22-23, Peter uses this passage to emphasize the importance of listening to Jesus, the prophet that Moses prophesied about, and warns the people that those who do not listen to Jesus will be cut off from their people.

M.Rydelnik (2019): The prophecy of the Prophet like Moses, found in Dt 18:15-19, is a messianic prophecy that speaks directly and solely of the coming Deliverer, later known as the Messiah. Isaiah’s prophecies of the Servant of the Lord provide evidence of this. Moreover, as Paul says, “when the time came to completion, God sent His Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem those under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons” (Gal 4:4-5). Isaiah’s prophecy of the coming messianic reign (Isa 2:1-4) looks to the time when the Lord will teach all the nations of His ways. Those who were the human instruments in the production of the books that comprise the Scriptures of the new covenant were not ignorant of the original intent of Torah, neither did they twist Scripture to conform to their faith in Jesus. When they saw fulfillment of this prophecy in Jesus, it was because they were reading Torah correctly. Unlike the prognostications of the false prophets, this prophecy of Moses has come true! This is a witness, not only concerning Jesus’ identity, but also Moses’ validity as a true prophet of God. The unjustified abandonment of a messianic reading of this passage not only robs believers in Jesus of precious truth, but also concedes valuable ground to those who oppose the gospel altogether. To paraphrase a remark of Allison: I do acknowledge that in more than one recent work the directly messianic interpretation of the prophecy of the Prophet like Moses has in fact, for whatever reason, suffered interment. But the burial is premature.71 It is to be hoped that a restored confidence in the directly messianic interpretation will revive the messianic hope that first animated the remnant of Israel—and later the early believers in Jesus.1

46. Deut. 21:23 Cursed is he that hangs on a tree Galatians 3:10-13

Deuteronomy 21:23 is part of the Old Testament law and refers to the practice of hanging a criminal's body on a tree after they had been executed. It was seen as a sign of the ultimate disgrace and curse for the individual and their family.

Galatians 3:10-13 is part of the New Testament and was written by the Apostle Paul. In this passage, Paul is arguing that no one can be justified by keeping the law, but only by faith in Jesus Christ. He uses the phrase "cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree" to show that Jesus Christ became a curse for us by dying on the cross.

In other words, Paul is saying that Jesus took on the curse that was meant for us and redeemed us from it through His death on the cross. This passage highlights the central message of Christianity, which is salvation through faith in Jesus Christ and not by works of the law.

The fact that one hanging on a tree is under divine curse is symbolic of Christ’s dying on a tree bearing the sins of the world (Gal. 3:13).


Joshua


47.  Joshua 5:14-15 The Captain of our salvation Hebrews 2:10

Joshua 5:14-15 is a passage from the Old Testament that speaks about Joshua's encounter with the commander of the Lord's army. The passage reads:

"He said, 'No, but I am the commander of the army of the Lord. Now I have come.' And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and worshiped and said to him, 'What does my lord say to his servant?' And the commander of the Lord's army said to Joshua, 'Take off your sandals from your feet, for the place where you are standing is holy.' And Joshua did so."

In this passage, the commander of the Lord's army is identified as the Lord himself, and Joshua falls down to worship him.

In Hebrews 2:10, Jesus is referred to as the "captain of our salvation." The passage reads:

"For it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory, should make the founder of their salvation perfect through suffering. For he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one source. That is why he is not ashamed to call them brothers."

This passage is referring to Jesus as the one who brings salvation to his followers and who suffered in order to make them perfect. He is described as the "founder of their salvation" and the one who sanctifies them. The term "captain" can also be translated as "leader" or "pioneer," and it emphasizes Jesus' role as the one who leads his followers to salvation.

In summary, Joshua 5:14-15 speaks about Joshua's encounter with the commander of the Lord's army, who is identified as the Lord himself. In Hebrews 2:10, Jesus is referred to as the "captain of our salvation," emphasizing his role as the one who leads his followers to salvation and sanctifies them.

Ruth

48.  Ruth 4:4-10 Christ, our kinsman, has redeemed us Ephesians 1:3-7

Ruth 4:4-10 tells the story of Boaz, who was a wealthy relative of Naomi and Ruth. Boaz redeemed Ruth by purchasing her as his wife, thus providing for her and Naomi's future. This act of redemption was based on the principle of the kinsman-redeemer, which was a custom in ancient Israel that allowed a relative to redeem a family member who was in financial or social distress.

In the New Testament, Ephesians 1:3-7 refers to the spiritual redemption that is available through faith in Jesus Christ. In this passage, Paul praises God for the spiritual blessings that believers have received through Christ, including redemption through His blood. Paul explains that we have been redeemed from our sins and forgiven by God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ.

The idea of redemption in both Ruth and Ephesians highlights the concept of a kinsman-redeemer, which is a theme that runs throughout the Bible. In the Old Testament, the kinsman-redeemer was a physical relative who provided financial and social support to family members in distress. In the New Testament, Jesus is seen as the ultimate kinsman-redeemer who has redeemed us from sin and death by His sacrifice on the cross.

Samuel

49.  1 Sam. 2:35 A Faithful Priest Heb. 2:17; 3:1-3, 6; 7:24-25

1 Samuel 2:35 is a passage from the Old Testament that speaks about the promise of God to raise up a faithful priest who will do according to what is in God's heart and mind. The passage reads:

"I will raise up for myself a faithful priest, who will do according to what is in my heart and mind. I will firmly establish his priestly house, and they will minister before my anointed one always."

In this passage, God promises to raise up a faithful priest who will be devoted to him and will serve in the way that pleases him.

In the book of Hebrews, several references are made to Jesus as a faithful priest who fulfills this promise. Hebrews 2:17 states:

"For this reason he had to be made like them, fully human in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people."

Hebrews 3:1-3, 6 also speaks of Jesus as a faithful high priest, comparing him to Moses who was faithful in God's house:

"Therefore, holy brothers and sisters, who share in the heavenly calling, fix your thoughts on Jesus, whom we acknowledge as our apostle and high priest. He was faithful to the one who appointed him, just as Moses was faithful in all God’s house. Jesus has been found worthy of greater honor than Moses, just as the builder of a house has greater honor than the house itself. But Christ is faithful as the Son over God’s house. And we are his house, if indeed we hold firmly to our confidence and the hope in which we glory."

Finally, Hebrews 7:24-25 states:

"But because Jesus lives forever, he has a permanent priesthood. Therefore he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them."

In summary, 1 Samuel 2:35 speaks about the promise of God to raise up a faithful priest who will do according to what is in his heart and mind. In the book of Hebrews, Jesus is referred to as a faithful high priest who fulfills this promise, and he is able to save completely those who come to God through him.

It ultimately will be fulfilled by Jesus Christ, who is a priest forever (Ps. 110; Heb. 5:6; Rev. 19:16).

50.  1 Sam. 2:10 Shall be an anointed King to the Lord Mt. 28:18, John 12:15

1 Samuel 2:10 is a prophecy spoken by Hannah, the mother of the prophet Samuel. In this verse, Hannah declares that God will raise up a king who will be anointed to the Lord. This king would be a powerful ruler who would serve God's purposes and bring glory to His name.

In the New Testament, Matthew 28:18 and John 12:15 both refer to Jesus Christ as a king. In Matthew 28:18, Jesus tells his disciples that all authority in heaven and on earth has been given to Him. This statement emphasizes Jesus' position as a powerful ruler who has been given ultimate authority over all things.

Similarly, in John 12:15, Jesus is described as a king who enters Jerusalem riding on a donkey, fulfilling the prophecy of Zechariah 9:9. This event is often referred to as Jesus' triumphal entry and is seen as a significant moment in His ministry, where He is acknowledged as a king by the people.

Overall, the connection between 1 Samuel 2:10 and Matthew 28:18 and John 12:15 highlights the fulfillment of prophecy in Jesus Christ. He is seen as the anointed king who has come to save His people and establish His kingdom on earth.


51.  2 Sam. 7:12 David’s Seed Matthew 1:1

2 Samuel 7:12 is a prophecy that was given to King David by the prophet Nathan. In this verse, God promises David that his descendants will continue to reign over Israel and that one of his descendants will build a house for God. This promise of a future ruler from the line of David is known as the Davidic Covenant.

In the New Testament, Matthew 1:1 begins with a genealogy of Jesus Christ, tracing His lineage back to King David. This establishes Jesus' rightful place as the heir to the Davidic throne and fulfills the prophecy of 2 Samuel 7:12.

Through the lineage of David, Jesus fulfills the promise of a future ruler who would establish an eternal kingdom. He is seen as the long-awaited Messiah, who would bring salvation to His people and establish God's reign on earth. The connection between 2 Samuel 7:12 and Matthew 1:1 highlights the fulfillment of prophecy in Jesus Christ and His role as the promised Savior and King.

52.  2 Sam. 7:13 His Kingdom is everlasting 2Peter 1:11

2 Samuel 7:13 is a passage from the Old Testament that speaks about the promise that God made to David regarding his kingdom. The passage reads:

"He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he does wrong, I will punish him with a rod wielded by men, with floggings inflicted by human hands."

In this passage, God promises that David's kingdom will be established forever, and that his descendants will continue to rule on the throne.

In 2 Peter 1:11, the everlasting kingdom is referenced as a promise to Christians who have been saved through faith in Jesus Christ. The passage reads:

"And you will receive a rich welcome into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ."

This passage emphasizes that the kingdom of Jesus Christ is eternal and that those who have put their faith in him will enter into it.

The reference to the everlasting kingdom in 2 Peter 1:11 echoes the promise that God made to David in 2 Samuel 7:13. The promise made to David regarding his kingdom was fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who is the descendant of David and who established an eternal kingdom through his death and resurrection.

In summary, 2 Samuel 7:13 speaks about the promise that God made to David regarding his kingdom, which would be established forever. In 2 Peter 1:11, the everlasting kingdom is referenced as a promise to Christians who have been saved through faith in Jesus Christ. The promise made to David is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who established an eternal kingdom through his death and resurrection.

53.  2 Sam. 7:14 The Son of God Luke 1:32, Romans 1:3-4

2 Samuel 7:14 is a prophecy given to King David by the prophet Nathan. In this verse, God promises to raise up a descendant of David who will be His son and who will establish an everlasting kingdom. This promise of a future ruler from the line of David is known as the Davidic Covenant.

In the New Testament, Luke 1:32 and Romans 1:3-4 both refer to Jesus Christ as the Son of God. In Luke 1:32, the angel Gabriel tells Mary that her son Jesus will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. This statement emphasizes Jesus' divine nature and His unique relationship with God as His Son.

Similarly, in Romans 1:3-4, Paul declares that Jesus Christ, who was descended from David according to the flesh, was declared to be the Son of God with power by His resurrection from the dead. This statement emphasizes Jesus' dual nature as both fully human and fully divine.

The connection between 2 Samuel 7:14 and Luke 1:32 and Romans 1:3-4 highlights the fulfillment of prophecy in Jesus Christ. He is seen as the long-awaited descendant of David who has come to establish an everlasting kingdom, and also as the Son of God who has come to reveal God's love and salvation to the world.

54.  2 Sam. 7:16 David’s house established forever Luke 3:31; Rev. 22:16

2 Samuel 7:16 is a prophecy that God gave to King David through the prophet Nathan, promising that David's dynasty would be established forever: "Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever."

Luke 3:31 and Revelation 22:16 both reference David's lineage as they list the genealogy of Jesus Christ. In Luke 3:31, it states that Jesus was the son of Nathan, who was the son of David. And in Revelation 22:16, Jesus is referred to as "the Root and the Offspring of David."

These verses affirm the fulfillment of the prophecy given to David in 2 Samuel 7:16, which was ultimately realized through Jesus Christ, who came from the line of David and established a kingdom that will last forever.

M. Rydelnik (2019):  Second Samuel 7 and 1 Chronicles 17 are two of the most pivotal chapters in all of the OT; in fact, they could be referred to as the real powerhouse chapters of Scripture. Both of these chapters build upon the Abrahamic promise made first in Gn 12:1-3 and 15:1-6, and then repeated to Isaac and Jacob. Three key promises were given to Abram (later to be called Abraham) to announce to all his descendants: he and they together were to receive a “land,” a “seed” that had a male representative of the whole nation to come, and a “gospel,” that all the nations of the earth would receive through Abram and his genealogical line spiritual blessing of enormous benefit. Second Samuel 7 and 1Chr 17 set forth the Davidic covenant that leads directly to Christ the Messiah. Just as God earlier had given His everlasting promise-plan to Abraham in Gn 12 and 15, God later further built into that ancient word additional promises He then gave to David. The ancient trilogy of the promise of a “land,” a “seed,” and a “gospel” in which all nations would be blessed (Gn 12:2-3) was now to be enhanced by another trilogy of promises in this same plan of God: a “throne,” a “dynasty,” and a “kingdom” (2Sm 7:16) that would endure forever. David’s promise would conclude with Jesus the Messiah coming in His first advent to fulfill part of the divine plan, but Messiah would return a second time to bring the plan to completion. 1

J. F. Walvoord (2011): The ultimate person to sit on the throne of David would be Jesus Christ. Mary’s genealogy (Luke 3:23–38) was traced to Nathan, the son of David, instead of Solomon (v. 31). By contrast, Joseph’s genealogy was traced to Solomon (Matt. 1:2–16), whose line was cursed, but Joseph provided the legal basis for Jesus Christ to claim the throne of David. The language of the covenant in 2 Samuel 7 and 1 Chronicles 17, as it was certainly understood by David, referred to his physical lineage and to his political kingdom, not to an entity such as the elect, the saved, or the church. .3

Kings

55.  2 Ki. 2:11 The bodily ascension to heaven illustrated Luke 24:51

2 Kings 2:11 tells the story of the prophet Elijah's departure from earth. In this verse, Elijah is taken up into heaven in a whirlwind, carried away in a chariot of fire. This event is seen as a miraculous and divine moment, demonstrating God's power and Elijah's special relationship with Him.

In the New Testament, Luke 24:51 describes the bodily ascension of Jesus Christ into heaven after His resurrection. In this verse, it is said that Jesus was lifted up into heaven and taken from the sight of His disciples. This event is seen as a miraculous and divine moment, demonstrating Jesus' power and His unique relationship with God.

The connection between 2 Kings 2:11 and Luke 24:51 highlights the continuity of the divine plan throughout history. Both events demonstrate God's power and His ability to intervene in human affairs. Elijah's ascension foreshadows the bodily ascension of Jesus Christ, emphasizing Jesus' divine nature and His unique role in God's plan of salvation.

Chronicles

56.  1 Chr. 17:11 David’s Seed Matthew 1:1; 9:27

1 Chronicles 17:11 is a verse from the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) which reads:

"When your days are fulfilled to go to be with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, one of your own sons, and I will establish his kingdom."

This verse is part of a promise that God made to King David, stating that his dynasty would continue through his descendants and that one of his offspring would be chosen to establish an eternal kingdom.

Matthew 1:1 and 9:27 are verses from the New Testament that refer to the fulfillment of this promise through the birth of Jesus Christ. Matthew 1:1 reads:

"The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham."

This verse establishes Jesus' lineage as descending from King David, and therefore fulfilling the promise made to him in 1 Chronicles 17:11. Matthew 9:27 records an incident where two blind men called out to Jesus as "Son of David," acknowledging him as the rightful heir to David's throne and the fulfillment of God's promise.

57.  1 Chr. 17:12-13 To reign on David’s throne forever Luke 1:32, 33

1 Chronicles 17:12-13 is a prophecy given to King David by the prophet Nathan. In these verses, God promises David that one of his descendants will establish an eternal kingdom and reign on his throne forever. This promise of a future ruler from the line of David is known as the Davidic Covenant.

In the New Testament, Luke 1:32-33 describes the angel Gabriel's announcement to Mary about her son Jesus. In these verses, Gabriel tells Mary that her son will be great, will be called the Son of the Most High, and will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there will be no end. This statement emphasizes Jesus' divine nature and His unique role as the promised Messiah.

The connection between 1 Chronicles 17:12-13 and Luke 1:32-33 highlights the fulfillment of prophecy in Jesus Christ. He is seen as the long-awaited descendant of David who has come to establish an eternal kingdom, fulfilling the promise of the Davidic Covenant. Through His life, death, and resurrection, Jesus has proven Himself to be the promised Messiah, who has come to redeem His people and reign over them forever.

58.  1 Chr. 17:13 “I will be His Father, He…my Son.” Hebrews 1:5

Both 1 Chronicles 17:13 and Hebrews 1:5 are referring to the same prophetic statement made by God regarding the Messiah. In 1 Chronicles 17:13, God is speaking to David through the prophet Nathan, promising him that one of his descendants will build a temple for God and establish his throne forever. God declares that He will be a father to this future king and that the king will be His son.

In Hebrews 1:5, the author of the book is quoting this same prophecy and applying it to Jesus Christ, who is the ultimate fulfillment of this promise. The author of Hebrews is using this verse to demonstrate the superiority of Jesus over the angels, stating that God never called any of the angels His son, but only Jesus.

So, in summary, both 1 Chronicles 17:13 and Hebrews 1:5 are referring to the same prophetic statement made by God regarding the future Messiah. 1 Chronicles 17:13 is the original context in which the prophecy was given to David, and Hebrews 1:5 is an application of this prophecy to Jesus Christ, who is the ultimate fulfillment of this promise.

Job

59.  Job 9:32-33 Mediator between man and God 1 Timothy 2:5

Job 9:32-33 is a passage in which Job laments his inability to approach God and plead his case before Him. In these verses, Job wishes for a mediator who could lay his hand on both God and him, bridging the gap between them.
In the New Testament, 1 Timothy 2:5 describes Jesus Christ as the one and only mediator between God and mankind. In this verse, Paul tells Timothy that there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. This statement emphasizes Jesus' unique role as the bridge between God and humanity, enabling us to approach God and receive salvation.

The connection between Job 9:32-33 and 1 Timothy 2:5 highlights the continuity of the divine plan throughout history. Job longed for a mediator who could bridge the gap between him and God, and in Jesus Christ, that longing is fulfilled. Jesus is seen as the promised mediator who has come to reconcile humanity to God and provide a way for us to approach Him.

60.  Job 19:23-27 The Resurrection predicted John 5:24-29

Job 19:23-27 is a passage in the Old Testament that has been traditionally understood to contain a prediction of the resurrection of the dead. The passage reads as follows:

"Oh, that my words were recorded, that they were written on a scroll, that they were inscribed with an iron tool on lead, or engraved in rock forever! I know that my Redeemer lives, and that in the end he will stand on the earth. And after my skin has been destroyed, yet in my flesh I will see God; I myself will see him with my own eyes—I, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!"

This passage expresses Job's hope in a future bodily resurrection, even after his skin has been destroyed. He declares his belief that his Redeemer lives and that he will see God with his own eyes.

In John 5:24-29, Jesus speaks about the future resurrection of the dead:

"Very truly I tell you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life and will not be judged but has crossed over from death to life. Very truly I tell you, a time is coming and has now come when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man. Do not be amazed at this, for a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice and come out—those who have done what is good will rise to live, and those who have done what is evil will rise to be condemned."

In this passage, Jesus promises that those who believe in him will not be judged but will have eternal life. He also speaks about a future resurrection of the dead, in which all who are in their graves will hear his voice and come out. Those who have done good will rise to live, and those who have done evil will rise to be condemned.

Both Job 19:23-27 and John 5:24-29 express the hope and belief in a future bodily resurrection of the dead. Job's words are often interpreted as a prediction of the resurrection, while Jesus' words in John 5 provide further insight into the nature of the resurrection and the judgment that will follow.

M.Rydelnik (2019): Written by an unknown author, and possibly the most ancient literary account in the Bible, the book of Job is a mixture of prose and poetry that both distresses and comforts the reader. Samuel E. Balentine observes, “Job is clearly part of Judaism’s Scripture.”1 Most evangelical scholars see Job as a real historical character. For instance, August H. Konkel states, “There is no reason to doubt that Job was a historical individual whose story was well known. The prophet Ezekiel (Ezk 4:14) refers to Noah, Daniel, and Job as three historical individuals.” James also recognizes Job as a historical person (Jms 5:11). Not only is Job a historical character, but also “a heroic figure in the mold of Noah and Adam … patriarchal, or better, prepatriarchal.” Although Job’s confession as interpreted does not explicitly support the [full] doctrine of resurrection, it is built on the same logic that will lead to that doctrine becoming the cornerstone of NT faith.” The same hope that Job is expressing here is expressed by the writers of the NT. Job and the authors of Scripture hold that even when God permits terrible injustices and undeserved suffering in the lives of those He loves, He is still just and fair. “God, himself, identified with Job’s sufferings in the sufferings of his Son, Jesus Christ, who suffered unto death even though he was innocent. Jesus overcame his ignominious death by rising from the grave. In his victory he, as God’s Son and mankind’s kinsman-redeemer, secured redemption for all who believe on him.” God the Son is the Redeemer of all who suffer in this life for His sake. Regardless of how one interprets these eternal words of Job, his “confidence in God as his Redeemer amidst excruciating suffering stands as a model for all Christians. 1



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Psalms

61.  Psa. 2:1-3 The enmity of kings foreordained Acts 4:25-28

Psalm 2:1-3 is a psalm of David in which he speaks of the opposition of earthly rulers against God and His anointed one. In these verses, David marvels at the way the nations and their leaders plot against the Lord and His anointed one, seeking to cast off their cords and break their bonds.

In the New Testament, Acts 4:25-28 applies this psalm to the situation of the early Christian church. In these verses, the believers pray to God, acknowledging that the rulers of the earth have gathered together against Jesus Christ, the anointed one, just as David had prophesied in Psalm 2. The believers recognize that this opposition was part of God's foreordained plan, which culminated in the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

The connection between Psalm 2:1-3 and Acts 4:25-28 highlights the continuity of the divine plan throughout history. David's psalm, written centuries before the birth of Christ, foreshadows the opposition that Jesus would face in His ministry and the opposition that His followers would face as they spread the gospel. The believers in Acts recognize that this opposition was not an accident, but was part of God's plan to bring salvation to the world through Jesus Christ.

62.  Psa. 2:2 To own the title, Anointed (Christ) John 1:41, Acts 2:36

Psalm 2:2 reads, "The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord and against his Anointed." The term "Anointed" in this verse refers to the Hebrew word "Mashiach," which is translated as "Messiah" or "Christ" in English.

In John 1:41, we read that Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, found Jesus and declared to him, "We have found the Messiah" (which means Christ). The term "Christ" is the Greek equivalent of "Messiah," and both words mean "anointed one." Therefore, in John 1:41, Andrew is saying that they have found the Anointed One that Psalm 2:2 speaks of.

In Acts 2:36, Peter is preaching to the crowd on the day of Pentecost, and he declares, "Let all the house of Israel therefore know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified." Here, Peter is proclaiming that Jesus, who was crucified, has been made both Lord and Christ by God. This means that Jesus is the Anointed One that was prophesied about in Psalm 2:2, and he has been given the title of "Christ" by God.

Therefore, Psalm 2:2, John 1:41, and Acts 2:36 all refer to the same person - Jesus Christ - who is the Anointed One that was prophesied about in the Old Testament and fulfilled in the New Testament.

63.  Psa. 2:6 His Character-Holiness John 8:46; Revelation 3:7

Psalm 2:6 speaks of the Lord's anointed one, who is established as king on Zion, God's holy mountain. This verse emphasizes the character of God's chosen one as holy, set apart for a special purpose.

In the New Testament, John 8:46 records Jesus' statement to the Jews, in which He asks them which of them can convict Him of sin. This statement emphasizes Jesus' own character as holy, without sin, and fully obedient to God's will.

Revelation 3:7 also emphasizes the character of Jesus as holy. In this verse, Jesus is described as the one who is holy and true, who has the key of David, who opens and no one can shut, and who shuts and no one can open. This description emphasizes Jesus' divine authority and His perfect holiness.

The connection between Psalm 2:6 and John 8:46 and Revelation 3:7 highlights the continuity of God's character throughout history. The emphasis on holiness in Psalm 2:6 is reflected in the New Testament descriptions of Jesus as holy and sinless. Jesus is seen as the perfect embodiment of God's character, fully obedient to His will and without sin. This continuity of character emphasizes the unity of God's plan for salvation throughout history, culminating in the person of Jesus Christ.

64.  Psa. 2:6 To own the title King Matthew 2:2

Psalm 2:6 says, "I have installed my king on Zion, my holy mountain." This is a verse from the book of Psalms in the Bible, and it is a prophetic passage that speaks of a future king who will be established by God on his holy mountain.

Matthew 2:2, on the other hand, says, "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him." This is a verse from the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament, and it refers to the magi who came from the East to worship Jesus, the newborn king of the Jews.

While these two passages are not directly related, they both speak of the coming of a king who is appointed by God. In Psalm 2:6, the king is a prophetic figure who is yet to come, while in Matthew 2:2, the king has already been born and is identified as Jesus.

65.  Psa. 2:7 Declared the Beloved Son Matthew 3:17, Romans 1:4

Psalm 2:7 speaks of God's anointed one, who is identified as the Son of God. This verse emphasizes the unique relationship between God and His chosen one.

In the New Testament, Matthew 3:17 records the moment when Jesus is baptized by John the Baptist and a voice from heaven declares, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." This statement identifies Jesus as the Son of God and emphasizes His unique relationship with the Father.

Romans 1:4 also emphasizes Jesus' status as the Son of God. In this verse, Paul speaks of Jesus as the one who was declared to be the Son of God with power by His resurrection from the dead. This statement emphasizes the divine nature of Jesus and His unique relationship with the Father.

The connection between Psalm 2:7 and Matthew 3:17 and Romans 1:4 highlights the continuity of God's plan for salvation throughout history. The emphasis on Jesus as the beloved Son in Psalm 2:7 is reflected in the New Testament descriptions of Jesus as the Son of God, emphasizing His unique relationship with the Father. This continuity emphasizes the unity of God's plan for salvation, which was fulfilled through the person of Jesus Christ, the beloved Son of God.

66.  Psa. 2:7, 8 The Crucifixion and Resurrection intimated Acts 13:29-33

Psalm 2:7-8 says, "I will proclaim the Lord's decree: He said to me, 'You are my son; today I have become your father. Ask me, and I will make the nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession.'"

This psalm is considered a Messianic psalm because it speaks of a future king who will rule over the nations. In the New Testament, this passage is applied to Jesus Christ, who is the Son of God and the promised Messiah.

Acts 13:29-33 recounts the message of Paul in the synagogue at Antioch, where he proclaimed the good news of Jesus Christ. In this passage, Paul emphasizes the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies.

Specifically, in verse 33, Paul quotes Psalm 2:7, stating that the resurrection of Jesus fulfills the prophecy that God would raise up a descendant of David to sit on his throne forever. In this way, Paul connects the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus with the Messianic promises of the Old Testament.

Therefore, Psalm 2:7-8 and Acts 13:29-33 work together to show how Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies about the Messiah through his death and resurrection.

67.  Psa. 2:8, 9 Rule the nations with a rod of iron Rev. 2:27; 12:5; 19:15

Psalm 2:8-9 speaks of the anointed one who is given authority by God to rule the nations with a rod of iron and to break them in pieces like a potter's vessel. This language emphasizes the anointed one's complete authority and power over the nations.

In the book of Revelation, this language is applied to Jesus Christ. Revelation 2:27 speaks of the authority that Jesus has received from His Father to rule the nations with a rod of iron. Revelation 12:5 speaks of the child who is born to rule all nations with a rod of iron, who is identified as Jesus Christ in the context of the book. Revelation 19:15 speaks of Jesus Christ as the one who will rule the nations with a rod of iron, emphasizing His complete authority and power.

The connection between Psalm 2:8-9 and Revelation 2:27; 12:5; 19:15 highlights the continuity of God's plan for salvation throughout history. The language of ruling the nations with a rod of iron emphasizes the complete authority and power of the anointed one, which is ultimately fulfilled in the person of Jesus Christ. This continuity emphasizes the unity of God's plan for salvation, which is fulfilled through the reign of Jesus Christ over all the nations.

68.  Psa. 2:12 Life comes through faith in Him John 20:31

Psalm 2:12 says, "Kiss the Son, lest he be angry and you be destroyed in your way, for his wrath can flare up in a moment. Blessed are all who take refuge in him."

This verse is a call to all people to turn to the Son, who is Jesus Christ, and take refuge in Him. It emphasizes the importance of putting faith in Jesus as the only way to find protection and safety from God's judgment.

Similarly, in John 20:31, the apostle John states the purpose of his gospel: "But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name."

John explains that the events recorded in his gospel were written to encourage people to believe in Jesus as the Messiah and the Son of God, and by putting their faith in Him, they can have eternal life.

Therefore, Psalm 2:12 and John 20:31 work together to emphasize the importance of faith in Jesus Christ as the only way to find safety and eternal life. By believing in Jesus and taking refuge in Him, we can experience the blessings and protection that come from being in a relationship with Him.

J. F. Walvoord (2011): Immediately following this introductory psalm, Psalm 2 describes God’s purpose to put His Son as King on Mount Zion. The opening verses prophesy the rebellion of the world against the Lord. In response, “the One enthroned in heaven laughs; the Lord scoffs at them” (v. 4). This describes the attitude of God toward worldly power. In God’s prophetic purpose, however, He rebuked them in anger and terrified them in wrath, saying, “I have installed my King on Zion, my holy hill” (v. 6). The Lord also declared His eternal decree (vv. 7–9). God the Father was revealed as saying to the Son, “You are my Son; today I have become your Father” (v. 7). This will be fulfilled in the millennium. This passage has been variously interpreted by biblical scholars because it refers to the sonship of Christ. The best interpretation is that Jesus Christ has always been a Son in relation to the Father, but that the declaration of this was made in time. Some scholars have advanced other views, such as that Christ became the Son by incarnation, by baptism, or by resurrection. The interpretation also relates to the question as to whether Christ was a Son eternally by eternal generation. In John 3:16, God is declared to have given “his only begotten Son” (KJV). Because the word begotten implied beginning in time, it seemed a contradiction of eternal sonship. Probably the best solution is to hold that it referred to His eternal sonship—with the thought of having the life of the Father— without complicating it with the concept of a beginning. Isaiah 9:6 referred to Christ as “a son” who “is given.” Because the decree of God that declared Christ a Son is eternal, evidence seems to support the concept that He is eternally His Son, but that the revelation of this fact is made in time. Important to this purpose of God is the fact that God will subdue all things under the Son: “I will make the nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession. You will rule them with an iron scepter; you will dash them to pieces like pottery” (Ps. 2:8–9). The fact that Christ will rule as an absolute monarch is supported by other prophecies. Revelation 19:15 declared, “Out of his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations. ‘He will rule them with an iron scepter.’” In interpreting this passage, it is quite clear that Christ did not accomplish this at His first coming, and that the premillennial interpretation that He will accomplish this after His second coming fits the prophetic Scriptures on this subject. The messianic psalms generally pictured Christ on the throne of the Father now awaiting His future triumph, when He will subdue the earth and sit on the throne of David. In view of this coming judgment, kings and rulers were exhorted to “serve the LORD with fear and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry and you be destroyed in your way, for His wrath can flare up in a moment. Blessed are all who take refuge in Him” (Ps. 2:11–12).30

69.  Psa. 8:2 The mouths of babes perfect His praise Matthew 21:16

Psalm 8:2 speaks of the praise that God receives from the mouths of children and infants. The innocence and purity of their praise are highlighted, emphasizing the greatness of God and the simplicity of faith.

In the New Testament, Matthew 21:16 quotes Psalm 8:2 in the context of Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem. When the chief priests and scribes hear the children in the temple courts praising Jesus as the Son of David, they are indignant. Jesus responds by quoting Psalm 8:2, emphasizing the greatness of God and the purity of the children's praise.

The connection between Psalm 8:2 and Matthew 21:16 highlights the continuity of God's plan for salvation throughout history. The innocence and purity of the children's praise in Psalm 8:2 are reflected in the New Testament accounts of the simplicity and purity of faith required for salvation. The emphasis on the greatness of God and the simplicity of faith highlights the unity of God's plan for salvation, which is accessible to all, including children and infants.

70.  Psa. 8:5, 6 His humiliation and exaltation Hebrews 2:5-9

Psalm 8:5-6 says, "What is mankind that you are mindful of them, human beings that you care for them? You have made them a little lower than the angels and crowned them with glory and honor."

This psalm speaks of the dignity and honor that God has bestowed upon humanity, despite our relative insignificance in the grand scheme of things. The passage acknowledges that we have been made "a little lower than the angels," yet have still been crowned with glory and honor.

Hebrews 2:5-9 provides a commentary on this psalm, connecting it to the person of Jesus Christ. The passage emphasizes the humanity of Jesus and the fact that he was made "lower than the angels" when he took on human form. However, it also highlights the fact that Jesus' humility and suffering ultimately led to his exaltation and glorification.

Therefore, Psalm 8:5-6 and Hebrews 2:5-9 work together to highlight the connection between Jesus' humility and exaltation. Jesus' willingness to become human and suffer for the sake of humanity ultimately led to his glorification and exaltation as the Son of God. The passages emphasize the importance of humility and self-sacrifice in the life of a believer, as it ultimately leads to blessings and exaltation in the sight of God.

J. F. Walvoord (2011): The contrast of Psalm 8 was between Christ and Adam. It was God’s intent that Adam should rule the world, but this was interrupted by the entrance of sin into the situation. Now Christ has fulfilled what was originally Adam’s responsibility. Having suffered on earth and gone through the humiliation of death, Christ now has been exalted to heaven, and it is God’s purpose ultimately for Him to rule over the earth. This Scripture will be completely fulfilled when Christ comes back in His second coming.30

71.  Psa. 9:7-10 Judge the world in righteousness Acts 17:31

Psalm 9:7-10 speaks of God as the righteous judge who will judge the world in righteousness. The psalmist expresses confidence in God's judgment, knowing that He will execute justice and defend the oppressed.

In the New Testament, Acts 17:31 quotes Psalm 9:7 in the context of Paul's sermon to the Athenians. Paul declares that God has fixed a day on which He will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom He has appointed, Jesus Christ. This passage emphasizes the continuity of God's plan for salvation, which culminates in the judgment of the world in righteousness by Jesus Christ.

The connection between Psalm 9:7-10 and Acts 17:31 highlights the unity of God's plan for salvation throughout history. The psalmist's confidence in God's justice and righteousness finds its fulfillment in the judgment of the world by Jesus Christ, who has been appointed by God as the righteous judge. The emphasis on the righteousness and justice of God highlights the continuity of God's plan for salvation, which is ultimately fulfilled in the judgment of the world by Jesus Christ.

72.  Psa. 16:10 Was not to see corruption Acts 2:31; 13:35

Psalm 16:10 says, "For you will not abandon me to the realm of the dead, nor will you let your faithful one see decay."

This verse is a prophetic statement about the Messiah, who would not experience physical decay in death. In other words, it is a reference to the resurrection of the Messiah.

In Acts 2:31, Peter references this verse in his sermon on the day of Pentecost, explaining that David (who wrote the psalm) was actually prophesying about Jesus. Peter argues that Jesus' resurrection was the fulfillment of this prophecy, as Jesus did not experience physical decay in death, but was raised from the dead on the third day.

Similarly, in Acts 13:35, Paul references this verse in his sermon at Antioch, explaining that Jesus' resurrection was the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. Paul argues that Jesus' resurrection proved that he was the promised Messiah, who had conquered death and had been exalted by God.

Therefore, Psalm 16:10 and Acts 2:31; 13:35 work together to demonstrate that Jesus' resurrection was the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. These passages emphasize the significance of Jesus' resurrection and its importance in demonstrating his identity as the Messiah. By rising from the dead, Jesus demonstrated his power over death and his authority as the Son of God.

73.  Psa. 16:9-11 Was to arise from the dead John 20:9

Psalm 16:9-11 is a Messianic psalm in which the psalmist expresses confidence that God will not abandon him to the grave, but will instead preserve his life and grant him joy in His presence forever.

In the New Testament, Peter quotes from Psalm 16:8-11 in his sermon on the day of Pentecost in Acts 2:25-28. Peter uses this passage to argue that King David, who wrote the psalm, was a prophet who foresaw the resurrection of the Messiah. Peter points out that David's tomb was still with them, and therefore he could not have been speaking about himself, but about Jesus, whom God raised from the dead.

John 20:9 does not directly quote from Psalm 16:9-11, but it does describe the moment when the disciples came to believe in Jesus' resurrection. When John and Peter found the empty tomb, they did not understand at first what had happened, but after seeing the grave clothes left behind, they believed that Jesus had risen from the dead, just as He had foretold.

The connection between Psalm 16:9-11, Acts 2:25-28, and John 20:9 highlights the unity of God's plan for salvation throughout history. The psalmist's confidence in God's preservation of his life and joy in His presence finds its fulfillment in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The emphasis on the resurrection of Jesus Christ highlights the continuity of God's plan for salvation, which is ultimately fulfilled in the resurrection of the dead.


M.Rydelnik (2019): The NT’s interpretation of Psalm 16:10 as a prophecy of the Messiah’s resurrection, though often rejected on the basis of the grammatical-historical interpretation, has much in favor of it. The book of Psalms is really a book with a messianic message. Second, the interpretation of the individual psalms must not be done in isolation from their larger literary context. The royal messianic psalms function within Book I (1– 41), and most particularly within this particular grouping of psalms (Pss 15–24) that envisions the ascent of the ideal king, the Messianic King, to the eternal presence of God on His holy mountain. Other psalms within this grouping speak clearly of the death of the Messianic King. Finally, this discussion looked at the word in Ps 16:10 and argued in light of the other mi tām psalms that this king is not simply kept from the grave, but is actually raised from the grave and preserved from the decay of death. Given other psalms of David that have been interpreted both figuratively and messianically in Book I (Pss 3–7), one can confidently say, along with Peter, that David’s focus in this psalm is not on himself, but rather upon the King who is both his son (Ps 18:50) and also his Lord (Ps 110:1).2

J. F. Walvoord (2011): This psalm is considered one of the messianic psalms because verses 8–11 were quoted by Peter (Acts 2:25–28), and verse 10 was quoted by Paul at Antioch (Acts 13:35). David expressed his faith that he would not be abandoned to the grave (Ps. 16:10), referring to himself, but he added that God would not “let your Holy One see decay” (v. 10). This was fulfilled by Christ, as David’s body did decay. David would continue in the grave, but in his resurrection he would experience “the path of life” (v. 11). As used by Peter and Paul, Psalm 16:10 referred to Christ’s resurrection and was quoted as proof that the resurrection of Christ was predicted. Others today can enjoy fellowship with God as long as they live and have the assurance that when they die, though their bodies may be placed in the grave, they are subject to future resurrection and meanwhile will enjoy fellowship with God in heaven.30

74.  Psa. 17:15 The resurrection predicted Luke 24:6

Psalm 17:15 says, "As for me, I will behold thy face in righteousness: I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness." This verse speaks of the psalmist's hope for a righteous afterlife, where he will be satisfied to see God's face and be like Him.

Luke 24:6 records the words of an angel who appeared to the women who came to Jesus' tomb on the morning of His resurrection: "He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee." This verse confirms the fulfillment of the prediction of Jesus' resurrection, which was foretold in numerous Old Testament scriptures, including Psalm 16:10, which says, "For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption."

Together, these verses demonstrate the hope and promise of resurrection and eternal life in the presence of God, which is made possible through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

75.  Psa. 18:2-3 The horn of salvation Luke 1:69-71

Psalm 18 is a song of thanksgiving and praise for God's deliverance and salvation. In verses 2-3, the psalmist declares that God is his rock, fortress, deliverer, and strength, in whom he takes refuge. The psalmist refers to God as the horn of his salvation, emphasizing God's power to save and deliver His people.

In the New Testament, Luke 1:69-71 quotes from Psalm 18:2-3 in the context of Zechariah's song of praise at the birth of his son John the Baptist. Zechariah blesses God, declaring that He has raised up a horn of salvation for His people in the house of His servant David, as He had promised through His prophets.

The connection between Psalm 18:2-3 and Luke 1:69-71 highlights the continuity of God's plan for salvation throughout history. The psalmist's declaration of God's power to save and deliver His people finds its fulfillment in the birth of Jesus Christ, who is the horn of salvation raised up for God's people in the house of David. The emphasis on God's faithfulness to His promises and His power to save highlights the continuity of God's plan for salvation, which is ultimately fulfilled in Jesus Christ.

76.  Psa. 22:1 Forsaken because of sins of others 2 Corinthians 5:21

Psalm 22 is a Messianic psalm that speaks of the suffering and anguish of the Messiah. In verse 1, the psalmist cries out to God, feeling forsaken and abandoned. The psalmist feels the weight of sin, not his own, but the sins of others that have caused him to feel separated from God.

In the New Testament, 2 Corinthians 5:21 describes the reconciling work of Jesus Christ, who was made sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him. This verse affirms that Jesus, who was without sin, took upon Himself the sin of the world and suffered the penalty of sin on behalf of sinners.

The connection between Psalm 22:1 and 2 Corinthians 5:21 highlights the depth of Jesus' suffering on the cross and His identification with sinners. In His death, Jesus experienced the full weight of sin and its consequences, including the feeling of abandonment by God. Jesus' death on the cross is the ultimate expression of His love for sinners, as He bore the penalty of sin in their place, that they might be reconciled to God.

77.  Psa. 22:1 “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” Matthew 27:46

Psalm 22 is a Messianic psalm that speaks of the suffering and anguish of the Messiah. In verse 1, the psalmist cries out to God, feeling forsaken and abandoned. This cry of abandonment is repeated by Jesus on the cross in Matthew 27:46.

Jesus, who was fully God and fully man, experienced the full weight of human suffering and separation from God on the cross. In His cry of abandonment, Jesus identified with the suffering and anguish expressed in Psalm 22, while also fulfilling its prophetic message. This connection between Psalm 22:1 and Matthew 27:46 highlights the depth of Jesus' suffering and His identification with sinners.

The cry of abandonment in Psalm 22:1 and its fulfillment in Matthew 27:46 also emphasizes the theological significance of Jesus' death on the cross. Jesus, who was without sin, took upon Himself the sin of the world and suffered the penalty of sin on behalf of sinners. Through His death and resurrection, Jesus made it possible for sinners to be reconciled to God and restored to a right relationship with Him.

78.  Psa. 22:2 Darkness upon Calvary for three hours Matthew 27:45

Psalm 22:2 begins with the famous cry of Jesus on the cross, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" This psalm contains many prophetic elements that were fulfilled in the life, ministry, and death of Jesus Christ, including His suffering and crucifixion.

Matthew 27:45 records that during the crucifixion of Jesus, darkness fell upon the land from the sixth hour (noon) to the ninth hour (3 pm): "Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour." This event is significant because it fulfills the prophecy in Amos 8:9 that speaks of the coming judgment of God: "And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord GOD, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in the clear day."

The darkness that fell upon the land during Jesus' crucifixion was a supernatural event that demonstrated the magnitude and gravity of the atoning sacrifice that Jesus was making on behalf of all humanity. It was a powerful symbol of the weight of sin and the judgment that was being poured out on Jesus, who was taking upon Himself the sins of the world.

79.  Psa. 22:7 They shoot out the lip and shake the head Matthew 27:39-44

Psalm 22:7 describes the mocking and ridicule that the Messiah would face: "All who see me mock me; they make mouths at me; they wag their heads." This prophecy was fulfilled during Jesus' crucifixion, as recorded in Matthew 27:39-44. The people who passed by Him as He hung on the cross mocked Him, saying "You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross" (Matthew 27:40). They also shook their heads and hurled insults at Him, just as Psalm 22 predicted.

This fulfillment of prophecy highlights the suffering and humiliation that Jesus endured on the cross. Despite being the Son of God, He was mocked and ridiculed by those who did not understand who He was or the purpose of His mission. This mockery was a fulfillment of the prophecies of the suffering Messiah, and serves as a reminder of the depth of Jesus' sacrifice and His identification with sinners.

80.  Psa. 22:8 “He trusted in God, let Him deliver Him” Matthew 27:43

Psalm 22:8 is a verse from the Old Testament that reads, "He trusted in the Lord, let him deliver him; let him rescue him, for he delights in him." This verse is often interpreted as a prophecy about Jesus Christ, who is believed to have quoted from Psalm 22 while he was on the cross.

Matthew 27:43 is a verse from the New Testament that recounts the mocking of Jesus by the chief priests, scribes, and elders while he was on the cross. They said, "He trusts in God; let God deliver him now, if he desires him. For he said, 'I am the Son of God.'"

The parallel between Psalm 22:8 and Matthew 27:43 is that both verses involve people questioning whether God will deliver someone who trusts in him. In Psalm 22, the psalmist is crying out to God in distress, asking God why he has abandoned him. The mocking in Matthew 27 is an attempt to discredit Jesus' claim to be the Son of God by implying that if he were truly the Son of God, God would deliver him from his suffering on the cross.

However, both Psalm 22 and Matthew 27 ultimately point to God's faithfulness and deliverance. In Psalm 22, the psalmist goes on to praise God for his deliverance and to proclaim God's faithfulness to future generations. In Matthew 27, Jesus ultimately triumphs over death through his resurrection, demonstrating God's power and faithfulness to save those who trust in him.


81.  Psa. 22:9-10 Born the Saviour Luke 2:7

Psalm 22:9-10 speaks of the Messiah's dependence on God from the time of His birth: "Yet you are he who took me from the womb; you made me trust you at my mother's breasts. On you was I cast from my birth, and from my mother's womb you have been my God." This prophecy was fulfilled in the birth of Jesus Christ, as recorded in Luke 2:7: "And she gave birth to her firstborn son and wrapped him in swaddling cloths and laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them in the inn."

The fact that Jesus was born in such humble circumstances, laid in a manger and dependent on His mother, underscores the fulfillment of the prophecy in Psalm 22. It also emphasizes the fact that Jesus' mission was not about power or prestige, but rather about humility and dependence on God. The fulfillment of this prophecy in the birth of Jesus further confirms His identity as the promised Messiah and the Savior of the world.

82.  Psa. 22:12-13 They seek His death John 19:6

Psalm 22:12-13  reads: "Many bulls surround me; strong bulls of Bashan encircle me. Roaring lions that tear their prey open their mouths wide against me."

This verse is considered a Messianic prophecy, as it speaks of the suffering of a righteous person who is surrounded by enemies. The New Testament book of John 19:6 references the fulfillment of this prophecy in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, where the religious leaders of the time sought His death.

In John 19:6, it says: "As soon as the chief priests and their officials saw him, they shouted, “Crucify! Crucify!” But Pilate answered, “You take him and crucify him. As for me, I find no basis for a charge against him.”"

This verse describes the scene where the Jewish leaders sought the death of Jesus, and they eventually succeeded in convincing Pontius Pilate to crucify him. Thus, the fulfillment of the prophecy of Psalm 22:12-13 can be seen in the events leading up to Jesus' crucifixion.

83.  Psa. 22:14 His blood poured out when they pierced His side John 19:34

Psalm 22:14 prophesies the Messiah's suffering and pain: "I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint; my heart is like wax; it is melted within my breast." This prophecy was fulfilled in the crucifixion of Jesus, as recorded in John 19:34: "But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water."

The piercing of Jesus' side fulfilled not only Psalm 22:14, but also Zechariah 12:10, which says, "They will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child." The fact that Jesus' blood was poured out on the cross emphasizes the reality of His sacrifice and the depth of His love for humanity. Through His death and shed blood, He paid the penalty for our sins and reconciled us to God.

The fulfillment of this prophecy highlights the fact that Jesus truly was the promised Messiah, who suffered and died for the sins of the world. It also serves as a powerful reminder of the cost of our salvation and the love of God that led Jesus to willingly lay down His life for us.

84.  Psa. 22:14, 15 Suffered agony on Calvary Mark 15:34-37

Psalm 22:14-15 says, "I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint. My heart has turned to wax; it has melted within me. My mouth is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue sticks to the roof of my mouth; you lay me in the dust of death." This psalm is considered a prophetic psalm, and it is often associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

In Mark 15:34-37, it is recorded that while Jesus was on the cross, he cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" This is a direct reference to Psalm 22:1, which begins with the same words. This shows that Jesus was identifying himself with the psalmist who wrote the psalm and was experiencing the agony and despair described in the psalm.

The suffering of Jesus on the cross was extreme, both physically and emotionally. He was beaten, whipped, and mocked before being crucified, and he experienced excruciating pain and thirst while on the cross. The events described in Psalm 22 and Mark 15:34-37 show the depth of Jesus' suffering and his identification with humanity in its pain and suffering.

85.  Psa. 22:15 He thirsted John 19:28

Psalm 22:15 prophesies the Messiah's thirst on the cross: "My strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue sticks to my jaws; you lay me in the dust of death." This prophecy was fulfilled in John 19:28, which says, "After this, Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said (to fulfill the Scripture), 'I thirst.'"

The fact that Jesus was thirsty on the cross emphasizes the reality of His suffering and the physical agony He endured. It also serves as a reminder of His humanity, even in the midst of His divine nature. Through His suffering and thirst on the cross, Jesus identified with the pain and suffering of humanity and made a way for us to be reconciled to God.

The fulfillment of this prophecy highlights the fact that Jesus truly was the promised Messiah, who suffered and died for the sins of the world. It also serves as a powerful reminder of the depth of His love for us and the extent to which He was willing to go to save us.

86.  Psa. 22:16 They pierced His hands and His feet John 19:34, 37; 20:27

Psalm 22:16 prophesies that the Messiah's hands and feet would be pierced: "Dogs have surrounded me; a band of evildoers has encircled me, they have pierced my hands and my feet." This prophecy was fulfilled in the crucifixion of Jesus, as recorded in John's gospel.

John 19:34, 37 describes how the Roman soldiers pierced Jesus' side after He had died on the cross. This fulfilled the prophecy in Psalm 22:14, which speaks of the Messiah's bones being out of joint. However, it was also common practice for crucifixion victims to have their hands and feet pierced with nails to secure them to the cross. John 20:27 confirms that Jesus' hands and feet were pierced when Thomas is invited to touch Jesus' wounds, which included the wounds in His hands and feet.

The fulfillment of this prophecy in Jesus' crucifixion is a powerful reminder of His sacrificial death for our sins. It also serves as evidence that Jesus truly was the promised Messiah, fulfilling every detail of the prophecies concerning His life and death. As believers, we can take comfort in the fact that Jesus willingly suffered and died in our place, paying the price for our sins and making a way for us to be reconciled to God.

87.  Psa. 22:17, 18 Stripped Him before the stares of men Luke 23:34, 35

Psalm 22:17-18 is a prophetic passage that describes the suffering of the Messiah, who would be mocked and ridiculed by his enemies, and ultimately be stripped of his clothing and left naked before the watching crowd:

"I can count all my bones;
people stare and gloat over me.
They divide my garments among them
and cast lots for my clothing."

Luke 23:34-35 records the fulfillment of this prophecy in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, who was stripped of his clothes and publicly shamed as he hung on the cross:

"Jesus said, 'Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.' And they divided up his clothes by casting lots. The people stood watching, and the rulers even sneered at him. They said, 'He saved others; let him save himself if he is God’s Messiah, the Chosen One.'"

These verses remind us of the depth of suffering and humiliation that Jesus endured on the cross, as he willingly gave himself up for the sins of humanity. But they also point to the ultimate victory that he achieved through his death and resurrection, providing salvation and forgiveness for all who believe in him.

88.  Psa. 22:18 They parted His garments John 19:23, 24

Psalm 22:18 says, "They divide my garments among them and cast lots for my clothing." This prophecy was fulfilled during the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, as recorded in John 19:23-24: "When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his garments and divided them into four parts, one part for each soldier; also his tunic. But the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece from top to bottom, so they said to one another, 'Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be.' This was to fulfill the Scripture which says, 'They divided my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots.' So the soldiers did these things."

The fact that this prophecy was fulfilled in such a specific way is further evidence of Jesus' identity as the promised Messiah. The details of His life, death, and resurrection all point to His divine nature and the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies. As believers, we can be confident in the truth of God's word and the reality of Jesus' sacrifice for our sins.

89.  Psa. 22:20, 21 He committed Himself to God Luke 23:46

Psalm 22:20-21 says, "Deliver me from the sword, my precious life from the power of the dogs. Rescue me from the mouth of the lions; save me from the horns of the wild oxen."

These verses are part of Psalm 22, which is a Messianic psalm that prophesies the suffering of the Messiah. In this psalm, the psalmist expresses his anguish and cries out to God for deliverance.

Luke 23:46 records the dying words of Jesus on the cross, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit." This statement is a declaration of Jesus' trust and submission to God, even in the midst of his suffering and death.

There is a parallel between Psalm 22 and Jesus' crucifixion, as many of the details described in the psalm are fulfilled in Jesus' death. By committing Himself to God, Jesus shows that even in his darkest hour, he trusted in God's faithfulness and sovereignty.

90.  Psa. 22:20, 21 Satanic power bruising the Redeemer’s heel Hebrews 2:14

Psalm 22:20-21 says, "Deliver me from the sword, my precious life from the power of the dogs. Rescue me from the mouth of the lions; save me from the horns of the wild oxen!" These verses describe the psalmist's plea for God's deliverance from his enemies, who were likened to fierce animals.

This passage has been interpreted by some Christians as a prophecy of the suffering and death of Jesus Christ. The reference to "the power of the dogs" and "the mouth of the lions" has been seen as symbolic of the satanic forces that were involved in Jesus' crucifixion, and the phrase "save me from the horns of the wild oxen" has been interpreted as a reference to the nails that were driven through Jesus' hands and feet on the cross.

Hebrews 2:14 references this idea when it says, "Since therefore the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise partook of the same things, that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil." This passage emphasizes that Jesus became human in order to defeat Satan and free humanity from the power of sin and death.

While some scholars debate the extent to which Psalm 22 can be interpreted as a prophecy of Christ's suffering, the overall message of the psalm is a powerful expression of faith in God's deliverance and salvation in the midst of great suffering and despair.

91.  Psa. 22:22 His Resurrection declared John 20:17

Psalm 22:22 is a passage from the Old Testament that says:

"I will tell of your name to my brothers; in the midst of the congregation I will praise you."

This passage expresses the psalmist's commitment to praise and declare God's name to others, specifically to his "brothers," which may refer to fellow believers or to the people of Israel. The psalmist acknowledges God's faithfulness and righteousness, even in the midst of suffering and distress.

In John 20:17, after Jesus' resurrection, he says to Mary Magdalene:

"Do not cling to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brothers and say to them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.'"

Here, Jesus uses the language of brotherhood to describe his relationship with his disciples, affirming his identity as their leader and teacher. He also declares his resurrection and impending ascension to the Father, demonstrating his power and victory over death.

While Psalm 22:22 does not explicitly mention the Messiah or his resurrection, its language of brotherhood and declaration of God's name are echoed in Jesus' words to his disciples after his resurrection, affirming his identity as the Son of God and the leader of his followers.

92.  Psa. 22:27-28 He shall be the governor of the nations Colossians 1:16

Psalm 22:27-28 reads, "All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the Lord, and all the families of the nations shall worship before you. For kingship belongs to the Lord, and he rules over the nations."

This passage is a prophetic psalm that speaks of the coming of the Messiah and his reign over the nations. It expresses the idea that one day all people, from every nation, will recognize and worship the Lord as the one true God, and that the Messiah will be the governor and ruler over all nations.

Colossians 1:16, on the other hand, is a passage from the New Testament that speaks of Christ's preeminence and his role as the creator of all things. It says, "For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him."

While these two passages may seem to be referring to different things, they are actually related. The Messiah spoken of in Psalm 22 is none other than Jesus Christ, who is also the creator of all things, as Colossians 1:16 tells us. So, in a sense, these two passages are speaking of the same thing - the ultimate reign of Christ over all nations, as both the governor and the creator.

93.  Psa. 22:31 “It is finished” John 19:30, Heb. 10:10, 12, 14, 18

M. Rydelnik (2019): Psalm 22 is a psalm describing the suffering, torment, and finally death of the messianic king who has been the book’s focus since Pss 1–2. The description of his cruel torment and torture is graphic and certainly was never true of David. Neither did David’s suffering of whatever type ever bring about the worldwide worship and praise depicted in the final strophe of the psalm. David’s words here are prophetic of a future royal descendant according to the covenant made with him. His suffering and death in Ps 22 are followed by glorious resurrection into the paradise of God in Ps 23. This is a theme and topic repeated in psalms before Ps 22 and following as well. His joy and universal worship described in vv. 22- 31 following the suffering and death of vv. 1-21 demonstrate that his suffering would have worldwide and universal effect and influence. The interpretation of Psalms and the rest of the Scriptures by Christ in Lk 24:25-27 and 44-47 is borne out by the Hebrew text of Ps 22 in its context. He did indeed have to suffer these things and “enter into His glory” as the Scriptures, including the Psalms, prophesied.2

Dr. J. B. Doukhan (2012) With Ps 22, Dan 9 shares the common idea of the Messiah suffering and dying without any help for him. The connection between the two texts is indirect through the use of the obscure expression ’eyn lo’ (“without for him”) in 9:26, which appears to be the shorter form of ’eyn ‘ozer lo’ (“without any help for him”) in Dan 11:45. If this is the case, we then have reason to believe that our passage alludes to Ps 22, which also uses the same expression ’eyn ‘ozer “without any help” (Ps 22:11; Heb. v. 12), referring to God:35 May God, be not far [rhq] from Me, . . . for there is none to help [’eyn ‘ozer]. (Ps 22:11; Heb. v. 12). The allusion of Dan 9 to Ps 22 would, then, suggest that the death of this Messiah would be understood as an abandonment of God. 27

J. F. Walvoord (2011): This psalm is considered one of the messianic psalms because some of the expressions in the psalm go far beyond any sufferings which David himself experienced. There was no known incident in the life of David that exactly corresponded to what the psalm states. What may have been true of David as a type of one suffering was literally fulfilled by the sufferings of Christ. The opening verse of Psalm 22 (“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so far from saving me, so far from the words of my groaning?”) was quoted by Christ, as recorded in Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34. In his distress David reassured himself that his God was “enthroned” (Ps. 22:3). The scorn and mocking of men and their insults mentioned in verses 6–8 was similar to what those mocking Christ on the cross expressed, not realizing they were quoting Scripture (cf. Matt. 27:39, 42–44). Those who surrounded the cross were compared to bulls and roaring lions (Ps. 22:12–13). His “strength is dried up like a potsherd” (v. 15). This is an obvious reference to the crucifixion: “Dogs have surrounded me; a band of evil men has encircled me, they have pierced my hands and my feet” (v. 16). The “dogs” were evil men. Rude stares and the casting of lots for His clothing are described in verses 17–18. David’s personal deliverance is indicated in verses 22–24, but it may also refer to Christ in His postresurrection ministry. The ultimate result is predicted in verses 27–28: “All the ends of the earth will remember and turn to the LORD, and all the families of the nations will bow down before Him, for dominion belongs to the LORD and he rules over the nations.” The psalm closes in verses 29–31 with a note of victory and praise that refers to David’s life, and, in the case of Christ, to His postresurrection triumph.30

94.  Psa. 23:1 “I am the Good Shepherd” John 10:11, 1Peter 2:25

M. Rydelnik (2019): The linguistic evidence demonstrates that Ps 23 is located precisely and carefully within a larger work that is an integrated and coherent whole. Its language and message are consistent with those psalms preceding and following, as well as those across the entire Psalter. Its location following Ps 22 is deliberate and provides an answer to the suffering and death described in the former. It also reaffirms the confidence, victory, and deliverance for the king expressed in Pss 20–21, and anticipates the glorious eschatological entrance into God’s eternal city in Ps 24. It may not be the message normally associated with Ps 23, but the previous Ps 22:23-31 had already intimated the same future for a great company of people (22:26). In other words, the formerly deceased king of Ps 22:22- 32 was joined by a great worshiping throng. They are the ones who fear God (22:23), praise Him (Ps 22:22, 26a), and who will live forever (Ps 22:26b) with Him. The formerly deceased king in fact calls them “my brothers” (Ps 22:22a), and so they will enjoy the paradise described in Ps 23 with Him as their resurrected Lord. 2

95.  Psa. 24:3 His exaltation predicted Acts 1:11; Philippians 2:9

Psalm 24:3 is a passage from the Old Testament that says: "Who shall ascend the hill of the Lord? And who shall stand in his holy place?"

This passage speaks of the requirements for coming into God's presence and dwelling in his holy place. The psalmist emphasizes the importance of purity and righteousness in order to approach God.

In Acts 1:11, the disciples are watching as Jesus ascends into heaven, and two angels appear to them and say: "Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into heaven? This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven."

Here, the angels are predicting Jesus' exaltation and return to earth, affirming the idea that Jesus is not just an ordinary man, but is rather divine and will return in power and glory.

In Philippians 2:9-11, Paul quotes Psalm 24:3 in reference to Jesus' exaltation, saying: "Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father."

Here, Paul is emphasizing the idea that Jesus, having humbled himself by taking on human form and dying on the cross, has now been exalted by God to a position of supreme authority and power. This exaltation is predicted in Psalm 24:3 and fulfilled in Jesus' resurrection and ascension.

Therefore, while Psalm 24:3 does not specifically mention the exaltation of the Messiah, both Acts 1:11 and Philippians 2:9-11 apply this passage to Jesus, predicting and affirming his exaltation and divine nature.

96.  Psa. 30:3 His resurrection predicted Acts 2:32

Psalm 30:3 says, "O Lord, you have brought up my soul from Sheol; you restored me to life from among those who go down to the pit." This verse is a thanksgiving psalm where the psalmist is expressing his gratitude to God for delivering him from death and granting him new life.

Acts 2:32, on the other hand, is a New Testament passage that refers to the resurrection of Jesus Christ. It says, "This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses."

While these two passages are different in context, they both contain references to resurrection. In Psalm 30:3, the psalmist is speaking of his own personal experience of being rescued from death and restored to life. In Acts 2:32, the apostle Peter is testifying to the resurrection of Jesus Christ, which he and the other disciples had witnessed firsthand.

Therefore, while these two passages are not directly related in terms of their context, they both contain references to resurrection, which is a central theme in both the Old and New Testaments of the Bible.

97.  Psa. 31:5 “Into thy hands I commit my spirit” Luke 23:46

Psalm 31:5 says: "Into your hand I commit my spirit; you have redeemed me, O Lord, faithful God."

This passage expresses the psalmist's trust in God and his confidence that God will redeem and deliver him from his troubles. The psalmist commits his spirit into God's hands, recognizing God's faithfulness and his power to save.

In Luke 23:46, Jesus quotes from Psalm 31:5 while he is dying on the cross, saying: "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!"

Here, Jesus is expressing his trust in God as he faces death, committing his spirit into God's hands and recognizing God's faithfulness and power to save.

By quoting from Psalm 31:5, Jesus is affirming the continuity between the Old Testament scriptures and his own mission and identity as the Messiah. He is also demonstrating his faith and trust in God, even in the midst of suffering and death.

Therefore, while Psalm 31:5 does not explicitly mention the Messiah, Jesus' use of this passage on the cross affirms its Messianic significance, as he applies it to himself and his own mission. The passage speaks to the psalmist's trust in God's redeeming power, which is ultimately fulfilled in Jesus' death and resurrection.

J. F. Walvoord (2011): Psalm 31:1–24. This is another psalm that is not considered messianic, but verse 5 states, “Into your hands I commit my spirit.” Christ repeated these precise words when He was on the cross (Luke 23:46). Peter expressed the same thought in 1 Peter 4:19. 30

98.  Psa. 31:11 His acquaintances fled from Him Mark 14:50

Psalm 31:11 says, "I am forgotten as a dead man, out of mind: I am like a broken vessel." This can be interpreted as a reference to the abandonment of Jesus by His disciples during His arrest and trial, which is recorded in Mark 14:50: "And they all forsook him, and fled."

99.  Psa. 31:13 They took counsel to put Him to death Mt. 27:1, John 11:53

Psalm 31:13 says, "For I hear the slander of many; there is terror on every side; they conspire against me and plot to take my life." This psalm is a lament in which the psalmist is expressing his distress over the attacks and plots of his enemies, who seek to harm him.

Matthew 27:1 and John 11:53 are both New Testament passages that describe the plot to put Jesus to death. Matthew 27:1 says, "When morning came, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death." John 11:53 says, "So from that day on they made plans to put him to death."

While the context of these passages is different, they share a common theme of plots to take someone's life. In Psalm 31:13, the psalmist is speaking of his own personal experience of being the target of his enemies' schemes to take his life. In Matthew 27:1 and John 11:53, the religious leaders are plotting to put Jesus to death.

Therefore, while these passages are not directly related in terms of their context, they both contain references to plots against someone's life, which is a common theme in the Bible.

100.  Psa. 31:14, 15 “But I trusted in thee, O LORD: I said, Thou art my God. My times are in thy hand: deliver me from the hand of mine enemies, and from them that persecute me.

Psalm 31:14-15 says: "But I trust in you, O Lord; I say, 'You are my God.' My times are in your hand; rescue me from the hand of my enemies and from my persecutors!"

This passage expresses the psalmist's faith and trust in God, acknowledging that God is in control of his life and his times, even in the midst of persecution and opposition. The psalmist appeals to God for deliverance and protection from his enemies, recognizing God's power and sovereignty.

This passage is reminiscent of Jesus' own words in John 10:27-30, where he says: "My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father's hand. I and the Father are one."

Here, Jesus affirms that his sheep belong to him and are held securely in his and the Father's hands. He also asserts his divine nature and unity with the Father, demonstrating his own power and sovereignty.

Therefore, while Psalm 31:14-15 does not explicitly mention the Messiah, its themes of trust in God's sovereignty and protection are echoed in Jesus' own words and actions, affirming his identity as the Son of God and the Good Shepherd who protects his sheep.



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101.  Psa. 34:20 Not a bone of Him broken John 19:31-36

Psalm 34:20 is a Messianic prophecy that was fulfilled in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ as recorded in John 19:31-36.

In John 19:31-36, we read that the soldiers came to break the legs of those who were crucified with Jesus in order to hasten their death. However, when they came to Jesus, they found that he was already dead, so they did not break his legs. This was done to fulfill the prophecy in Psalm 34:20 that says, "He guards all his bones; not one of them is broken."

This is significant because the breaking of the legs was a common practice in Roman crucifixion to hasten the death of the victim. The weight of the body would be hanging on the arms and the feet, making it difficult to breathe. Breaking the legs would cause the victim to lose support and suffocate quickly.

By not breaking the legs of Jesus, the prophecy in Psalm 34:20 was fulfilled, showing that Jesus was indeed the Messiah, and that he had fulfilled all the prophecies spoken about him in the Old Testament. This also demonstrated that Jesus had died willingly and obediently, as he had given up his spirit on the cross, and had not died due to the breaking of his bones.

102. Psa. 35:11 False witnesses rose up against Him Matthew 26:59

Psalm 35:11 reads:

"False witnesses rise up; they ask me of things that I know not."

This verse is part of a prayer of David, in which he asks God to protect him from his enemies and those who seek to harm him unjustly. The false witnesses mentioned in this verse are likely individuals who have made false accusations against David, perhaps as part of a larger scheme to bring him down.

Matthew 26:59 is a verse from the New Testament of the Bible, specifically from the Gospel of Matthew. The verse reads:

"Now the chief priests and the whole council were seeking false testimony against Jesus that they might put him to death,"

This verse describes a scene from the trial of Jesus before the religious authorities in Jerusalem. The chief priests and the council are seeking to find false witnesses who will testify against Jesus, in order to justify their plan to have him executed.

While these two verses come from different parts of the Bible and refer to different individuals, they both describe situations in which false witnesses are used as part of a scheme to harm someone unjustly.

103. Psa. 35:19 He was hated without a cause John 15:25

Psalm 35:19 is a prophecy about the suffering of the righteous, which was fulfilled in the life of Jesus Christ. In John 15:25, Jesus himself referenced this prophecy, declaring that the hatred directed towards him was without a cause.

Throughout his life and ministry, Jesus faced opposition and hatred from those who were threatened by his message of love, forgiveness, and salvation. He was often criticized and rejected by religious leaders and other people in authority, who saw him as a threat to their power and influence. Despite the fact that Jesus was innocent and blameless, he was hated and rejected without any justifiable reason.

Psalm 35:19 speaks to this unjust treatment, stating, "Let not those who are wrongfully my enemies rejoice over me; neither let them wink with the eye who hate me without a cause." This verse is a powerful reminder that the suffering of the righteous is not always deserved, but can be the result of jealousy, fear, or simply a desire for power and control.

Jesus' citation of this prophecy in John 15:25 highlights the fact that his own suffering was unjust and undeserved. It also serves as a reminder that as his followers, we too may face unjust opposition and persecution in the world. But as we remain faithful to Christ and his message of love and salvation, we can take comfort in the fact that we are in good company with the suffering of our Lord, and that he is with us always, even in the midst of our trials and struggles.

104. Psa. 38:11 His friends stood afar off Luke 23:49

Psalm 38:11 is a verse from the book of Psalms in the Old Testament of the Bible. The verse reads:

"My loved ones and my friends stand aloof from my affliction, and my kinsmen stand afar off."

This verse is part of a prayer of David, in which he expresses his anguish over his physical and emotional pain, as well as his sense of isolation and abandonment by those he loves. The phrase "stand aloof" or "stand afar off" suggests that David's friends and family are not offering him the support and comfort that he needs during his time of suffering.

Luke 23:49 is a verse from the New Testament of the Bible, specifically from the Gospel of Luke. The verse reads:

"And all his acquaintances and the women who had followed him from Galilee stood at a distance watching these things."

This verse describes the scene at the crucifixion of Jesus, in which his followers and friends, including women who had followed him from Galilee, are standing at a distance watching as he is put to death. Like Psalm 38:11, this verse suggests that those who care for Jesus are unable to offer him physical or emotional support in his time of suffering.

While these two verses come from different parts of the Bible and refer to different individuals, they both describe situations in which loved ones and friends are unable to provide the support that is needed during a time of suffering.

105. Psa. 38:12 Enemies try to entangle Him by craft Mark 14:1, Mt. 22:15

Psalm 38:12 is a prophetic verse that speaks to the crafty schemes of those who sought to entangle the righteous. This verse was fulfilled in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in Mark 14:1 and Matthew 22:15.

In Mark 14:1, we read that the chief priests and scribes sought to arrest Jesus by craft and put him to death. They were looking for a way to entangle him in his words or actions so that they could find a reason to accuse him. Similarly, in Matthew 22:15, we see the Pharisees and Herodians attempting to trap Jesus with a question about taxes, hoping to entangle him in a politically charged issue.

These examples show us how Jesus faced opposition from those who were threatened by his message and his authority. His enemies used cunning and deceitful means to try to discredit him and turn the people against him. However, despite their efforts, Jesus remained steadfast in his mission and continued to preach the truth with love and grace.

Psalm 38:12 speaks to the reality that the righteous may face opposition and persecution from those who seek to entangle them in their crafty schemes. But as we follow Jesus, we can take comfort in the fact that he has overcome the world and that he is with us always, even in the midst of our trials and struggles. Through his example, we can also learn to respond with love and grace in the face of opposition, trusting that God will be our vindicator and defender.

106. Psa. 38:12-13 Silent before His accusers Matthew 27:12-14

Psalm 38:12-13 reads:

"Those who seek my life lay their snares; those who seek my hurt speak of ruin and meditate treachery all day long. But I am like a deaf man; I do not hear, like a mute man who does not open his mouth."

These verses are part of a prayer of David, in which he expresses his distress over his enemies' attempts to harm him. He feels helpless and unable to defend himself, as his enemies are constantly plotting against him and spreading false rumors. The metaphor of a deaf and mute man suggests that David is powerless to respond to their accusations.

Matthew 27:12-14 is a verse from the New Testament of the Bible, specifically from the Gospel of Matthew. The verses read:

"But when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he gave no answer. Then Pilate said to him, 'Do you not hear how many things they testify against you?' But he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge, so that the governor was greatly amazed."

These verses describe the scene at the trial of Jesus before Pilate, in which he is accused by the chief priests and elders. Like David in Psalm 38, Jesus does not respond to the accusations against him, remaining silent even in the face of false testimony. Pilate is astonished by Jesus' lack of defense, as it is unusual for an accused person to remain silent in the face of such serious charges.

While these two verses come from different parts of the Bible and refer to different individuals, they both describe situations in which the accused party remains silent in the face of false accusations and plotting by their enemies.

107. Psa. 38:20 He went about doing good Acts 10:38

Psalm 38:20 is a prophetic verse that speaks of the righteousness and goodness of the righteous. This verse was fulfilled in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in Acts 10:38.

In Acts 10:38, Peter is preaching to Cornelius and his household about the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Peter says, "God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him."

This verse captures the essence of Jesus' life and ministry. He was sent by God to proclaim the good news of the kingdom, to heal the sick, to raise the dead, to cleanse the lepers, to cast out demons, and to bring hope and salvation to all who would believe in him. Everywhere he went, he touched the lives of people with his love and compassion, demonstrating the goodness and mercy of God.

Psalm 38:20 speaks to this reality, stating, "Those also who render evil for good, they are my adversaries, because I follow the thing that is good." This verse reminds us that the righteous may face opposition and persecution from those who do not understand or appreciate the goodness and mercy of God.

But as we follow Jesus and seek to do good in the world, we can take comfort in the fact that we are in good company with our Lord. Through his example, we can learn to love our enemies, to do good to those who persecute us, and to trust in God's unfailing love and faithfulness.


108. Psa. 40:2-5 The joy of His resurrection predicted John 20:20

Psalm 40:2-5 reads:

"He lifted me out of the slimy pit, out of the mud and mire; he set my feet on a rock and gave me a firm place to stand. He put a new song in my mouth, a hymn of praise to our God. Many will see and fear the Lord and put their trust in him. Blessed is the one who trusts in the Lord, who does not look to the proud, to those who turn aside to false gods."

These verses are part of a psalm of thanksgiving, in which the psalmist expresses gratitude for God's rescue from a desperate situation. The metaphor of being lifted out of a slimy pit and placed on a firm foundation suggests that the psalmist has experienced a dramatic change in his circumstances, and he responds with praise and gratitude to God.

John 20:20 reads: "After he said this, he showed them his hands and side. The disciples were overjoyed when they saw the Lord."

This verse describes a scene after the resurrection of Jesus, in which he appears to his disciples and shows them the wounds in his hands and side. The disciples are overjoyed to see Jesus alive again, and their faith in him is strengthened by this experience.

While these two verses come from different parts of the Bible and refer to different individuals, there is a connection between them in that they both describe a transformational experience that brings about joy and gratitude. The psalmist's experience of being lifted out of a slimy pit can be seen as a metaphor for the resurrection of Jesus, which brought about a new era of hope and joy for believers. The disciples' joy upon seeing the resurrected Jesus reflects this new hope and the fulfillment of God's promises.

109. Psa. 40:6-8 His delight-the will of the Father John 4:34, Heb. 10:5-10

Psalm 40:6-8 is a prophetic passage that speaks to the obedience and submission of the righteous to the will of God. This passage finds its fulfillment in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in John 4:34 and Hebrews 10:5-10.

In John 4:34, Jesus tells his disciples, "My food is to do the will of Him who sent me, and to finish His work." This statement reveals the heart of Jesus' ministry, which was to fulfill the will of his Father in heaven.

Similarly, in Hebrews 10:5-10, the writer of Hebrews quotes from Psalm 40:6-8 to show how Jesus perfectly fulfilled the will of God through his life, death, and resurrection. The writer of Hebrews says, "Sacrifice and offering You did not desire, but a body You have prepared for Me... Then I said, 'Behold, I have come... to do Your will, O God.'"

These passages show us that Jesus was completely obedient to the will of his Father in heaven, and that his delight was to do the will of God. Through his obedience, he became the perfect sacrifice for our sins, and he reconciled us to God.

Psalm 40:6-8 speaks to this reality, stating, "Sacrifice and offering You did not desire; my ears You have opened... I delight to do Your will, O my God, and Your law is within my heart." This verse reminds us that the righteous are called to obedience and submission to the will of God, and that as we follow Jesus, we too can find delight in doing the will of our Heavenly Father.


110. Psa. 40:9 He was to preach the Righteousness in Israel Matthew 4:17

Psalm 40:9 reads:

"I have told the glad news of deliverance in the great congregation; behold, I have not restrained my lips, as you know, O Lord."

This verse is part of a psalm of thanksgiving, in which the psalmist expresses gratitude for God's rescue from a desperate situation. The psalmist proclaims the good news of God's deliverance to a large gathering of people, emphasizing that he has not held back in sharing this news.

Matthew 4:17 reads:

"From that time Jesus began to preach, saying, 'Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.'"

This verse describes the beginning of Jesus' public ministry, in which he proclaims the message of repentance and the coming of the kingdom of heaven. Jesus' preaching is a central aspect of his ministry, as he travels throughout Israel sharing his message with large crowds of people.

While these two verses come from different parts of the Bible and refer to different individuals, there is a connection between them in that they both describe a proclamation of good news to a large gathering of people. The psalmist's proclamation of God's deliverance can be seen as a precursor to Jesus' preaching of the kingdom of heaven, as both emphasize the importance of sharing the good news with others. Additionally, both the psalmist and Jesus emphasize the importance of speaking boldly and not holding back in sharing the message of God's deliverance and the coming of the kingdom.

J. F. Walvoord (2011): This is considered a messianic psalm largely because verses 6–8 are quoted in Hebrews 10:5–7 as fulfilled. As the psalm states, these verses refer to David’s praise to the Lord and his desire to do the will of God. This, however, also anticipated prophetically Christ’s perfect obedience and His sacrifice as superior to the sacrifices of the Mosaic law. The argument of Hebrews 10 is that Christ in His perfect sacrifice supplied that which the Law could not do with its temporary sacrifices. Key words in the psalm are righteousness (vv. 9–10), faithfulness, salvation, love, and truth (v. 10).30

111. Psa. 40:14 Confronted by adversaries in the Garden John 18:4-6

M.Rydelnik (2019): Ps 40, particularly vv. 6 through 10, is messianic. It depicts the Messiah who gratefully offered His body in the service of Yahweh. Intextual exegesis demonstrated the unique and divine character of the Messiah, rising out of the context of a Davidic psalm. Innertextual analysis of connected psalms strengthened the thesis by discussing connections within the Psalter. Finally, intertextual analysis traced common messianic themes to other passages in the OT. Together the three lines of evidence point to the Messiah, whose body was made ready for sacrificial service to the Lord God.2

112. Psa. 41:9 Betrayed by a familiar friend John 13:18

J. F. Walvoord (2011):  Psalm 41:9. Christ was to be betrayed by a friend (v. 9), which was fulfilled in His lifetime (Matt. 26:14–16, 47, 50; Mark 14:17–21; Luke 22:21–23; John 13:18–19; cf. Ps. 55:12–14).30

113. Psa. 45:2 Words of Grace come from His lips John 1:17, Luke 4:22

Psalm 45:2 speaks of the grace that flows from the lips of the righteous. This verse was fulfilled in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in John 1:17 and Luke 4:22.

In John 1:17, the Apostle John writes, "For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came through Jesus Christ." This verse highlights the contrast between the law, which was given through Moses, and the grace and truth that came through Jesus Christ. Jesus taught with a grace and a love that transcended the legalistic approach of the religious leaders of his time.

Similarly, in Luke 4:22, we read that when Jesus began his public ministry, he "spoke gracious words" that amazed the people who were listening to him. His words were full of wisdom, truth, and love, and they touched the hearts of those who heard him.

Psalm 45:2 speaks to this reality, stating, "You are fairer than the sons of men; grace is poured upon Your lips; therefore God has blessed You forever." This verse reminds us that the righteousness of the righteous is characterized by grace and love, and that Jesus exemplified this in his life and ministry.

As we follow Jesus, we too can learn to speak gracious words that touch the hearts of those around us. Through his example, we can learn to extend grace and love to others, even to those who may be difficult to love. We can trust in the grace and truth that Jesus brought to us, knowing that he has blessed us forever through his life, death, and resurrection.

114. Psa. 45:6 To own the title, God or Elohim Hebrews 1:8

Psalm 45:6 reads:

"Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever; a scepter of justice will be the scepter of your kingdom."

This verse is part of a psalm that celebrates a royal wedding and the king's splendor and power. The psalmist addresses the king, praising him for his beauty, majesty, and righteous rule. In verse 6, the psalmist addresses the king as "God," acknowledging his divine status and eternal reign.

Hebrews 1:8 reads:

"But about the Son he says, 'Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever; a scepter of justice will be the scepter of your kingdom.'"

This verse quotes directly from Psalm 45:6 and applies it to Jesus, affirming his divinity and eternal reign as the Son of God. The author of Hebrews argues that Jesus is superior to angels and to Moses, and that he is the ultimate expression of God's revelation to humanity.

In both Psalm 45:6 and Hebrews 1:8, the address of "God" is given to a figure of great power and authority, emphasizing their divine status and eternal reign. While the context of each passage is different, they both affirm the sovereignty and righteousness of the one being addressed as God. In the New Testament, the application of this verse to Jesus reflects the belief that he is the ultimate expression of God's divine rule and authority over the world.

115. Psa. 45:7 A special anointing by the Holy Spirit Mt. 3:16; Heb. 1:9

Psalm 45:7 is a prophetic verse that speaks to the anointing of the righteous by the Holy Spirit. This verse finds its fulfillment in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in Matthew 3:16 and Hebrews 1:9.

In Matthew 3:16, we read that when Jesus was baptized, "the heavens were opened to Him, and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming upon Him." This event marked the beginning of Jesus' public ministry, and it was a clear sign that he had been anointed by the Holy Spirit for the task ahead.

Similarly, in Hebrews 1:9, the writer of Hebrews quotes from Psalm 45:7 to show that Jesus was anointed by God with the oil of gladness above His companions. This anointing with the Holy Spirit set Jesus apart as the one who was uniquely qualified to accomplish the redemptive work of God.

Psalm 45:7 speaks to this reality, stating, "You love righteousness and hate wickedness; therefore God, Your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness more than Your companions." This verse reminds us that the anointing of the Holy Spirit is given to those who love righteousness and hate wickedness, and that through this anointing, we are empowered to fulfill God's purposes in the world.

As we follow Jesus, we too can receive the anointing of the Holy Spirit and be empowered to do the work of God. Through the power of the Holy Spirit, we can love righteousness and hate wickedness, and we can be used by God to bring His light and His love to a world that desperately needs it.

116. Psa. 45:7, 8 Called the Christ (Messiah or Anointed) Luke 2:11

Psalm 45:7-8  reads:

"Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever;
a scepter of justice will be the scepter of your kingdom.
You love righteousness and hate wickedness;
therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions
by anointing you with the oil of joy."

This psalm is a celebratory song about a king and his bride. The king is praised for his splendor, power, and righteousness, and is addressed as God. In verses 7-8, the psalmist speaks of the king's anointing with oil, which symbolizes his selection by God to rule and to execute justice.

Luke 2:11 is a verse from the New Testament of the Bible, specifically from the Gospel of Luke. The verse reads:

"Today in the town of David a Savior has been born to you; he is the Messiah, the Lord."

This verse is part of the account of Jesus' birth in Bethlehem. An angel appears to shepherds in the fields and announces the good news of Jesus' birth, declaring that he is the Messiah, the long-awaited anointed one who will save God's people.

While Psalm 45:7-8 and Luke 2:11 come from different parts of the Bible and have different contexts, they both speak of the anointed one, the Messiah, who is chosen by God to rule with justice and to bring salvation to God's people. In Psalm 45, the anointed one is a king who is exalted by God and given the power to rule justly. In Luke 2, the anointed one is Jesus, who is born to save God's people and to establish God's kingdom on earth. Both passages emphasize the divine selection and authority of the Messiah, and the hope that he brings for God's people.

117. Psa. 45:17 His name remembered forever Ephesians 1:20-21, Heb. 1:8

M. Rydelnik (2019): As the king in Ps 45 is more beautiful than the sons of men, we have seen that this psalm also qualifies as one of the most beautiful psalms in the Psalter. We can give a direct messianic interpretation of this psalm, particularly because of its unequaled and sustained praise of the king of Israel who is mysteriously human and divine. Looking at the identity of the bride in Ps 45, the author of the Book of Psalms has presented the bride as a figurative representative of the people of Israel. This is supported by the metaphorical use of the word “daughter” elsewhere in the psalm, as well as by the relationship of this psalm to the other psalms in the group. The bride’s entrance into the palace is presented as the resolution to Israel’s distance to God’s palace. Moreover, it was shown that wedding metaphors are used in the prophetic literature to depict God’s redemption of his people in the last days. Furthermore, the Psalm’s primary structure is divided between the battlefield and the palace, the settings of which provide answers to the problems posed in the preceding psalms (42–44). The psalmist is far away from God’s palace (His Temple) and His presence, and the people of Israel have suffered devastating defeat on the battlefield. Psalm 45 provides the solution to these problems. First, the Divine-Messiah King rides out to totally vanquish Israel’s enemies on the battlefield. Next, the Divine-Messiah King sits upon His eternal throne and a call is given to bring the bride along with other nations into His presence (His Temple). With the divine distance overcome and Israel’s enemies vanquished, the celebrations now begin in the Sons of Korah psalms that follow after (46–49). Finally, there is an intertextual relationship between Ps 45 and other well-known messianic prophecies, most notably, Gn 49, 2Sm 7, and Zch 9. The strong allusions to these passages strongly support the direct messianic interpretation of this psalm. It is fitting to conclude with a citation from the last book of the Bible, which (being the prototype for a good story) ends with a climactic wedding. As in much of the book of Revelation, the following verses draw on the OT, not least the picture of the Messiah-King and His beautiful bride in Ps 45.

Then I saw heaven opened, and there was a white horse. Its rider is called Faithful and True, and He judges and makes war in righteousness…. A sharp sword came from His mouth, so that He might strike the nations with it. He will shepherd them with an iron scepter. He will also trample the winepress of the fierce anger of God, the Almighty…. I also saw the Holy City, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared like a bride adorned for her husband. Then I heard a loud voice from the throne: Look! God’s dwelling is with humanity, and He will live with them. They will be His people, and God Himself will be with them and be their God. (Rev 19:11, 15; 21:2-3)2

J. F. Walvoord (2011):  This is classified as a messianic psalm because verses 6–7 refer to David’s throne as eternal (2 Sam. 7:16), and these verses are quoted in Hebrews 1:8–9 regarding the ultimate rule of Christ on earth. As the Scripture states, God’s “throne… will last forever and ever” (Ps. 45:6), and His rule will be characterized by righteousness and justice. Verses 8–9 picture the king on his wedding day. The beauty of the bride is described in verse 11: “The king is enthralled by your beauty; honor him, for he is your lord.” The bride is further described in verse 13–14. Her garments are “interwoven with gold” (v. 13) and beautifully “embroidered” (v. 14). Future children of the bride are described as princes, and their memory will be perpetuated (vv. 16–17). Though the psalm seems to refer to a wedding of David, it is remarkably similar to the concept of Christ and His bride. The apostle John may have had this passage in mind in Revelation 19:6–21. The psalm as a whole, therefore, is typical of Christ as the King and son of David and will be fulfilled in the Rapture. 30

118. Psa. 55:12-14 Betrayed by a friend, not an enemy John 13:18

Psalm 55:12-14 is a prophetic verse that speaks to the betrayal of the righteous by a close friend. This verse finds its fulfillment in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in John 13:18.

In John 13:18, Jesus quotes from Psalm 41:9, which is a parallel verse to Psalm 55:12-14, and applies it to Judas Iscariot, who was about to betray him. Jesus says, "I do not speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen; but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, 'He who eats bread with Me has lifted up his heel against Me.'"

Psalm 55:12-14 speaks to this reality, stating, "For it is not an enemy who reproaches me; then I could bear it. Nor is it one who hates me who has exalted himself against me; then I could hide from him. But it was you, a man my equal, my companion and my acquaintance. We took sweet counsel together, and walked to the house of God in the throng."

This verse reminds us that the betrayal of a close friend can be even more painful than the attack of an enemy. Jesus experienced this firsthand when he was betrayed by Judas, who had been one of his closest disciples and friends.

As we follow Jesus, we too may experience betrayal from those we thought were our friends. But we can take comfort in the fact that Jesus understands our pain and can identify with us in our sufferings. We can trust in His love and His faithfulness, knowing that He will never leave us nor forsake us. And like Jesus, we can extend grace and forgiveness to those who have betrayed us, knowing that we too have been forgiven by Him.

119. Psa. 55:15 Unrepentant death of the Betrayer Matthew 27:3-5; Acts 1:16-19

Psalm 55:15 reads:

"Let death take my enemies by surprise;
let them go down alive to the realm of the dead,
for evil finds lodging among them."

This psalm is a lament of the psalmist, who is distressed by the betrayal of a close friend. In this verse, the psalmist asks for God to bring about the sudden death of his enemies, who have caused him great pain and suffering.

Matthew 27:3-5 and Acts 1:16-19 describe the death of Judas Iscariot, one of Jesus' disciples, who betrayed him to the authorities. In Matthew 27, Judas is overcome with guilt and remorse after Jesus is condemned to death, and he returns the thirty pieces of silver that he was paid to betray Jesus. He then goes and hangs himself. In Acts 1, Peter speaks to the disciples and others gathered after Jesus' ascension, recounting Judas' betrayal and his subsequent death. Peter quotes from Psalm 69:25 and Psalm 109:8, which speak of the wicked being replaced and their place left empty.

While Psalm 55:15 does not mention Judas Iscariot specifically, it does express a desire for the death of one's enemies who have acted with evil intentions. The accounts in Matthew 27 and Acts 1 suggest that Judas' betrayal and subsequent death may have been seen as a fulfillment of this kind of desire for justice against one's enemies. However, it should be noted that the New Testament passages offer a specific and complex narrative of Judas' actions and death, while Psalm 55 is a more general expression of lament and desire for divine justice against one's enemies.

120. Psa. 68:18 To give gifts to men Ephesians 4:7-16

Psalm 68:18 is a prophetic verse that speaks of God's triumph over His enemies and His gift of victory to His people. This verse finds its fulfillment in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in Ephesians 4:7-16.

In Ephesians 4:7-16, the Apostle Paul quotes from Psalm 68:18 to show that Jesus Christ has ascended to heaven and given gifts to His people. Paul writes, "But to each one of us grace was given according to the measure of Christ's gift. Therefore He says: 'When He ascended on high, He led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men.'"

This verse reminds us that Jesus has triumphed over sin, death, and the powers of darkness, and has given gifts to His people. These gifts include apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers, who are given to equip the saints for the work of ministry and to build up the body of Christ.

Psalm 68:18 speaks to this reality, stating, "You have ascended on high, You have led captivity captive; You have received gifts among men, even from the rebellious, that the Lord God might dwell there." This verse reminds us that God has triumphed over His enemies and has given gifts to His people, even to those who were once rebellious and opposed to Him.

As we follow Jesus, we too have received gifts from Him. These gifts include salvation, the Holy Spirit, spiritual gifts, and the fellowship of believers. We have been equipped to do the work of ministry and to share the good news of Jesus Christ with others. And like Jesus, we can triumph over our enemies and extend the gift of salvation to all who will receive it.

121. Psa. 68:18 Ascended into Heaven Luke 24:51

Psalm 68:18 reads:

"When you ascended on high,
you took many captives;
you received gifts from people,
even from the rebellious—
that you, Lord God, might dwell there."

This psalm is a song of praise and celebration for God's triumph over his enemies and his deliverance of his people. In this verse, the psalmist speaks of God's ascension on high, accompanied by the taking of captives and the receiving of gifts.

Luke 24:51 reads:

"While he was blessing them, he left them and was taken up into heaven."

This verse is part of the account of Jesus' resurrection appearances to his disciples after his death and burial. In this particular scene, Jesus is blessing his disciples and is taken up into heaven, ascending into the presence of God.

While Psalm 68:18 and Luke 24:51 come from different parts of the Bible and have different contexts, they both speak of the idea of ascension, the rising up to a higher place. In Psalm 68, God is depicted as ascending on high, possibly referring to his ascent to his throne in heaven after his victory over his enemies. In Luke 24, Jesus is depicted as ascending into heaven, possibly referring to his return to the presence of God after his resurrection.

Both passages speak of a triumphant ascent to a higher place, and both suggest a sense of awe and wonder at the power of God and the glory of his presence.

J. F. Walvoord (2011): Christ will lead captives in His ascension (Eph. 4:8 ). He will also crush the heads of His enemies. This was fulfilled in David’s lifetime and will be fulfilled by Christ at His second coming (Rev. 19:11–15).30

122. Psa. 69:4 Hated without a cause John 15:25

Psalm 69:4 is a prophetic verse that speaks to the suffering of the righteous and their persecution without cause. This verse finds its fulfillment in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in John 15:25.

In John 15:25, Jesus is preparing His disciples for His upcoming crucifixion and tells them that the world will hate Him without a cause. He says, "But this happened that the word might be fulfilled which is written in their law, 'They hated Me without a cause.'"

This verse reminds us that Jesus experienced unjustified hatred and persecution, even though He was innocent and had done nothing to deserve it. He was despised and rejected by men, and His own people did not receive Him. Psalm 69:4 speaks to this reality, stating, "Those who hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head; they are mighty who would destroy me, being my enemies wrongfully."

As followers of Jesus, we too may experience unjustified persecution and suffering. But we can take comfort in the fact that Jesus understands our pain and can identify with us in our sufferings. We can trust in His love and His faithfulness, knowing that He will never leave us nor forsake us. And like Jesus, we can extend grace and forgiveness to those who have wronged us, knowing that we too have been forgiven by Him.

123. Psa. 69:8 A stranger to own brethren John 1:11; 7:5

Psalm 69:8 reads:

"I am a foreigner to my own family,
a stranger to my own mother’s children;"

This psalm is a lament of the psalmist, who is in distress and is calling out to God for help. In this verse, the psalmist speaks of feeling like a stranger and a foreigner even to his own family and relatives.

 John 1:11 reads:

"He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him."

John 7:5 reads:

"For even his own brothers did not believe in him."

These passages are speaking of Jesus, who is referred to as the Word in John 1. John 1:11 is saying that Jesus came to his own people, but they did not receive him. John 7:5 is saying that even Jesus' own brothers did not believe in him during his ministry on earth.

While Psalm 69:8 is not specifically referring to Jesus, the idea of being a stranger or foreigner to one's own family is a common theme in the Bible. In the case of Jesus, the Gospel of John is highlighting the rejection that Jesus experienced, even from those closest to him. The connection between Psalm 69:8 and John 1:11 and 7:5 is that both express a sense of being rejected or estranged by one's own family or people, even when there is an expectation of acceptance or recognition.

124. Psa. 69:9 Zealous for the Lord’s House John 2:17

Psalm 69:9 is a prophetic verse that speaks to the zeal of the righteous for the Lord's house. This verse finds its fulfillment in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in John 2:17.

In John 2:17, Jesus has just cleansed the temple in Jerusalem, driving out the money changers and those who were selling animals for sacrifice. The disciples remembered the words of Psalm 69:9, which says, "Zeal for Your house has eaten Me up."

This verse reminds us that Jesus had a deep passion for the purity of worship and the glory of God's house. He was filled with righteous anger when He saw the temple being used for dishonest gain, and His actions were a prophetic sign of the judgment that was to come.

As followers of Jesus, we too should be zealous for the purity of worship and the glory of God's house. We should be passionate about the things that matter to God and seek to honor Him in all that we do. We should be careful not to allow our own selfish desires or worldly values to infiltrate our worship, but should seek to offer God our best in all that we do.

Like Jesus, we should be willing to take a stand for what is right, even when it is unpopular or uncomfortable. We should be willing to confront sin and unrighteousness, knowing that the Lord desires purity and holiness in His house. And we should trust in His faithfulness to guide us and strengthen us in all that we do for His glory.

125. Psa. 69:14-20 Messiah’s anguish of soul before crucifixion Matthew 26:36-45

Psalm 69 is a psalm of lament and in verses 14-20, the psalmist expresses his deep distress and anguish of soul. The verses read:

"Rescue me from the mire,
do not let me sink;
deliver me from those who hate me,
from the deep waters.
Do not let the floodwaters engulf me
or the depths swallow me up
or the pit close its mouth over me.

Answer me, Lord, out of the goodness of your love;
in your great mercy turn to me.
Do not hide your face from your servant;
answer me quickly, for I am in trouble.
Come near and rescue me;
deliver me because of my foes.

You know how I am scorned, disgraced and shamed;
all my enemies are before you.
Scorn has broken my heart
and has left me helpless;
I looked for sympathy, but there was none,
for comforters, but I found none."

These verses express the psalmist's intense emotional and physical suffering, as well as his cry for God's help and deliverance.

Matthew 26:36-45 describes Jesus' anguish in the Garden of Gethsemane before his crucifixion. In this passage, Jesus expresses his deep distress and sorrow to his disciples, and asks them to stay with him and keep watch. He prays to God, saying "My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will." (Matthew 26:39).

The connection between Psalm 69:14-20 and Matthew 26:36-45 is that both describe intense emotional suffering and a cry for deliverance from God. While the psalmist's suffering may not be directly related to Jesus' experience in the Garden of Gethsemane, the parallels in their emotional states help to highlight the depth of anguish that Jesus experienced before his crucifixion.



126. Psa. 69:20 “My soul is exceeding sorrowful.” Matthew 26:38

Psalm 69:20 is a prophetic verse that speaks to the deep sorrow and distress of the righteous. This verse finds its fulfillment in the life of Jesus Christ, as we see in Matthew 26:38.

In Matthew 26:38, Jesus is in the Garden of Gethsemane, just before His arrest and crucifixion. He is deeply distressed and says to His disciples, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch with Me."
This verse reminds us that Jesus experienced profound sorrow and distress as He faced the cross. He knew the pain and suffering that lay ahead, and He was overwhelmed with grief and anguish. Yet even in the midst of His sorrow, He remained committed to His mission and trusted in the will of the Father.

As followers of Jesus, we too may experience seasons of deep sorrow and distress. We may face trials and tribulations that shake us to our core and test our faith. But like Jesus, we can take comfort in the fact that we are not alone in our suffering. We can bring our sorrows to the Lord and find strength and comfort in His presence.

We can also trust in the fact that God is at work in our struggles, using them to shape us and refine us for His purposes. And we can rest in the hope that one day, all our sorrows will be turned to joy when we see Jesus face to face and enter into His eternal kingdom.

127. Psa. 69:21 Given vinegar in thirst Matthew 27:34

Psalm 69:21 is a verse from the book of Psalms in the Old Testament of the Bible. The verse reads:

"They put gall in my food and gave me vinegar for my thirst."

This verse is part of a psalm of lament in which the psalmist expresses their distress and persecution. The verse speaks of the psalmist being given gall, a bitter herb, in their food and vinegar to quench their thirst. This may be a metaphor for the psalmist's enemies causing them suffering and distress.

In the New Testament, Matthew 27:34 describes Jesus being given sour wine or vinegar to drink while he was on the cross:

"There they offered Jesus wine to drink, mixed with gall; but after tasting it, he refused to drink it."

The connection between Psalm 69:21 and Matthew 27:34 is that both speak of someone being given vinegar or sour wine to drink in a time of need. While the psalmist's experience in Psalm 69 may not be directly related to Jesus' experience on the cross, the similarities between the two passages help to highlight the depth of suffering and persecution that both the psalmist and Jesus experienced.

128. Psa. 69:26 The Saviour given and smitten by God John 17:4; 18:11

M. Rydelnik (2019): Many years ago, Delitzsch wrote of Ps 69: 

The whole Psalm is typically prophetic, in as far as it is a declaration of a history of life and suffering molded by God into a factual prediction concerning Jesus the Christ, whether it be the story of a king or a prophet; and in as far as the Spirit of prophecy has even molded the declaration itself into the language of prophecy concerning the future One. 

Psalm 69 portrays the words of the innocent Suffering Servant, bearing from the hands of God the reproach of those who reject Him. The lament of this psalm ultimately finds its eschatological answer in the work of the king of Ps 72, the hope toward which the first two books of the Psalter lead. This prophetic and messianic message was not lost on the writers of the NT, as the text is quoted consistently as pointing to the life and work of Jesus, the Messiah.2

J. F. Walvoord (2011):  Often considered a messianic psalm, the portions of this psalm detailing David’s cry for help parallel the sufferings of Christ. Those who hated David were similar to those who hated Christ, as verse 4 states: “Those who hate me without reason outnumber the hairs of my head.” The zeal of David in verse 9, “for zeal for your house consumes me,” was related by the disciples to Christ in explaining Christ’s cleansing of the temple (John 2:17). In Psalm 69:21 David stated, “They put gall in my food and gave me vinegar for my thirst.” This relates to the vinegar given to Christ on the cross (Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36). Though not a direct prophecy, these passages can be interpreted typically as relating to Christ.30

129. Psa. 72:10, 11 Great persons were to visit Him Matthew 2:1-11

Psalm 72:10-11 is a prophetic verse that speaks to the honor and recognition that the righteous will receive. This verse finds its fulfillment in the visit of the Magi to the young Jesus, as we see in Matthew 2:1-11.

In Matthew 2:1-11, we read that wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, seeking the one who had been born king of the Jews. They had seen His star in the east and had come to worship Him.

These wise men, or Magi, were likely men of great stature and influence in their own land. They were certainly held in high regard by Herod and the people of Jerusalem, as their arrival caused great excitement and consternation.

This visit of the Magi was a fulfillment of Psalm 72:10-11, which says, "The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts. Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him."

This verse reminds us that the righteousness of Jesus Christ will be recognized and honored by all people, from every nation and tribe. Even the great and powerful of this world will one day bow before Him and acknowledge Him as Lord.

As followers of Jesus, we can take comfort in the fact that our faith is not in vain. Though we may face rejection and ridicule in this world, one day we will be vindicated and honored before all people. And we can trust in the promise of God that every knee will bow and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father (Philippians 2:10-11).

130. Psa. 72:16 The corn of wheat to fall into the Ground John 12:24-25

Psalm 72 is a psalm of Solomon that is a prayer for the prosperity and rule of the king. In verse 16, the psalmist writes:

"May there be abundance of grain in the land;
may it wave on the tops of the mountains;
may its fruit be like Lebanon;
and may people blossom in the cities
like the grass of the field."

This verse is a prayer for prosperity and abundance, specifically for an abundance of grain in the land.

In John 12:24-25, Jesus uses the metaphor of a grain of wheat falling into the ground to teach about his own impending death and resurrection. The passage reads:

"Very truly I tell you, unless a kernel of wheat falls to the ground and dies, it remains only a single seed. But if it dies, it produces many seeds. Anyone who loves their life will lose it, while anyone who hates their life in this world will keep it for eternal life."

The connection between Psalm 72:16 and John 12:24-25 is that both speak of the concept of a grain falling into the ground and producing a greater abundance. While the psalmist's prayer for an abundance of grain may not be directly related to Jesus' teaching about his own death and resurrection, the similarities in the metaphor help to highlight the concept of death leading to new life and abundance.

131. Psa. 72:17 Belief on His name will produce offspring John 1:12, 13

Psalm 72:17 says:

"May his name endure forever; may it continue as long as the sun. All nations will be blessed through him, and they will call him blessed."

This verse is a prayer for the long-lasting legacy of the king, who is believed to be Solomon, David's son. It speaks of the hope that the king's name will endure forever and that he will bring blessings to all nations. The verse does not directly mention anything about producing offspring.

John 1:12-13, on the other hand, is a New Testament passage that talks about the power of believing in Jesus Christ. It says:

"But to all who did receive him, who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God."

This verse explains that those who believe in Jesus Christ have the privilege of becoming children of God, who are born not of natural means but by the will of God.

While there is no direct connection between these two verses, they both highlight the significance of belief and the hope of blessings that come from it.

132. Psa. 72:17 All nations shall be blessed by Him Galatians 3:8

Psalm 72 is a prayer for the prosperity and rule of the king, likely King Solomon. In verse 17, the psalmist writes:

"May his name endure forever,
his fame continue as long as the sun!
May all nations be blessed in him;
may they pronounce him happy."

This verse expresses a desire for the king to have a lasting legacy and for all nations to be blessed through him.

In Galatians 3:8, the apostle Paul quotes from Genesis 12:3 when he writes:

"The scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, declared the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, 'All the Gentiles shall be blessed in you.'"

The connection between Psalm 72:17 and Galatians 3:8 is that both speak of the concept of all nations being blessed. In Psalm 72:17, the psalmist expresses a desire for the king to be a source of blessing for all nations, while in Galatians 3:8, Paul speaks of the promise made to Abraham that all nations would be blessed through him. This connection highlights the idea that God's plan of salvation and blessing is for all nations and peoples, not just one particular group.

Psalm 72:17 is a prophetic verse that speaks to the fruitfulness and prosperity that will come to those who believe in the righteous one. This verse finds its fulfillment in the spiritual offspring that are produced through faith in Jesus Christ, as we see in John 1:12-13.

In John 1:12-13, we read that those who receive Jesus and believe in His name are given the right to become children of God. They are born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
This verse reminds us that through faith in Jesus Christ, we become part of the family of God. We are adopted as sons and daughters and are given the right to call God our Father.

As we walk in faith and obedience to God, we will bear fruit in our lives. We will produce the spiritual offspring of love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control (Galatians 5:22-23).

And just as Psalm 72:17 speaks to the prosperity and abundance that will come to the land through the righteous one, we can trust in the promise that God will bless and prosper us as we walk in faith and obedience to Him.

So let us put our trust in Jesus Christ and believe in His name, that we may become children of God and bear much fruit for His glory.

133. Psa. 72:17 All nations shall call Him blessed John 12:13, Rev. 5:8-12

Psalm 72 is a prayer for the prosperity and rule of the king, likely King Solomon. In verse 17, the psalmist writes:

"May his name endure forever,
his fame continue as long as the sun!
May all nations be blessed in him;
may they pronounce him happy."

This verse expresses a desire for the king to have a lasting legacy and for all nations to be blessed through him.

In Galatians 3:8, the apostle Paul quotes from Genesis 12:3 when he writes:

"The scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, declared the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, “All the Gentiles shall be blessed in you.”

The connection between Psalm 72:17 and Galatians 3:8 is that both speak of the concept of all nations being blessed. In Psalm 72:17, the psalmist expresses a desire for the king to be a source of blessing for all nations, while in Galatians 3:8, Paul speaks of the promise made to Abraham that all nations would be blessed through him. This connection highlights the idea that God's plan of salvation and blessing is for all nations and peoples, not just one particular group.

M. Rydelnik (2019): In his Exposition of the Psalms, Augustine begins his discussion of Psalm 72 with a brief reflection of the psalm’s superscription, “‘For Salomon’ indeed this Psalm’s title is forenoted: but things are spoken of therein which could not apply to that Salomon king of Israel after the flesh, according to those things which holy Scripture speaketh concerning him: but they can most pertinently apply to the Lord Christ.” Augustine’s words demonstrate well the messianic nature of Ps 72. Psalm 72 offers a vision of the future, depicted in connection to the past, thereby preserving the continuity with Israel’s history. The psalm reinforces God’s universal rule transcending time and location through the coronation of Israel’s king. This aspect of Ps 72 is clear not only to those who recognize Jesus as the Messiah. Jewish interpreters also saw in Ps 72 a messianic expectation. Now it is evident in the text of Scripture that the ideal King has taken His throne and will come again to establish the kingdom of God. In Ps 72, the psalmist’s petitions remind us of God’s faithfulness and of the nation’s utter dependence on Him to provide the King capable of living up to Israel’s expectations and God’s standards. Jesus of Nazareth is the hoped-for King. He is the answer to the prayers of the psalmist.2

134. Psa. 78:1-2 He would teach in parables Matthew 13:34-35

Psalm 78:1-2 says:

"O my people, hear my teaching; listen to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in parables, I will utter hidden things, things from of old."

This passage speaks of the psalmist's intention to teach the people of God through parables, which are stories that use everyday objects or situations to convey spiritual truths. The purpose of these parables is to help people understand and remember the lessons being taught.

In the New Testament, Matthew 13:34-35 refers to Jesus' use of parables in his teaching. The passage says:

"Jesus spoke all these things to the crowd in parables; he did not say anything to them without using a parable. So was fulfilled what was spoken through the prophet: 'I will open my mouth in parables, I will utter things hidden since the creation of the world.'"

Here, Matthew is quoting from Psalm 78:2, showing how Jesus fulfilled the prophecy of teaching in parables. Jesus used parables to explain complex spiritual truths in a way that was accessible and memorable to his listeners.

Therefore, while the two verses come from different parts of the Bible, they are connected in their emphasis on teaching through parables as a powerful tool for communicating important truths to the people of God.

135. Psa. 78:2 To speak the Wisdom of God with authority Matthew 7:29

Psalm 78:2 is a verse from the book of Psalms in the Old Testament that says:

"I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old."

This verse is referring to the psalmist's intention to teach and share the wisdom of God through parables and symbolic language.

Matthew 7:29  says:

"For he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes."

This verse is referring to Jesus and the way he taught the people with a sense of authority and conviction that was different from the way the scribes and other religious leaders taught.

Taken together, these verses suggest that to speak the wisdom of God with authority, one must be willing to share it through parables and other symbolic language, as well as with conviction and a sense of authority that comes from a deep understanding of the truth.

136. Psa. 80:17 The Man of God’s right hand Mark 14:61-62

Psalm 80:17 says:

"Let your hand rest on the man at your right hand, the son of man you have raised up for yourself."

This verse is a prayer for God's blessing and protection on the king, who is seen as a representative of God's people. The phrase "the man at your right hand" refers to the king, who was considered to be God's representative and was often seated at the right hand of the throne.

In Mark 14:61-62, Jesus is on trial before the Sanhedrin, the Jewish ruling council. The high priest asks Jesus if he is the Messiah, the Son of God, and Jesus responds:

"I am. And you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven."

Jesus is referring to himself as the "Son of Man," a term used in the Old Testament to refer to a figure who would come to establish God's kingdom. He also refers to himself as being seated at the right hand of Power, which is a reference to Psalm 80:17 and the idea of the king being seated at God's right hand.

Therefore, while the two verses come from different parts of the Bible and have different contexts, they both speak to the idea of a chosen one being raised up by God and seated at His right hand. In the Old Testament, it refers to the king as God's representative, while in the New Testament, it refers to Jesus as the Messiah and Son of God.

137. Psa. 88 The Suffering and Reproach of Calvary Matthew 27:26-50

Psalm 88 is a prayer of lament attributed to Heman the Ezrahite. It expresses deep anguish and despair, describing the author's sense of abandonment by God and the weight of suffering that he is experiencing. The psalm is often seen as a prophetic foreshadowing of the suffering and death of Jesus Christ.

Matthew 27:26-50 describes the events of Jesus' crucifixion. Jesus is mocked, beaten, and whipped before being led to Calvary, where he is nailed to the cross. The soldiers divide his garments and cast lots for them, while the crowds mock him and challenge him to come down from the cross if he truly is the Son of God. Darkness falls over the land, and Jesus cries out in agony before finally giving up his spirit.

The parallel between Psalm 88 and the crucifixion of Jesus is striking. Both describe a profound sense of suffering and abandonment, with the psalmist feeling that God has turned his face away and Jesus crying out, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" (Matthew 27:46) Both also convey a sense of reproach, with the psalmist being taunted by his enemies and Jesus being mocked by the crowds and soldiers.

Despite the depth of suffering and despair expressed in both Psalm 88 and the account of the crucifixion, there is also a sense of hope. The psalmist concludes by calling out to God for deliverance, and although Jesus dies on the cross, his death ultimately leads to the redemption of humanity. The suffering and reproach of Calvary are transformed into the triumph of the resurrection and the ultimate victory over sin and death.

138. Psa. 88:8 They stood afar off and watched Luke 23:49

Psalm 88:8 says:

"You have taken from me my closest friends and have made me repulsive to them. I am confined and cannot escape;"

This verse is part of a psalm of lament, in which the psalmist expresses feelings of despair and abandonment. The psalmist feels alone and isolated, as even their closest friends have turned away from them.

In Luke 23:49, we see a similar theme of abandonment and isolation. This verse describes the scene at the crucifixion of Jesus:

"But all those who knew him, including the women who had followed him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things."

Here, the people who had followed Jesus and knew him best are standing at a distance and watching the events of the crucifixion unfold. They are unable to help or comfort Jesus in his final moments.

While the two verses come from different parts of the Bible and have different contexts, they both express a sense of isolation and abandonment. In Psalm 88:8, the psalmist feels alone and abandoned by their friends, while in Luke 23:49, the people who had followed Jesus are unable to be with him in his final moments. Both verses highlight the pain of being separated from loved ones and the difficulty of enduring suffering alone.

M. Rydelnik (2019): Psalm 86 narrated prophetically the suffering, death, and resurrection of the Messianic King, resulting in many Gentile nations coming to worship the Lord. Psalm 87 identified holy and eschatological Zion, the city of God, as their goal, of which they became official and beloved citizens. Psalm 88 narrated the death of the Messianic King, separating Him from those beloved dwellers of Zion. His resurrection from that realm, already stated in Ps 86, is implied directly by abundant parallel language in the first verses of Ps 89. There He appears singing and making known the faithfulness of God, followed by a quotation of the Davidic covenant, which promised Him a seed seated forever on an eternal throne. That promise is fulfilled in Him by His resurrection from the death of Ps 88 and His rule in the eschatological Zion of Ps 87.2

139. Psa. 89:9 He calms the wind and the sea Matthew 8:26

Psalm 89:9 says: "You rule over the surging sea; when its waves mount up, you still them."

This verse is part of a psalm that speaks of God's power and sovereignty over all things. The psalmist expresses confidence in God's ability to control even the mightiest forces of nature.

In Matthew 8:26, we see Jesus calming the storm on the Sea of Galilee:

"He replied, 'You of little faith, why are you so afraid?' Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the waves, and it was completely calm."

Here, the disciples are on a boat with Jesus when a sudden storm arises, causing the disciples to fear for their lives. Jesus calms the storm by rebuking the wind and the waves, demonstrating his power over the forces of nature.

Therefore, while the two verses come from different parts of the Bible and have different contexts, they both speak to God's power over the sea and the wind. In Psalm 89:9, the psalmist expresses confidence in God's ability to calm the waves, while in Matthew 8:26, Jesus demonstrates his power over the storm by calming the wind and the sea. Both verses highlight the power and sovereignty of God over the natural world.

140. Psa. 89:27 Firstborn Colossians 1:15, 18

Psalm 89:27 reads:

"And I will make him the firstborn, the highest of the kings of the earth."

This verse is part of a psalm that praises God's faithfulness and promises to David, whom God has chosen as his anointed one and made a covenant with him.

Colossians 1:15,18 describe Jesus Christ as the image of the invisible God and the firstborn over all creation. The verses read:

"He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation." (Colossians 1:15)

"And he is the head of the body, the church. He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in everything he might be preeminent." (Colossians 1:18)

These verses highlight the central role of Jesus Christ in God's plan of salvation and his supremacy over all creation, both in the spiritual realm and in the physical world.

The reference to "firstborn" in both Psalm 89:27 and Colossians 1:15, 18 suggests a position of honor and preeminence, indicating that Jesus holds a special place of authority and sovereignty over all things, as the firstborn son in a family would have had in ancient Near Eastern culture.



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141. Psa. 89:27 Emmanuel to be higher than earthly kings Luke 1:32, 33

Psalm 89:27 says:

"I will also make him my firstborn, the most exalted of the kings of the earth."

This verse is part of a psalm that speaks of God's covenant with David and his descendants. The psalmist expresses confidence that God will raise up a king from the line of David who will be exalted above all other earthly kings.

In Luke 1:32-33, the angel Gabriel appears to Mary and tells her about the child she will bear:

"He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever; his kingdom will never end."

Here, the angel is telling Mary about the coming of Jesus, who is from the line of David and will be exalted above all other earthly kings. Jesus is referred to as the Son of the Most High, and his kingdom will never end.

Therefore, while the two verses come from different parts of the Bible and have different contexts, they both speak to the idea of a coming king who will be exalted above all other earthly kings. In Psalm 89:27, the psalmist expresses confidence that God will raise up such a king from the line of David, while in Luke 1:32-33, the angel Gabriel is telling Mary about the coming of Jesus, who will fulfill this prophecy as the Son of the Most High and the eternal king of his people.

142. Psa. 89:35-37 David’s Seed, throne, kingdom endure forever Luke 1:32, 33

Psalm 89:35-37 reads: "Once for all, I have sworn by my holiness; I will not lie to David. His offspring shall endure forever, his throne as long as the sun before me. Like the moon it shall be established forever, a faithful witness in the skies."

This passage is a promise from God to David that his dynasty will endure forever. It is a reference to the fact that the Messiah would come from the line of David and would establish an everlasting kingdom.

Luke 1:32-33 confirms this prophecy, saying: "He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end."

This passage is referring to Jesus, who was born as a descendant of David and who fulfills the promise made to David in Psalm 89. Jesus' kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and he will reign as king forever.

143. Psa. 89:36-37 His character-Faithfulness Revelation 1:5; 19:11

Psalm 89:36-37 says: "His offspring shall endure forever, his throne as long as the sun before me. Like the moon it shall be established forever, a faithful witness in the skies.”

This passage speaks of God's faithfulness and his covenant with David and his descendants. The psalmist expresses confidence that God will remain faithful to his promises, and that the dynasty of David will endure forever.

In Revelation 1:5 and 19:11, we see similar themes of God's faithfulness and his character. In Revelation 1:5, the author speaks of Jesus as the faithful witness, who has redeemed his people with his blood. In Revelation 19:11, Jesus is described as the Faithful and True, riding a white horse and leading the armies of heaven.

These verses in Revelation speak to the faithfulness of Jesus and his character as one who keeps his promises. Through his death and resurrection, Jesus has redeemed his people and proven himself to be a faithful witness to the love and mercy of God.

Therefore, while the two verses come from different parts of the Bible and have different contexts, they both speak to the idea of God's faithfulness and character. In Psalm 89:36-37, the psalmist expresses confidence in God's faithfulness and his covenant with David and his descendants, while in Revelation 1:5 and 19:11, we see Jesus described as a faithful witness and a faithful and true leader who has redeemed his people through his sacrifice on the cross.

M. Rydelnik (2019): Psalm 89 is universally recognized as one of the most apparent and beloved of the messianic psalms. Among other features, it includes the noun mashiach (“anointed [one or thing]”) twice (vv. 39, 52) and the verb mashach (“anoint, set apart”) once (v. 20), with David as recipient. The name of the “proto-messiah” David occurs four times (vv. 3, 20, 35, 49) plus several allusions to him: “horn” (vv. 17, 24), “king” (vv. 18, 27), “chosen one” (v. 19), “firstborn” (v. 27). Among other messianic terms associated with him are: “servant” (vv. 3, 20, 39, 50); “seed” (or “offspring,” vv. 4, 29, 36); “throne” (vv. 4, 29, 36, 44); and “shield” (v. 18). The NT affirmation of the messianic character of the psalm is abundant.2

144. Psa. 90:2 He is from everlasting (Micah 5:2) John 1:1

Psalm 90:2 reads, "Before the mountains were born or you brought forth the whole world, from everlasting to everlasting you are God." This verse emphasizes the eternal nature of God and His existence before the creation of the world.

Micah 5:2 prophesies about the coming of the Messiah, saying, "But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times." This verse speaks of the Messiah's origins, which go back to ancient times, indicating His eternal nature.

John 1:1 further confirms the eternal nature of Jesus, the Messiah, by saying, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." This verse establishes Jesus as the eternal Word of God, who was with God in the beginning and is Himself God.

Together, these verses affirm the eternal nature of God and the Messiah, who existed from before the creation of the world and will continue to exist forever.

145. Psa. 91:11, 12 Identified as Messianic; used to tempt Christ Luke 4:10, 11

Psalm 91:11-12 is a passage from the Old Testament that says:

"For he will command his angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways; they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone."

This passage speaks of the protection and care that God provides for those who trust in him. The psalmist expresses confidence that God will send his angels to protect and guard those who put their trust in him.

In Luke 4:10-11, we see Satan quoting from this passage as he tempts Jesus in the wilderness:

"For it is written: 'He will command his angels concerning you to guard you carefully; they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.'"

Here, Satan is tempting Jesus to test God's protection by throwing himself down from the pinnacle of the temple. Satan is using this passage from Psalm 91 to try to convince Jesus that God will send his angels to protect him if he puts himself in danger.

Therefore, while Psalm 91:11-12 is not specifically identified as Messianic, it is a passage that speaks to God's protection and care for his people. Satan uses this passage to tempt Jesus, but Jesus responds by affirming that God's protection is not to be tested. In both cases, the passage speaks to the idea of God's care and protection for those who trust in him.

146. Psa. 97:9 His exaltation predicted Acts 1:11; Ephesians 1:20

Psalm 97:9 says, "For you, O Lord, are most high over all the earth; you are exalted far above all gods." This verse speaks of God's supremacy over all creation and His exalted position as ruler over all.

Acts 1:11 records the words of the angels to the disciples after Jesus' ascension, saying, "Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into heaven? This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven." This verse speaks of Jesus' exaltation, as He ascended to heaven and will return in glory.

Ephesians 1:20-21 speaks of Jesus' exaltation as well, saying, "that he worked in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come." This passage emphasizes Jesus' exalted position as ruler over all, surpassing all other powers and authorities.

Together, these verses affirm the exaltation of both God and Jesus, emphasizing their supreme position over all creation and their sovereignty over all things.

147. Psa. 100:5 His character-Goodness Matthew 19:16, 17

Psalm 100:5 is a verse from the Old Testament that says:

"For the Lord is good; his steadfast love endures forever, and his faithfulness to all generations."

This passage speaks of God's character and attributes, specifically his goodness, steadfast love, and faithfulness. The psalmist expresses confidence in God's enduring love and faithfulness to his people.

In Matthew 19:16-17, we see Jesus affirming this same attribute of God. A young man approaches Jesus and asks him what good deed he must do to inherit eternal life. Jesus responds:

"Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good. If you would enter life, keep the commandments."

Here, Jesus is affirming that only God is truly good, and that keeping God's commandments is the way to inherit eternal life. Jesus' response echoes the idea expressed in Psalm 100:5 that God is good and that his goodness endures forever.

Therefore, while the two verses come from different parts of the Bible and have different contexts, they both speak to the idea of God's goodness and character. In Psalm 100:5, the psalmist expresses confidence in God's goodness, steadfast love, and faithfulness, while in Matthew 19:16-17, Jesus affirms that only God is truly good and that keeping his commandments is the way to eternal life.

148. Psa. 102:1-11 The Suffering and Reproach of Calvary John 19:16-30

Psalm 102:1-11 is a lament of a suffering individual who is pouring out his heart to God. The Psalmist expresses his deep anguish and distress, acknowledging that he is weak and helpless in the face of his troubles. He calls upon God to hear his prayer and to come to his aid, appealing to God's mercy and compassion. The Psalmist is aware that his troubles are not just personal, but also affect the wider community, as he speaks of the desolation of Zion and the reproach of the enemies.

John 19:16-30 describes the events leading up to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Jesus is brought before Pilate, who finds no fault in him but yields to the demands of the Jewish leaders and the crowd. Jesus is then flogged, mocked, and forced to wear a crown of thorns. He is led to Golgotha, where he is crucified alongside two criminals. As Jesus hangs on the cross, he utters the famous words, "It is finished," before giving up his spirit.

There are several parallels between Psalm 102 and John 19:16-30. Both passages speak of suffering and reproach, and both acknowledge the helplessness of the individual in the face of their troubles. In Psalm 102, the suffering is described in personal terms, while in John 19, it is depicted in the crucifixion of Jesus, which is a universal event. Both passages also contain an appeal to God for mercy and compassion.

The themes of suffering and reproach are central to the Christian faith, as they point to the sacrificial death of Jesus on the cross. The suffering and death of Jesus are seen as a means of redemption and salvation for humanity, as he took upon himself the punishment that we deserved for our sins. The crucifixion of Jesus is therefore not just a historical event but a deeply spiritual one that has profound implications for our lives today.

149. Psa. 102:25-27 Messiah is the Preexistent Son Hebrews 1:10-12

Psalm 102:25-27 says:

"Of old you laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you will remain; they will all wear out like a garment. You will change them like a robe, and they will pass away, but you are the same, and your years have no end."

This passage speaks of God's eternal nature and his creative power over the heavens and the earth. The psalmist expresses confidence that, while the world around us may change and decay, God remains the same, with years that have no end.

In Hebrews 1:10-12, the writer of Hebrews applies this passage specifically to Jesus Christ, identifying him as the preexistent Son of God who existed before the creation of the world:

"And, 'You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end.'"

Here, the writer of Hebrews is affirming Jesus' divine nature and eternal existence, quoting from Psalm 102:25-27 to support this claim.

Therefore, while Psalm 102:25-27 does not specifically mention the Messiah, the writer of Hebrews applies this passage to Jesus, identifying him as the preexistent Son of God who existed before the creation of the world. The passage speaks to the eternal nature of God and affirms Jesus' divine nature and existence.

150. Psa. 109:25 Ridiculed Matthew 27:39

Psalm 109:25  reads: "I am an object of scorn to my accusers; when they see me, they shake their heads." This verse is part of a longer passage in which the psalmist laments his enemies' mistreatment of him and asks God to intervene on his behalf.

Matthew 27:39 is a verse from the New Testament book of Matthew, which describes the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. The verse reads: "Those who passed by hurled insults at him, shaking their heads." This passage describes how people who were passing by the site of Jesus' crucifixion ridiculed and insulted him.

The similarity between these two passages is that both involve people shaking their heads in scorn and ridicule towards someone. However, the context and specific circumstances of the two passages are quite different. Psalm 109:25 is a personal lament of the psalmist, while Matthew 27:39 is a description of the public ridicule and insults hurled at Jesus during his crucifixion.

151. Psa. 110:1 Son of David Matthew 22:42-43

Psalm 110:1 says:

"The Lord says to my Lord: 'Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.'"

This passage is often understood as a messianic prophecy, as it describes a future ruler who will be exalted to God's right hand and given authority over his enemies. The phrase "my Lord" is significant, as it suggests that the coming ruler will be a divine figure, one who is equal in authority and power to God himself.

In Matthew 22:42-43, Jesus quotes this passage in a conversation with the Pharisees, asking them:

"What do you think about the Christ? Whose son is he?" They said to him, "The son of David."

Here, Jesus is drawing attention to the fact that the coming Messiah will not only be a descendant of David, but will also be a divine figure, as indicated by the language of Psalm 110:1. By asking the Pharisees to consider the implications of this passage, Jesus is challenging their assumptions about the nature of the Messiah and his role in God's plan.

Therefore, while Psalm 110:1 does not explicitly mention the phrase "Son of David," its language of exaltation and divine authority are echoed in Jesus' use of this passage to point to his own identity as the Messiah and Son of God.

152. Psa. 110:1 To ascend to the right-hand of the Father Mark 16:19

Psalm 110: says, "The Lord says to my Lord: 'Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.'" This verse is often interpreted as a prophetic reference to the Messiah, Jesus Christ, who is believed to have ascended to the right hand of the Father after his resurrection and before his final return.

Mark 16:19 is a verse from the New Testament which describes Jesus' ascension into heaven after his resurrection: "After the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, he was taken up into heaven and he sat at the right hand of God."

Therefore, these two verses are connected in their depiction of Jesus' exaltation to the right hand of the Father after his resurrection. This is seen as a sign of Jesus' divine authority and power, and as a fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament.

153. Psa. 110:1 David’s son called Lord Matthew 22:44, 45

Psalm 110:1says, "The Lord says to my Lord: 'Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.'" This verse is often interpreted as a prophetic reference to the Messiah, Jesus Christ, who is believed to have ascended to the right hand of the Father after his resurrection and before his final return.

Mark 16:19 describes Jesus' ascension into heaven after his resurrection: "After the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, he was taken up into heaven and he sat at the right hand of God."

Therefore, these two verses are connected in their depiction of Jesus' exaltation to the right hand of the Father after his resurrection. This is seen as a sign of Jesus' divine authority and power, and as a fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament.

154. Psa. 110:4 A priest after Melchizedek’s order Hebrews 6:20

M. Rydelnik (2019): Psalm 110 has long been understood as a direct prediction of the Messiah. Ps 110 does picture the divine Priest-King, now seated at the right hand of God, but who will descend from heaven at the end of days to save Israel and extend His rule over all the earth. This is none other than the Messiah. Likely that is why both Jewish and Christian sources have long held that Ps 110 is about the Messiah. That is why Jesus, speaking to some of His Jewish contemporaries about Ps 110, pointedly asked how David could call the son of David, Lord (Mt 22:41-46). Their failure to answer Jesus’ question demonstrated that they must certainly have agreed with the messianic interpretation of Ps 110 but could not explain how the psalm could present the Messiah as deity (Lord). Although Jesus does not add any further commentary to this text, it is obvious that He too interpreted Ps 110 as about a divine Messiah. What The words of the psalm, taken in their ordinary sense, admit of no other interpretation. The subject of the psalm is the king in Zion, exalted to heaven, as Dan. vii. 13; in verse 5 is called … [ Adonay], THE LORD, and is described as judge of kings and nations. The description can apply only to him who is David’s son and David’s Lord.”2

J. F. Walvoord (2011): The ultimate judgment of Christ on the nations of the world, particularly at His second coming, is prophesied: “The Lord is at your right hand; he will crush kings on the day of his wrath. He will judge the nations, heaping up the dead and crushing the rulers of the whole earth” (vv. 5–6). This will be fulfilled in the millennium (Rev. 19:11–15).  30

155. Psa. 112:4 His character-Compassionate, Gracious, et al Matthew 9:36

Psalm 112:4 says:

"Even in darkness light dawns for the upright, for those who are gracious and compassionate and righteous."

This passage emphasizes the character traits of the upright, including graciousness and compassion. These traits are also emphasized in the New Testament, particularly in the life and teachings of Jesus.

In Matthew 9:36, for example, it says:

"When he [Jesus] saw the crowds, he had compassion on them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd."

This passage highlights Jesus' compassion for the people who came to him seeking healing and guidance. Throughout his ministry, Jesus showed concern for the poor, the sick, and the marginalized, demonstrating the same graciousness and compassion described in Psalm 112:4.

Therefore, while Psalm 112:4 does not explicitly refer to Jesus, its emphasis on the importance of graciousness and compassion in the lives of the upright is echoed in the example set by Jesus in the New Testament.

156. Psa. 118:17, 18 Messiah’s Resurrection assured Luke 24:5-7; 1Cor. 15:20

Psalm 118:17-18 says, "I will not die but live, and will proclaim what the Lord has done. The Lord has chastened me severely, but he has not given me over to death." This verse is often interpreted as a prophecy about the Messiah, Jesus Christ, who was crucified but then rose from the dead.

Luke 24:5-7 describes the scene of the empty tomb of Jesus. The passage says, "In their fright the women bowed down with their faces to the ground, but the men said to them, 'Why do you look for the living among the dead? He is not here; he has risen! Remember how he told you, while he was still with you in Galilee: ‘The Son of Man must be delivered over to the hands of sinners, be crucified and on the third day be raised again.'"

1 Corinthians 15:20 says, "But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep." This verse confirms the resurrection of Jesus and emphasizes its significance as the first step in the ultimate resurrection of all believers.

Therefore, these three verses are connected in their affirmation of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The resurrection of Jesus is seen as a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies and as a crucial element of Christian faith. The accounts of the empty tomb and the appearances of Jesus after his resurrection in the New Testament provide further evidence for the truth of the resurrection.

157. Psa. 118:22, 23 The rejected stone is Head of the corner Matthew 21:42, 43

Psalm 118:22-23 says:

"The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone. This was the Lord's doing; it is marvelous in our eyes."

This passage has been interpreted as a messianic prophecy, describing the rejection and eventual exaltation of a chosen one who would become a cornerstone in God's plan. In the New Testament, this passage is quoted in reference to Jesus Christ, who was rejected by the religious leaders but ultimately exalted by God as the cornerstone of the church.

In Matthew 21:42-43, Jesus quotes Psalm 118:22-23 in a parable that he tells the religious leaders. He says:

"Have you never read in the Scriptures: 'The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone. This was the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes'? Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a nation bearing the fruits of it."

Here, Jesus is using the imagery of the rejected stone to warn the religious leaders that their rejection of him will result in their exclusion from the kingdom of God. He also makes it clear that God's plan is to exalt the rejected stone, referring to himself as the cornerstone that the builders rejected.

Therefore, while Psalm 118:22-23 does not explicitly refer to Jesus, its language of rejection and exaltation is echoed in Jesus' teachings and is understood as a prophecy that was ultimately fulfilled in his life and ministry.

158. Psa. 118:26 The Blessed One presented to Israel Matthew 21:9

Psalm 118:26 is a prophetic verse that says, "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! We have blessed you from the house of the Lord." This verse was often recited during the Jewish festival of Sukkot, also known as the Feast of Tabernacles.

In Matthew 21:9, we read about Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, just a few days before his crucifixion. As Jesus rode into the city on a donkey, a large crowd of people began to shout, "Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!"

The people were quoting from Psalm 118:25-26, which was a messianic prophecy that had been fulfilled in Jesus. By shouting these words, they were acknowledging Jesus as the promised Messiah and King who had come to save them.

159. Psa. 118:26 To come while Temple standing Matthew 21:12-15

Psalm 118:26says: "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! We have blessed you from the house of the Lord."

This passage is a part of a song of thanksgiving and praise for the Lord's deliverance. It is traditionally recited during the Jewish festival of Sukkot, but it has also been interpreted as a messianic prophecy. In the New Testament, this passage is quoted in reference to Jesus Christ, who was recognized by some as the long-awaited Messiah.

In Matthew 21:12-15, Jesus enters the Temple in Jerusalem and drives out the money changers and merchants who were conducting business in the courtyard. The people respond by shouting, "Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest heaven!" (Matthew 21:9). This quotation is a combination of Psalm 118:25-26 and other verses from the Old Testament.

By entering the Temple and accepting the people's praise, Jesus is understood as fulfilling the messianic prophecy of Psalm 118:26. It is significant that this event occurs while the Temple is still standing, as the destruction of the Temple in AD 70 marked the end of the sacrificial system and the end of an era in Jewish history.

Therefore, the use of Psalm 118:26 in Matthew 21:12-15 highlights Jesus' messianic identity and the recognition of his authority by the people, while also emphasizing the significance of the Temple in the Jewish tradition.

M. Rydelnik (2019): The apostles understood Ps 118 to be about the Messiah and that Jesus of Nazareth matched the description of the Messiah portrayed in it. Consequently, Ps 118 provided evidence that Jesus was the Messiah, which explains why this psalm appears so often in the NT. And there was good reason for them to see that the subject of Ps 118 was the Messiah. Evidence suggests—from the psalm itself, the surrounding context in the Psalms, and from the larger OT context—that the subject of the psalm was the ideal royal figure who would fulfill the Lord’s covenant with David. When read in the light of the full context of the Christian canon, Ps 118 celebrates the Lord’s eternal covenant faithfulness to David. It is a reminder that the Lord would save and protect His Anointed one, not allowing Him to see death (Ps 118:17-18), and that the Lord’s anointed —Jesus—will lead a festal procession to the Temple and inaugurate a new work: the building of a new temple. All of this is a demonstration of the Lord’s eternal covenant faithfulness. God’s people can, therefore, have confidence that the Lord is a faithful promise keeper and that Jesus is His Messiah, sent to conquer all the enemies of His people.2

160. Psa. 132:11 The Seed of David (the fruit of His Body) Luke 1:32, Act 2:30

The phrase "the Seed of David" is used in the Bible to refer to the promised Messiah who would come from the lineage of King David. This concept is rooted in the Old Testament, where God made a covenant with David, promising that his throne would be established forever (2 Samuel 7:16).

In the New Testament, the genealogy of Jesus Christ is traced back to David (Matthew 1:1-17; Luke 3:23-38), and he is referred to as the Son of David (Matthew 9:27; 21:9). Luke 1:32 specifically refers to Jesus as "the Son of the Most High" and says that "the Lord God will give him the throne of his father David." This indicates that Jesus is the fulfillment of the covenant made with David, and that he has been appointed as the rightful heir to David's throne.

In Acts 2:30, the Apostle Peter also refers to Jesus as the Seed of David, saying, "Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne." This passage further emphasizes Jesus' connection to the Davidic line and affirms that he is the promised Messiah who has come to establish God's kingdom on earth.

In summary, the phrase "the Seed of David" is used in the Bible to refer to Jesus Christ, who is the fulfillment of God's promise to establish David's throne forever. This concept highlights Jesus' identity as the Messiah and emphasizes his connection to the Old Testament prophecies regarding the coming of a savior from the lineage of David.

161. Psa. 129:3 He was scourged Matthew 27:26

Psalm 129:3 says, "The plowers plowed upon my back; they made long their furrows." This verse is often interpreted as a reference to the sufferings endured by the people of Israel throughout their history. However, it can also be seen as a prophetic foreshadowing of the suffering that Jesus Christ would endure on the cross.

In Matthew 27:26, we read that Jesus was scourged before he was crucified. This was a brutal form of punishment in which a person was whipped with a scourge, which was a type of whip made of multiple leather thongs with small pieces of metal or bone attached to the ends. The scourging was intended to inflict great pain and weaken the person before the actual crucifixion.

So, while Psalm 129:3 does not explicitly mention Jesus, it can be seen as a prophecy of the scourging that he would endure as part of his crucifixion. This is just one example of how the Old Testament contains many prophecies and foreshadowings of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

162. Psa. 138:1-6 The supremacy of David’s Seed amazes kings Matthew 2:2-6

Psalm 138 is a psalm of David in which he praises God for His faithfulness and goodness. In verses 1-6, David speaks of the greatness of God and the glory of His name, declaring that even kings will be amazed at the supremacy of David's Seed.

This reference to David's Seed is a clear reference to the coming Messiah, who would be a descendant of David. The New Testament identifies Jesus Christ as the promised Messiah and the fulfillment of this prophecy. In Matthew 2:2-6, we see that when the wise men came to Jerusalem looking for the newborn king of the Jews, they asked Herod where he would be born. Herod inquired of the chief priests and scribes, who pointed to the prophecy in Micah 5:2 that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem, the city of David.

This connection between the prophecy in Psalm 138 and the birth of Jesus emphasizes the divinity of Christ and the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy in His life. The kings who were amazed at the supremacy of David's Seed in Psalm 138 would later be even more amazed at the majesty and power of the Son of God who was born in Bethlehem.

In summary, Psalm 138:1-6 speaks of the supremacy of David's Seed and how even kings will be amazed by Him. This prophecy is fulfilled in the birth of Jesus Christ, who was born in Bethlehem as the promised Messiah and the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. The reference to David's Seed emphasizes the divinity of Christ and the fulfillment of God's plan for salvation through His Son.

163. Psa. 147:3, 6 The earthly ministry of Christ described Luke 4:18

Psalm 147:3 says, "He heals the brokenhearted and binds up their wounds." Psalm 147:6 says, "The Lord sustains the humble but casts the wicked to the ground."

Luke 4:18 describes the beginning of Jesus' earthly ministry, where he entered the synagogue in Nazareth and read from the book of Isaiah. He said, "The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to set the oppressed free."

In both Psalm 147:3 and Luke 4:18, there is a message of healing and restoration for those who are broken and oppressed. In his earthly ministry, Jesus fulfilled this message by healing the sick, casting out demons, and offering hope and salvation to all who would believe in him. His ministry was characterized by love, compassion, and a desire to see people set free from the bondage of sin and oppression.

Proverbs

164. Prov. 1:23 He will send the Spirit of God John 16:7

Proverbs 1:23 says, "Turn at my rebuke; surely I will pour out my spirit on you; I will make my words known to you." This verse speaks of the promise of the Holy Spirit that God would send to those who turn to Him in repentance and faith.

In John 16:7, Jesus speaks of the coming of the Holy Spirit to His disciples, saying, "Nevertheless I tell you the truth. It is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I depart, I will send Him to you."

This promise of the Holy Spirit was fulfilled on the Day of Pentecost, after Jesus' ascension to heaven. In Acts 2:1-4, we read that the Holy Spirit came upon the disciples, filling them with power and enabling them to speak in tongues and proclaim the gospel boldly.

The Spirit of God, promised in Proverbs 1:23, is the same Holy Spirit who was sent by Jesus after His ascension. The Spirit is given to believers as a guide, helper, and comforter, and enables us to live a life that is pleasing to God.

In summary, Proverbs 1:23 speaks of the promise of the Holy Spirit that God would send to those who turn to Him in repentance and faith. This promise was fulfilled in the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, as described in Acts 2:1-4. The Spirit of God is given to believers as a guide, helper, and comforter, empowering us to live a life that is pleasing to God.

165. Prov. 8:23 Foreordained from everlasting Rev. 13:8, 1Peter 1:19-20

Proverbs 8:23 says, "I was appointed from eternity, from the beginning, before the world began."

This passage is often interpreted as referring to the personification of wisdom in the book of Proverbs, which speaks about wisdom as a divine attribute that existed before the creation of the world. The passage suggests that wisdom was present with God from the beginning, and was involved in the creation of the world.

Revelation 13:8 says, "All inhabitants of the earth will worship the beast--all whose names have not been written in the Lamb's book of life, the Lamb who was slain from the creation of the world."

This passage refers to the book of life, which contains the names of those who will inherit eternal life. It suggests that the Lamb, which is a reference to Jesus Christ, was slain from the creation of the world, indicating that his sacrifice was planned from the beginning of time.

1 Peter 1:19-20 says, "But with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect. He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake."

This passage also speaks about the preexistence of Christ and suggests that he was chosen before the creation of the world to be the sacrifice for the sins of humanity. It indicates that the revelation of Christ came in the last times, for the sake of those who would come to believe in him.

Taken together, these passages suggest that God had a plan for salvation from the beginning of time, and that Jesus Christ was chosen to be the means of that salvation. They also speak to the idea of predestination and suggest that God's plan was set in motion before the creation of the world.

M. Rydelnik (2019): Proverbs 8:22-31 has long been regarded as an important passage for the Christology of the Church. For many throughout Church history, this passage referred to the pre-incarnate Son of God, Divine Wisdom, who is the Father’s eternal delight and through whom all things were created. Proverbs 8 provides a glimpse of the Father and His Son behind the veil of man’s finite experience. It celebrates the Father and the Son prior to, and throughout, the creation jubilee. This passage has played a formative role in both Jewish and Christian theology. It was foundational to a reading of the creation narrative as something much more than a solo sung by a lonely, apathetic God. Rather, God sang the creation song in Triune harmony, His Son laughing, dancing, and playing in His lap as each day unfolded. Although a Christological reading of Prv 8:22-31 has fallen on hard times of late, Targum Neophyti and the Church fathers correctly understood Prv 8 as a reference to the Son of God, the promised Messiah. The Christological reading does not finally complicate the interpretation of Prov. 8 but presents instead the resolution of a mystery latent in the text. This key passage points the way to participation in the Father’s delight for any genuine seeker of God. Those who desire to enter into this joy are invited, provided they can each answer just one simple question: “What is the name of His Son? Surely you know” (Prv 30:4).2

Song

166. Song. 5:16 The altogether lovely One John 1:17

In Song of Solomon 5:16, the bride speaks of her beloved, saying, "His mouth is most sweet: yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem." This verse is a beautiful expression of the bride's love and admiration for her beloved, whom she describes as "altogether lovely."

In the Gospel of John 1:17, it is written, "For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came through Jesus Christ." This verse speaks of the coming of Jesus Christ, who embodies grace and truth. He is the fulfillment of the law given through Moses, and through Him, we can receive grace and truth.

The phrase "altogether lovely" used in Song of Solomon 5:16 can be understood as a description of Jesus Christ, who embodies all that is good and beautiful. He is the perfect expression of God's love, grace, and truth, and through Him, we can experience the fullness of God's love and mercy.

In summary, Song of Solomon 5:16 speaks of the bride's love and admiration for her beloved, whom she describes as "altogether lovely." This phrase can be understood as a description of Jesus Christ, who embodies all that is good and beautiful, and who came to bring grace and truth to the world, as described in John 1:17.

Isaiah 

167. Isa. 2:3 He shall teach all nations John 4:25

168. Isa. 2:4 He shall judge among the nations John 5:22

Isaiah 2:4 prophesies, "He shall judge between the nations, and shall arbitrate for many peoples; they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more." This verse speaks of a future time of peace, when God's Messiah will judge among the nations and bring an end to war and conflict.

In John 5:22, Jesus affirms that He has been given authority by the Father to judge, saying, "Moreover, the Father judges no one, but has entrusted all judgment to the Son." Jesus' role as judge is an important aspect of His ministry, and He will one day judge all people according to their deeds (John 5:28-29).

While Isaiah 2:4 speaks of a future time of peace when God's Messiah will judge among the nations, John 5:22 affirms that Jesus has been given the authority to judge by the Father. Together, these verses emphasize the importance of judgment and justice, both in the present and in the future, and point to the ultimate fulfillment of God's plan for peace and justice in the world.

J. RANDALL PRICE (2019): “Isaiah” (Heb. Yeshiyahu) means “the LORD saves” and Micah (Heb. Micah) means “who is like the LORD?” both expressions of Messiah’s divine nature and redemptive work elsewhere presented by these prophets (Isa 9:6-7; 53:4-12; Mic 7:18). Likewise, the restoration context of the “last days” and the central figure personally deciding justice for the nations, ending war, and guaranteeing international peace can be none other than King Messiah, the Prince of Peace (Isa 9:6-7; cf. Isa 52:7; 66:12; Ezk 37:26; Hag 2:9; Zch 9:10). Thus, restoration texts are messianic texts, since the agent of restoration is the Messiah. 2

169. Isa. 6:1 When Isaiah saw His glory John 12:40-41

Isaiah 6:1 describes a vision that the prophet Isaiah had in which he saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, with the train of His robe filling the temple. Isaiah also saw seraphim, angelic beings, who were praising the Lord and declaring His holiness.

John 12:40-41 is a reference to Isaiah's vision in which the apostle John quotes from Isaiah 6:10, saying that Isaiah saw the Lord's glory and spoke about Jesus. John's point is that even though Isaiah saw the Lord's glory, he did not understand that it was Jesus who he was seeing.

In other words, John is using Isaiah's vision as evidence that Jesus is the Messiah and that Isaiah's prophecy pointed to Him. John is highlighting the fact that even though Isaiah lived hundreds of years before Jesus, he saw a vision that foretold the coming of the Savior.

170. Isa. 6:8 The One Sent by God John 12:38-45

Isaiah 6:8 records the prophet's response to a vision of God's glory and holiness: "Then I heard the voice of the Lord saying, 'Whom shall I send? And who will go for us?' And I said, 'Here am I. Send me!'" In this verse, Isaiah expresses his willingness to be sent by God as a messenger to the people of Israel.

In John 12:38-45, Jesus quotes from Isaiah 6:10 and speaks of Himself as the one sent by God: "I have come into the world as a light, so that no one who believes in me should stay in darkness" (John 12:46). Jesus identifies Himself as the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy, the one who has been sent by God to bring light and salvation to the world.

Thus, both Isaiah 6:8 and John 12:38-45 speak of the one who is sent by God as a messenger and a light to the world. In the case of Isaiah, he was willing to go as God's messenger, while in the case of Jesus, He was sent by God to fulfill the prophecies and bring salvation to all who believe in Him.

171. Isa. 6:9-10 Parables fall on deaf ears Matthew 13:13-15

Isaiah 6:9-10 and Matthew 13:13-15 both address the theme of people's spiritual blindness and their inability to understand or receive God's message.

In Isaiah 6:9-10, God commissions the prophet Isaiah to go and proclaim His message to the people of Israel. However, God also warns Isaiah that the people's hearts have become hardened, and their ears have become deaf to the truth. Despite hearing God's message, they will not understand it or turn to God for salvation.

Similarly, in Matthew 13:13-15, Jesus speaks in parables to the crowds, and His disciples ask Him why He speaks to them in parables. Jesus replies that the people's hearts have become dull, and their ears cannot hear, and they have closed their eyes to the truth. Therefore, they cannot understand the message of the parables, and they will not turn to God for salvation.

Both passages reveal the reality that people's spiritual condition affects their ability to understand and respond to God's message. Without a receptive heart, people will not be able to comprehend or respond to the truth. However, those who are willing to listen with an open heart will receive understanding and salvation.

172. Isa. 6:9-12 Blinded to Christ and deaf to His words Acts 28:23-29

Isaiah 6:9-12 speaks of a judgment from God that would cause the people of Israel to become spiritually blinded and deaf to His message. The passage reads:

"He said, 'Go and tell this people: “Be ever hearing, but never understanding; be ever seeing, but never perceiving.” Make the heart of this people calloused; make their ears dull and close their eyes. Otherwise they might see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their hearts, and turn and be healed.' Then I said, 'For how long, Lord?' And he answered: 'Until the cities lie ruined and without inhabitant, until the houses are left deserted and the fields ruined and ravaged, until the LORD has sent everyone far away and the land is utterly forsaken.'"

In Acts 28:23-29, Paul is preaching the gospel to the Jewish leaders in Rome, but they reject his message and refuse to believe in Jesus as the Messiah. Paul quotes from Isaiah 6:9-10 to explain that the reason for their unbelief is that they have become spiritually blinded and deaf:

"They arranged to meet Paul on a certain day, and came in even larger numbers to the place where he was staying. He witnessed to them from morning till evening, explaining about the kingdom of God, and from the Law of Moses and from the Prophets he tried to persuade them about Jesus. Some were convinced by what he said, but others would not believe. They disagreed among themselves and began to leave after Paul had made this final statement: 'The Holy Spirit spoke the truth to your ancestors when he said through Isaiah the prophet: “Go to this people and say, ‘You will be ever hearing but never understanding; you will be ever seeing but never perceiving.’ For this people’s heart has become calloused; they hardly hear with their ears, and they have closed their eyes. Otherwise they might see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their hearts and turn, and I would heal them.” Therefore I want you to know that God’s salvation has been sent to the Gentiles, and they will listen!'"

Therefore, the passage in Isaiah 6:9-12 is seen as a prophecy that is fulfilled in the rejection of the gospel message by the Jewish leaders in Rome. They had become spiritually blind and deaf, unable to understand the truth about Jesus as the Messiah.

173. Isa. 7:14 To be born of a virgin Luke 1:35

Isaiah 7:14 is a prophecy  that says: "Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel." This prophecy was given to King Ahaz of Judah as a sign that God would protect Judah from their enemies.

Luke 1:35 is a New Testament account of the angel Gabriel appearing to Mary, a virgin, and telling her that she would conceive a child by the Holy Spirit. The angel said to Mary, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God."

The connection between these two passages is that they both prophesy the birth of a child who would be conceived by a virgin. In Luke, we see the fulfillment of the prophecy given in Isaiah. Jesus was born of a virgin, fulfilling the prophecy that a virgin would conceive and give birth to a son.

174. Isa. 7:14 To be Emmanuel-God with us Matthew 1:18-23, 1Tim. 3:16

In Isaiah 7:14, it was prophesied that a virgin would conceive and bear a son, and they shall call His name Immanuel, which means "God with us." This prophecy was fulfilled in Matthew 1:18-23, where it was revealed that Mary was with child by the Holy Spirit, and she gave birth to a son who was called Jesus, meaning "God saves." The name "Immanuel" was also referenced as a fulfillment of this prophecy. Additionally, 1 Timothy 3:16 states that Jesus was manifested in the flesh, vindicated by the Spirit, seen by angels, proclaimed among the nations, believed on in the world, and taken up in glory, further confirming the divine nature of Jesus as Emmanuel.

MICHAEL A. RYDELNIK (2019): Isa 7:14 is the most controversial of messianic prophecies. Disputes revolve around a variety of issues, chiefly, the meaning of the word ‘almah, the relationship of Isaiah’s “sign” to the context, the way the original readers of the prophecy would have understood it, and Matthew’s citation of this verse in support of the virgin birth. As a result, interpreters have divided into three primary views of the passage, and even among these views, expositors present their own unique perspectives. The first view, held by many traditional Christian interpreters, is to see the prophecy as a direct prediction of the virgin birth of the Messiah. Taking different approaches as to how the prophecy relates to the original context, they each conclude that the word ‘almah means “virgin” and refers to the mother of Jesus. A second position, frequently held by critics and Jewish interpreters, is that of a purely historical interpretation. It views Isaiah’s promise to be that a young woman in the eighth century BC would have sexual relations and then give birth to a child that would serve as a sort of hourglass for Judah—before that child reached a certain age, the two kings threatening Judah would be removed. Third, a common approach taken by contemporary Christian scholars is to view the prophecy as having some sort of dual or multiple fulfillment. Isaiah is understood to refer to the natural birth of a child in his own day to function as a sign to Judah. Nevertheless, they contend that this does not exhaust the meaning. Rather, by double fulfillment, sensus plenior, type, a later rereading, progressive fulfillment, or even by the use of first-century Jewish hermeneutics, the prophecy also refers to the virgin birth of Jesus. By placing the prophecy in context, through a careful reading of the text of Isa 7 and relating it to innerbiblical interpretations of the passage, a view that supports a direct prediction of the virgin birth makes the most sense. That would explain Matthew’s reason for citing Isa 7:14 as a prediction of the virgin birth.

It appears that according to prophecy, the Messiah’s virgin birth was an essential to be believed for two reasons. First, the virgin birth was to be a major sign to confirm Messiah Jesus’ position as the messianic son of David. If Jesus of Nazareth had a human father named Larry or Joseph, it would prove that He really was not the Messiah. No matter how good a life one could lead by believing in Jesus, it would be a sham. Following Jesus changes our lives because He truly is the Messiah. Second, the virgin birth is in some way related to the deity of Jesus. The prediction foretells that the Messiah would be Immanuel or “God with us.” Luke, when recording the virgin birth, records the angel’s message to Mary: “The Holy Spirit will come upon you and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore, the holy One to be born will be called the Son of God” (Lk 1:35). Just as Isaiah related the virgin birth to Messiah being God with us, so Luke regards the virgin birth as the basis for Jesus’ being the Son of God, that is, Deity. Foundational to our faith is that God became a man in order to redeem us. Without the virgin birth, we deny the doctrine of Messiah’s deity and lose the truth of His atonement. 2



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175. Isa. 8:8 Called Emmanuel Matthew 1:23

Isaiah 8:8 does not explicitly call anyone Emmanuel, but the prophecy of the virgin birth in Isaiah 7:14 is often associated with the name Emmanuel, which means "God with us." Matthew 1:23 quotes from Isaiah 7:14 and explicitly identifies Jesus as the fulfillment of this prophecy, stating, "Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel" (which means, God with us). Therefore, although Isaiah 8:8 does not mention the name Emmanuel, it is still associated with the prophecy of the virgin birth that Matthew references.

176. Isa. 8:14 A stone of stumbling, a Rock of offense 1Peter 2:8

Isaiah 8:14 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that speaks of a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense. It says, "He will be a holy place; for both Israel and Judah he will be a stone that causes people to stumble and a rock that makes them fall. And for the people of Jerusalem he will be a trap and a snare."

1 Peter 2:8 is a New Testament passage that quotes Isaiah's prophecy and applies it to Jesus Christ. It says, "They stumble because they disobey the message—which is also what they were destined for. But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light."

In 1 Peter, the apostle Peter is writing to Christian believers and is explaining how they are a chosen people, a holy nation, and a royal priesthood. He quotes Isaiah's prophecy to explain that Jesus Christ is the stone that causes people to stumble and the rock that makes them fall. Those who reject Jesus as the cornerstone of their faith will stumble and fall, but those who believe in him will be saved and become part of God's special possession.

177. Isa. 9:1, 2 His ministry to begin in Galilee Matthew 4:12-17

Isaiah 9:1-2 prophesies that the people who walked in darkness have seen a great light and that those who dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, upon them the light has shined. This passage does not explicitly mention Galilee, but it is fulfilled in Matthew 4:12-17, where Jesus begins His ministry in Galilee, fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah. Matthew quotes Isaiah 9:1-2 and applies it to Jesus, saying that He fulfilled this prophecy by preaching and teaching in Galilee.

178. Isa. 9:6 A child born-Humanity Luke 1:31

Isaiah 9:6 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that speaks of a child who would be born and whose name would be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. The verse reads, "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace."

Luke 1:31 is a New Testament account of the angel Gabriel appearing to Mary and telling her that she would conceive and give birth to a son. The verse reads, "You will conceive and give birth to a son, and you are to call him Jesus."

The connection between these two verses is that they both prophesy the birth of a child who would be a savior to the people. In Isaiah, the prophecy speaks of a child who would be born, and in Luke, we see the fulfillment of this prophecy with the birth of Jesus. Jesus was fully human, born of a virgin, and yet also fully divine, being the Son of God. Jesus fulfilled the prophecy of being the child who would be a savior to the people, bringing hope and peace to all who believe in him.

179. Isa. 9:6 A Son given-Deity Luke 1:32, John 1:14, 1Tim. 3:16

Isaiah 9:6 is a prophecy that says, "For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace." This verse is a clear prophecy of the deity of the promised Messiah, Jesus Christ.

The New Testament affirms this prophecy in multiple ways. For example, Luke 1:32 refers to Jesus as the Son of the Most High, indicating His divine nature. John 1:14 also affirms the deity of Jesus, saying, "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth." Finally, 1 Timothy 3:16 declares that "God was manifest in the flesh" through Jesus Christ, clearly affirming His divine nature.

180. Isa. 9:6 Declared to be the Son of God with power Romans 1:3, 4

Isaiah 9:6 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that speaks of a child who would be born and would be called Mighty God, Everlasting Father, and Prince of Peace. The verse reads, "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace."

Romans 1:3-4 is a New Testament passage in which Paul declares that Jesus Christ is the Son of God with power. The verses read, "regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David, and who through the Spirit of holiness was appointed the Son of God in power by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord."

The connection between these two verses is that they both speak of Jesus Christ as the Son of God. In Isaiah, the prophecy speaks of a child who would be born and would be called Mighty God. In Romans, Paul declares that Jesus was appointed the Son of God in power by his resurrection from the dead. This shows that Jesus was not just a mere human being, but also the Son of God, who had power over death and was able to rise from the dead. The fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy is found in the person of Jesus Christ, who is both fully God and fully human, and who came to save humanity from sin and death.

181. Isa. 9:6 The Wonderful One, Peleh Luke 4:22

Isaiah 9:6 is where the title "Wonderful" (Peleh in Hebrew) is given to the promised Messiah: "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace." This prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who is acknowledged as the Wonderful Counselor in Luke 4:22.

182. Isa. 9:6 The Counsellor, Yaatz Matthew 13:54

Isaiah 9:6 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that speaks of a child who would be born and would be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, and Prince of Peace. The verse reads, "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace."

Matthew 13:54 is a New Testament passage that describes Jesus teaching in his hometown of Nazareth. The verse reads, "Coming to his hometown, he began teaching the people in their synagogue, and they were amazed. 'Where did this man get this wisdom and these miraculous powers?' they asked."

The connection between these two verses is that they both speak of Jesus as a counselor and a teacher. In Isaiah, the prophecy speaks of a child who would be born and would be called Wonderful Counselor. In Matthew, we see Jesus teaching the people in his hometown and amazing them with his wisdom and knowledge. The Hebrew word for "Counselor" in Isaiah 9:6 is "yaatz," which can also be translated as "advisor" or "counselor." Jesus fulfills this prophecy as he teaches and advises his followers, revealing to them the truth about God and his kingdom. Jesus is not only a great teacher, but also the embodiment of the wisdom and knowledge of God.

183. Isa. 9:6 The Mighty God, El Gibor 1Cor. 1:24, Titus 2:13

Isaiah 9:6 prophesies that the Messiah will be called "The Mighty God" or "El Gibor." This is a reference to the deity of the Messiah, who is not merely a human being, but also God in the flesh. This is affirmed in the New Testament, where Jesus is referred to as God in numerous places, including 1 Corinthians 1:24 and Titus 2:13.

184. Isa. 9:6 The Everlasting Father, Avi Adth John 8:58; 10:30

Isaiah 9:6 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that speaks of a child who would be born and would be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, and Prince of Peace. The verse reads, "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace."

John 8:58 and 10:30 are New Testament passages in which Jesus refers to himself as "I am," a name that is closely associated with God in the Old Testament. In John 8:58, Jesus says, "Before Abraham was born, I am!" In John 10:30, he says, "I and the Father are one."

The connection between these verses is that they both affirm Jesus' divine nature and his unity with the Father. In Isaiah, the prophecy speaks of a child who would be born and would be called Everlasting Father. The Hebrew phrase used here is "Avi Adth," which can also be translated as "Father of Eternity." This title points to the eternal nature of the Messiah, who would exist outside of time and be the source of all life.

In John, we see Jesus affirming his divinity and his unity with the Father, indicating that he is the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy. Jesus is not just a human being, but also the Son of God, who has existed from eternity and is one with the Father. As the Everlasting Father, Jesus is the source of eternal life and the one who offers salvation to all who believe in him.

185. Isa. 9:6 The Prince of Peace, Sar Shalom John 16:33

Isaiah 9:6 and John 16:33 are both verses from the Bible that refer to the concept of peace.

Isaiah 9:6 is a prophetic verse in the Old Testament that speaks of the coming Messiah, who is described as a child born to us, a son given to us. This child will have various names, including "Wonderful Counselor," "Mighty God," "Everlasting Father," and "Prince of Peace." The title "Prince of Peace" is a reference to the Messiah's role in bringing peace to the world and establishing a kingdom of peace.

John 16:33 is a verse from the New Testament, spoken by Jesus Christ to his disciples shortly before his crucifixion. In this verse, Jesus tells his disciples that they will face trials and tribulations in the world, but he has overcome the world. This statement is meant to give them comfort and peace in the face of adversity, knowing that their faith in Jesus will ultimately lead to victory over the world's troubles.

In summary, while Isaiah 9:6 speaks of the coming Messiah as the "Prince of Peace," John 16:33 speaks of Jesus' ability to give his followers peace in the midst of trials and tribulations.

186. Isa. 9:7 Inherits the throne of David Luke 1:32

Isaiah 9:7 and Luke 1:32 are both verses from the Bible that refer to the lineage and kingdom of the Messiah.

Isaiah 9:7 is a prophetic verse in the Old Testament that speaks of the coming Messiah, who is described as a child born to us, a son given to us. This child will have various names, including "Wonderful Counselor," "Mighty God," "Everlasting Father," and "Prince of Peace." The verse states that the Messiah's government and peace will never end, and he will rule with justice and righteousness from that time on and forever. The verse also states that the Messiah will sit on the throne of David and establish his kingdom with justice and righteousness.

Luke 1:32 is a verse from the New Testament, spoken by the angel Gabriel to Mary, the mother of Jesus. The angel tells Mary that she will conceive a child by the power of the Holy Spirit, and that her child will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The angel goes on to say that the Lord God will give her son the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end.

In summary, while Isaiah 9:7 speaks of the coming Messiah inheriting the throne of David and establishing his kingdom with justice and righteousness, Luke 1:32 reaffirms this lineage by stating that Mary's son, Jesus, will be given the throne of his father David and will reign over the house of Jacob forever, fulfilling the prophecy of the Messiah as the rightful heir to the Davidic kingdom.

187. Isa. 9:7 His Character-Just John 5:30

Isaiah 9:7 and John 5:30 are both verses from the Bible that describe the character and nature of the Messiah.

Isaiah 9:7 is a prophetic verse in the Old Testament that speaks of the coming Messiah. The verse describes the Messiah's government and peace that will never end, and that he will rule with justice and righteousness from that time on and forever. The verse further states that the zeal of the Lord Almighty will accomplish this. This implies that the character of the Messiah will be just, righteous, and zealous for the purposes of God.

John 5:30 is a verse from the New Testament, spoken by Jesus Christ. In this verse, Jesus says that he can do nothing on his own but can only do what he sees his Father doing. He goes on to say that he judges only as his Father tells him, and his judgment is just because he does not seek his own will, but the will of the one who sent him. This verse speaks to the character of Jesus, describing him as a just and obedient servant of God the Father.

In summary, while Isaiah 9:7 speaks of the coming Messiah's character as just and zealous for God's purposes, John 5:30 reaffirms this by describing Jesus' character as a just and obedient servant who only does what his Father tells him to do.

188. Isa. 9:7 No end to his Government, Throne, and kingdom Luke 1:33

Isaiah 9:7 speaks of a coming ruler who will establish a government, throne, and kingdom that will endure forever. It says:

"Of the increase of his government and peace there will be no end. He will reign on David's throne and over his kingdom, establishing and upholding it with justice and righteousness from that time on and forever."

Luke 1:33 refers to Jesus as the fulfillment of this prophecy. It says:

"He will reign over Jacob's descendants forever; his kingdom will never end."

So both verses speak of a coming ruler whose government, throne, and kingdom will be eternal and without end. Christians believe that this ruler is Jesus Christ, who they believe is the Son of God and the Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament.

E. E. HINDSON (2019): The messianic trajectory of the prophet Isaiah extends from the prediction of the birth of Immanuel (7:14) to the divine child (9:6) and culminates in the future Davidic King (11:1-6). Taken as a unit, the
Immanuel prophecies (7–12) paint a picture of the coming messianic king. His birth is unique (7:14); His character is majestic (9:6); His land is threatened (8:Perguntas .... - Page 6 Icon_cool; and His triumph is assured (11:4). The child born destined to become God’s ideal king is far more than a human ruler. He is in fact the “mighty God” who will come to rule the kingdom of God on earth. He is Immanuel (“God with us”), and Isaiah can say to the cities of Judah, “Behold your God!” (40:9 ESV). Thus, Jesus would begin His earthly ministry announcing, “the kingdom of God has come near” (Mk 1:15). When Pilate later asked, “So you are a king?” Jesus responded, “For this purpose I was born and for this
purpose I have come into the world” (Jn 18:37 ESV). At His return to earth, the Scripture declares Him to be “King of kings and Lord of lords” (Rev 19:16).2

189. Isa. 11:1 Called a Nazarene-the Branch, Netzer Matthew 2:23

Isaiah 11:1 and Matthew 2:23 are both verses that refer to the coming of the Messiah and his connection to the town of Nazareth.

Isaiah 11:1 is a prophetic verse  that speaks of the coming Messiah. The verse describes a shoot coming up from the stump of Jesse (the father of King David), and a branch growing out of his roots. This branch will be filled with the Spirit of the Lord and will possess wisdom, understanding, counsel, power, knowledge, and the fear of the Lord.

The Hebrew word used in this verse for "branch" is "Netzer," which has a similar sound to "Nazarene" in Hebrew.

Matthew 2:23 speaks of Jesus' childhood. After his family had fled to Egypt to escape King Herod's orders to kill all male children in Bethlehem under the age of two, they later returned to the land of Israel. However, out of fear of Herod's son, Archelaus, they did not return to Bethlehem, but instead went to Nazareth and settled there. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophets, that Jesus would be called a Nazarene.

In summary, while Isaiah 11:1 speaks of the coming Messiah as a branch or "Netzer," Matthew 2:23 connects Jesus to the town of Nazareth, which has a similar sound to "Netzer," and fulfills the prophetic statement that Jesus would be called a Nazarene.

190. Isa. 11:1 A rod out of Jesse-Son of Jesse Luke 3:23, 32

Isaiah 11:1 is a prophecy  that speaks of a coming ruler from the line of Jesse, who was the father of King David. It says:

"A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit."

Luke 3:23 and 32 are verses that list the genealogy of Jesus, tracing his lineage back to Jesse and David. Luke 3:23 says:

"Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry. He was the son, so it was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli."

And Luke 3:32 says: "the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon,"

So, both Isaiah 11:1 and Luke 3:23, 32 are referring to the lineage of Jesus and his descent from Jesse, the father of David. Christians believe that Jesus is the fulfillment of this prophecy and that he is the Messiah promised in the Old Testament.

191. Isa. 11:2 Anointed One by the Spirit Matthew 3:16, 17, Acts 10:38

Isaiah 11:2 and several New Testament verses, including Matthew 3:16-17 and Acts 10:38, speak of the anointing of the Messiah by the Holy Spirit.

Isaiah 11:2 is a prophetic verse  that speaks of the coming Messiah. The verse describes the Spirit of the Lord resting on him, and lists the various attributes that this Spirit will bring: wisdom, understanding, counsel, power, knowledge, and the fear of the Lord. This verse speaks to the anointing of the Messiah by the Holy Spirit, which will equip him with all the gifts and abilities necessary to fulfill his mission.

 Matthew 3:16-17 describes the baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist. After Jesus was baptized, the heavens were opened, and the Spirit of God descended on him like a dove, and a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, whom I love; with him, I am well pleased." This event marks the beginning of Jesus' public ministry, and the anointing of the Holy Spirit is seen as a sign of his divine authority and power.

Similarly, Acts 10:38 describes Jesus as anointed by God with the Holy Spirit and power, and as one who went around doing good and healing all who were under the power of the devil because God was with him. This verse speaks to the ministry of Jesus, which was characterized by miraculous works of healing and deliverance, made possible by the anointing of the Holy Spirit.

In summary, Isaiah 11:2 and New Testament verses like Matthew 3:16-17 and Acts 10:38 speak of the anointing of the Messiah by the Holy Spirit, which equipped him with the gifts and abilities necessary to fulfill his mission and perform miraculous works of healing and deliverance.

192. Isa. 11:2 His Character-Wisdom, Knowledge, et al Colossians 2:3

Isaiah 11:2 is a prophecy that describes the character of the coming ruler who will be from the line of Jesse. It says:

"The Spirit of the Lord will rest on him— the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of might, the Spirit of the knowledge and fear of the Lord."

Colossians 2:3 is a verse  that describes the nature of Christ. It says: "in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge."

Both verses speak of wisdom and knowledge. Isaiah 11:2 lists the qualities that the coming ruler will have, while Colossians 2:3 speaks of Christ as the one in whom all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge are hidden. Christians believe that Jesus is the fulfillment of this prophecy and that he possesses all the qualities listed in Isaiah 11:2.

193. Isa. 11:3 He would know their thoughts Luke 6:8, John 2:25

Isaiah 11:3 and New Testament verses like Luke 6:8 and John 2:25 speak of the Messiah's ability to know people's thoughts.

Isaiah 11:3 is a prophetic verse  that speaks of the coming Messiah. The verse describes the Messiah as one who will be filled with the Spirit of the Lord and possess wisdom, understanding, counsel, power, knowledge, and the fear of the Lord. The verse goes on to say that the Messiah will delight in the fear of the Lord and will not judge by what he sees with his eyes or decide by what he hears with his ears, but with righteousness he will judge the needy and with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth. This verse implies that the Messiah will have a deep understanding of people's hearts and motives.

Luke 6:8 and John 2:25 both speak of Jesus' ability to know people's thoughts. In Luke 6:8, Jesus is described as knowing the thoughts of the Pharisees, who were questioning him about whether it was lawful to heal on the Sabbath. In John 2:25, it is said that Jesus did not need anyone to testify about mankind, for he knew what was in each person.

These verses indicate that Jesus had an extraordinary ability to discern the thoughts and motives of people. This was seen as a sign of his divine authority and power and demonstrated his ability to judge with righteousness and justice, as prophesied in Isaiah 11:3.

In summary, Isaiah 11:3 speaks of the Messiah's ability to judge with righteousness and justice, based on his deep understanding of people's hearts and motives. New Testament verses like Luke 6:8 and John 2:25 demonstrate Jesus' ability to know people's thoughts, which was seen as a sign of his divine authority and power.

194. Isa. 11:4 Judge in righteousness Acts 17:31

Isaiah 11:4 is a prophecy that describes the coming ruler who will be from the line of Jesse. It says:

"But with righteousness he will judge the needy, with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth; with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked."

Acts 17:31 speaks of God's plan for judgment. It says: "For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to everyone by raising him from the dead."

Both verses speak of a coming judgment that will be done in righteousness and justice. Isaiah 11:4 describes the ruler who will judge with righteousness and justice, while Acts 17:31 speaks of the appointed man, who Christians believe is Jesus, and the day of judgment that God has set. Christians believe that Jesus is the fulfillment of this prophecy and that he will judge the world with righteousness and justice on the day that God has appointed.

195. Isa. 11:4 Judges with the sword of His mouth Rev. 2:16; 19:11, 15

Isaiah 11:4 speaks of the coming Messiah as one who will judge with righteousness and justice. The verse says that he will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth and with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked. This image of striking with the rod of his mouth and slaying the wicked with the breath of his lips implies that the Messiah's judgment will be swift and powerful, bringing about a decisive victory over evil.

The book of Revelation describes the Messiah, who is identified as the "Word of God," as wielding a sharp sword that comes out of his mouth. Revelation 2:16 says that the Messiah will use this sword to strike down those who have followed false teachings and to call them to repentance. Revelation 19:11-15 describes the Messiah as riding a white horse and wearing a robe dipped in blood. He is said to be followed by the armies of heaven, and to be wielding a sharp sword with which he will strike down the nations and rule them with an iron scepter.

These verses in Revelation build on the imagery in Isaiah 11:4 of the Messiah judging with the sword of his mouth. The sword represents the power and authority of his word, which is able to cut through all falsehood and deception, and to bring about a swift and decisive victory over evil. The imagery of the Messiah riding a white horse and followed by the armies of heaven reinforces the idea that his judgment will be powerful and triumphant, bringing about the ultimate defeat of evil and the establishment of his righteous rule over all the earth.

In summary, Isaiah 11:4 speaks of the Messiah's judgment with righteousness and justice, using the imagery of striking with the rod of his mouth and slaying the wicked with the breath of his lips. The book of Revelation builds on this imagery, describing the Messiah as wielding a sharp sword that comes out of his mouth, with which he will strike down the nations and establish his righteous rule over all the earth.

196. Isa. 11:5 Character: Righteous & Faithful Rev. 19:11

Isaiah 11:5 refers to the character of the coming Messiah as being "righteousness [that] will be his belt and faithfulness [that] the sash around his waist." This speaks to the idea that the Messiah will be characterized by a deep commitment to righteousness and faithfulness in all his actions and dealings.

Revelation 19:11 describes a vision of the future return of the Messiah, who is referred to as "the Word of God" and "the King of kings and Lord of lords." In this vision, the Messiah is portrayed as riding on a white horse, wearing a robe dipped in blood, and having a sharp sword coming out of his mouth. The description highlights the power and majesty of the returning Messiah.

While the two passages differ in their descriptions of the coming Messiah, they both point to the idea that he will be a powerful and righteous figure who will bring justice and righteousness to the world. The focus on righteousness and faithfulness in Isaiah 11:5 and the power and majesty in Revelation 19:11 both serve to emphasize the idea that the coming Messiah will be a just and powerful ruler who will bring about the fulfillment of God's plan for the world.

197. Isa. 11:10 The Gentiles seek Him John 12:18-21

E. E. HINDSON (2019): The apostle Paul (Rom 15:12) was certainly convinced that Isa 11:10 applied to Jesus since he quoted it in the context of His ministry to both the Jews and Gentiles. John Stott comments, “Thus the Messiah would be simultaneously the root of Jesse and the hope of the nations.” Robert Mounce writes, “Paul cited the well-known messianic promise from Isaiah 11. The Messiah will come as a shoot springing up from the stump of David’s line.” If Paul, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, viewed Isaiah 11 as applying to Jesus, how much more should we? This section of Isaiah (chaps. 7–12), known frequently as “The Book of Immanuel,” contains three significant Messianic predictions: the virgin birth, the birth of the divine King, and the reign of the righteous messianic King. In the first, the Messiah’s birth is predicted (7:13-15); in the second, His deity is revealed (9:6-7); and here in this last prediction (discussed in this article), the Messiah’s ultimate destiny is unveiled (11:1-16). He will be the glorious King of the line of David, whose belt is “righteousness” and “faithfulness” (11:5) and whose role will be to make the land to “will be filled with the knowledge of the LORD‘s glory, as the waters cover the sea“ (Hab 2:14). This is the one true hope of Israel and the world, to “seek Him” and the glorious peace that He alone will give.2

198. Isa. 12:2 Called Jesus-Yeshua Matthew 1:21

Isaiah 11:10 speaks of a time when the "root of Jesse," a reference to the Messiah who is descended from the family of Jesse, the father of King David, will stand as a banner for the peoples, and the Gentiles will seek him. This verse speaks of the inclusion of the Gentiles in the salvation plan of God through the Messiah.

In John 12:18-21, there is a similar account of the Gentiles seeking Jesus. The passage describes a group of Greeks who came to Jerusalem for the Passover feast and approached Philip, one of Jesus' disciples, saying, "Sir, we wish to see Jesus." This request from the Gentiles indicates their desire to seek Jesus and learn from him.

This passage in John 12:18-21 is often seen as a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 11:10, as it shows the Gentiles seeking out Jesus as the promised Messiah. It also emphasizes the universal nature of the Messiah's mission, which is to bring salvation to people of all nations and ethnicities, not just to the Jewish people.

Overall, both Isaiah 11:10 and John 12:18-21 point to the Messiah's role as a unifying figure who brings together people from all nations and ethnicities, and emphasize the importance of the Gentiles in God's plan of salvation.

199. Isa. 22:22 The One given all authority to govern Revelation 3:7

Isaiah 22:22 speaks of a key of the house of David, which is placed upon the shoulder of Eliakim. The key is a symbol of authority and power, and the verse says that the one who holds this key will have the power to open and shut doors as he sees fit.

In the book of Revelation, in Revelation 3:7, Jesus Christ is described as the one who has "the key of David" and the one who "opens and no one can shut, and who shuts and no one can open." This passage echoes the imagery of Isaiah 22:22, which speaks of the key of the house of David, and identifies Jesus as the one who has been given all authority to govern.

This passage in Revelation emphasizes the authority and power of Jesus Christ as the ruler of the universe. He has been given the key of David, which represents his power and authority over all creation. As the one who opens and shuts doors, he has the power to grant access to the kingdom of God or to keep people out. His authority is absolute and his rule is final.

Overall, the parallels between Isaiah 22:22 and Revelation 3:7 highlight the continuity of God's plan of salvation across the Old and New Testaments, and point to Jesus Christ as the ultimate fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament. Both passages emphasize the authority and power of the Messiah as the one who governs over all creation and has the power to open and shut doors as he sees fit.

J. F. Walvoord (2011): The love of God as enduring forever is expressed in repetition (vv. 1–4). This is fulfilled in time and eternity. The psalmist predicted that “the stone the builders rejected” will become “the capstone” (v. 22). This will be accomplished by the Lord Himself (vv. 23–24). This passage anticipates the rejection of Christ (Matt. 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17) and His later exaltation. The historical context of this passage may have been a failure to recognize a king or the nation of Israel for their victories.  This psalm is a direct prophecy concerning Christ. “The stone the builders rejected has become the capstone; the LORD has done this, and it is marvelous in our eyes. This is the day the LORD has made; let us rejoice and be glad in it” (vv. 22–24). Christ as the rejected King in His second coming will be the capstone, that is, He will fulfill what was anticipated in His authority as King of Kings in ruling the entire earth.30


200. Isa. 25:8 The Resurrection predicted 1Corinthians 15:54

Isaiah 25:8 says, "He will swallow up death forever. The Sovereign Lord will wipe away the tears from all faces; he will remove his people's disgrace from all the earth. The Lord has spoken." This verse speaks of a future time when God will defeat death and remove all sorrow and shame from his people.

In the New Testament, 1 Corinthians 15:54 quotes this passage from Isaiah when it says, "Death has been swallowed up in victory." This verse is part of a larger passage in 1 Corinthians 15 in which the apostle Paul is addressing the topic of the resurrection. He argues that just as Christ was raised from the dead, so all believers in him will also be raised from the dead, and death will be defeated.

The connection between Isaiah 25:8 and 1 Corinthians 15:54 highlights the continuity of God's plan of salvation across the Old and New Testaments. Isaiah prophesied about the resurrection and the defeat of death, and Paul saw the fulfillment of this prophecy in the resurrection of Jesus and the hope of resurrection for all believers. The prophecy in Isaiah 25:8 points to the victory that God will ultimately achieve over death, and the passage in 1 Corinthians 15 emphasizes the significance of the resurrection for believers in Christ.

Overall, the connection between Isaiah 25:8 and 1 Corinthians 15:54 underscores the importance of the resurrection in the Christian faith and the power of God to overcome even the greatest of enemies, including death itself.

201. Isa. 26:19 His power of Resurrection predicted Matthew 27:50-54

Isaiah 26:19 is a prophecy that speaks of the future resurrection of the dead: "But your dead will live, Lord; their bodies will rise— let those who dwell in the dust wake up and shout for joy—your dew is like the dew of the morning; the earth will give birth to her dead."

Matthew 27:50-54 describes the events that took place at the moment of Jesus' death on the cross. The passage recounts how the temple curtain was torn in two, the earth shook, rocks split apart, and graves were opened. The bodies of many holy people who had died were raised to life and appeared to many people in Jerusalem.

This event is seen by many as a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 26:19, as it demonstrates the power of resurrection that is central to Christian belief. The resurrection of Jesus and the opening of the graves in Matthew 27:50-54 serve as a powerful symbol of the hope of resurrection and new life that is promised to all who believe in Jesus.

In this sense, the passage in Matthew 27:50-54 is seen as a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 26:19, as it demonstrates the power of God to raise the dead to new life. It is a powerful reminder of the hope and promise that is offered to believers through the resurrection of Jesus.

202. Isa. 28:16 The Messiah is the precious corner stone Acts 4:11, 12

Isaiah 28:16 says, "So this is what the Sovereign Lord says: 'See, I lay a stone in Zion, a tested stone, a precious cornerstone for a sure foundation; the one who relies on it will never be stricken with panic.'" This verse speaks of a stone that God lays in Zion, which serves as a sure foundation for those who trust in it.

In the New Testament, this passage is quoted in Acts 4:11-12 when Peter and John are on trial before the Jewish religious leaders. They are asked by what power or name they had healed a lame man, and Peter responds, "It is by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified but whom God raised from the dead, that this man stands before you healed. Jesus is 'the stone you builders rejected, which has become the cornerstone'" (Acts 4:10-11).

Peter is identifying Jesus as the "precious cornerstone" prophesied in Isaiah 28:16. He emphasizes that despite the rejection of Jesus by the religious leaders, he has become the foundation of the church and the source of salvation for all who believe in him. Peter goes on to say, "Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to mankind by which we must be saved" (Acts 4:12).

The connection between Isaiah 28:16 and Acts 4:11-12 highlights the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy in Jesus and his role as the foundation of the church. The rejection of Jesus by the religious leaders was part of God's plan to establish him as the cornerstone of the church, and through his death and resurrection, he became the source of salvation for all who believe in him. Overall, this passage emphasizes the importance of trusting in Jesus as the sure foundation for our lives and the source of our salvation.

203. Isa. 28:16 The Sure Foundation 1Corinthians 3:11, Mt. 16:18

Isaiah 28:16 speaks of a sure foundation, saying, "See, I lay a stone in Zion, a tested stone, a precious cornerstone for a sure foundation; the one who relies on it will never be stricken with panic." This passage is often seen as a prophetic reference to the coming of the Messiah, who is portrayed as a tested and precious cornerstone that provides a sure foundation for those who believe in him.

1 Corinthians 3:11 similarly speaks of the importance of a sure foundation in the context of building the church, saying, "For no one can lay any foundation other than the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ." This passage emphasizes the idea that Jesus Christ is the sure foundation upon which the church is built, and that without this foundation, the church cannot stand.

Matthew 16:18 contains a statement by Jesus himself, in which he declares that he will build his church upon the rock of Peter's confession that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God. This passage similarly emphasizes the idea that Jesus is the sure foundation upon which the church is built, and that this foundation is essential to the church's success.

Taken together, these passages emphasize the importance of having a sure foundation in one's faith, and the central role that Jesus Christ plays in providing this foundation. They point to the idea that it is only through faith in Jesus as the Messiah and the cornerstone of the church that believers can find a sure and lasting foundation for their lives.

J. R. PRICE (2019): The identity of the cornerstone/foundation is a key issue for understanding the messianic interpretation of Isaiah 28:16 and for the Church’s justification for trust in Jesus as the promised Messiah-Savior for Israel and the whole world. From the context, exegesis, and intertextual use of “stone” and “cornerstone” in Isa 28:16, this is clearly a passage referring to the Messiah. The history of interpretation from the church fathers, to ancient and medieval Judaism, indicates that this is a messianic text. Most important, the NT writers applied the cornerstone images to Jesus the Messiah. All the evidence argues for a messianic interpretation: Isaiah 28:16 prophesied Messiah as the cornerstone. As Walter C. Kaiser observes, “this Stone is the ‘cornerstone’ or ‘foundation stone’ that ties the building together. That is why it makes such a ‘sure foundation’ (v. 16c). It cannot be wiggled back and forth; it is immoveable and secure.” All who believe in this stone by accepting Him as their Messiah “will be unshakeable” (v. 16d). As Walter Kaiser says, the Messiah “will prove Himself dependable, reliable, trustworthy, and foundational for everything else in life! 2

204. Isa. 29:13 He indicated hypocritical obedience to His Word Matthew 15:7-9

Isaiah 29:13 says, "The Lord says: 'These people come near to me with their mouth and honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. Their worship of me is based on merely human rules they have been taught." This verse speaks of people who appear to be obedient to God's word, but their hearts are not truly devoted to him.

In the New Testament, this passage is quoted by Jesus in Matthew 15:7-9 when he confronts the Pharisees and teachers of the law who criticized his disciples for not following the tradition of washing their hands before eating. Jesus responds, "You hypocrites! Isaiah was right when he prophesied about you: 'These people honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. They worship me in vain; their teachings are merely human rules'" (Matthew 15:7-9).

Jesus is accusing the Pharisees and teachers of the law of being hypocritical in their obedience to God's word. They were focused on following human traditions and rules rather than truly seeking God with their hearts. Jesus goes on to explain that what defiles a person is not what goes into their mouth, but what comes out of their heart, such as evil thoughts, murder, adultery, and other sins (Matthew 15:10-20).

The connection between Isaiah 29:13 and Matthew 15:7-9 highlights the importance of true devotion to God rather than hypocritical obedience to human traditions and rules. Jesus emphasizes the need for a genuine relationship with God that is based on a pure heart and sincere devotion, rather than mere outward appearances of piety. Overall, this passage challenges us to examine our own hearts and motivations and to seek a deeper and more genuine relationship with God.

205. Isa. 29:14 The wise are confounded by the Word 1Corinthians 1:18-31

Isaiah 29:14 speaks of the confounding of the wise by the Word of God, saying, "Therefore once more I will astound these people with wonder upon wonder; the wisdom of the wise will perish, the intelligence of the intelligent will vanish."

1 Corinthians 1:18-31 similarly emphasizes the idea that the wisdom of the world is foolishness in God's sight, and that God has chosen to reveal himself through the foolishness of preaching. The passage states, "For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God...For the foolishness of God is wiser than human wisdom, and the weakness of God is stronger than human strength."

Taken together, these passages emphasize the idea that the wisdom of the world is insufficient in the face of the wisdom of God, and that the power of God is made known through what appears to be foolishness and weakness in the eyes of the world. They suggest that it is only through faith in God and a willingness to embrace the message of the gospel that true wisdom and understanding can be found.

206. Isa. 32:2 A Refuge-A man shall be a hiding place Matthew 23:37

EVA RYDELNIK (2019): At a time when Israel was on the brink of invasion by Assyria, and Judah was foolishly seeking a military alliance with Egypt for protection, Isaiah delivers a message of hope—not expectation of political defense or deliverance, but two glorious prophecies of the Messianic King. First, the Righteous King will rule justly and transform the nation during His millennial reign (32:1-8 ). Then Isaiah gives the promise of the outpouring of the Spirit to usher in a time of justice, righteousness, and peace under the reign of Messiah (32:15-20). Finally, the prophet declares there will be a day when their eyes will see the Majestic King in all His beauty, and they will dwell in peace in Zion because the majestic King Messiah will rule as Judge, lawgiver, and King who forgives all sin (33:17-24).2

207. Isa. 35:4 He will come and save you Matthew 1:21

Isaiah 35:4 is a prophecy about the coming of the Messiah and the salvation that he would bring. The verse says, "Say to those who are fearful-hearted, 'Be strong, do not fear! Behold, your God will come with vengeance, with the recompense of God; He will come and save you.'"

In the New Testament, we see the fulfillment of this prophecy in the birth of Jesus Christ. The angel who appeared to Joseph in a dream told him that Mary would give birth to a son and they were to name him Jesus, because he would save his people from their sins (Matthew 1:21).

Throughout his ministry, Jesus demonstrated that he was indeed the Messiah, the one who would save his people. He healed the sick, cast out demons, and preached the good news of salvation to all who would hear. His death on the cross and his resurrection from the dead provided the ultimate salvation for all who believe in him.

So, the connection between Isaiah 35:4 and Matthew 1:21 highlights the prophetic nature of the Old Testament and its fulfillment in the person of Jesus Christ. The prophecy of the coming Messiah and the salvation he would bring was fulfilled in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, demonstrating the reliability and truthfulness of God's word.

208. Isa. 35:5-6 To have a ministry of miracles Matthew 11:2-6

Isaiah 35:5-6 speaks of a future time when the eyes of the blind will be opened, the ears of the deaf will be unstopped, the lame will leap like a deer, and the tongue of the mute will sing for joy. This passage is often seen as a prophetic reference to the ministry of the Messiah, who would perform miracles to heal the sick and bring hope to the oppressed.

Matthew 11:2-6 records an interaction between John the Baptist and Jesus in which John sends his disciples to ask Jesus if he is the one who is to come, or if they should wait for another. Jesus responds by pointing to the miracles he has performed as evidence that he is indeed the Messiah, saying, "Go back and report to John what you hear and see: The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the good news is proclaimed to the poor."

Taken together, these passages suggest that the ministry of miracles prophesied in Isaiah 35 was fulfilled through the miracles performed by Jesus during his earthly ministry. They emphasize the idea that the power of God is made manifest through acts of healing and restoration, and that these miracles serve as evidence of the truth of the gospel and the identity of Jesus as the Messiah.

J. F. COAKLEY (2019):  Although Isa 35 may at first glance not appear to be a messianic prophecy, once the entire structural, contextual, and linguistic evidence is examined, the case for this passage being messianic is much stronger than it first appears. This passage clearly establishes that one of the marks of the Messiah will be that He will heal all sorts of physical handicaps such as blindness and deafness (v. 5). Similar to Isa 61:1-2, where there is a gap between the first and second coming of the Messiah Jesus, this passage also portrays the Messiah as healer, followed by a gap in which the Messiah will return to fulfill the millennial kingdom blessings on the people and on the land. Although there may be some aspect of spiritual fulfillment in this text at some future time (healing from spiritual blindness and deafness), the passage emphasizes physical healing for both people and the land. In conclusion, this study has made the case that Isa 35 is located in a zone of turbulence in the book, to demonstrate that Isa 35 is indeed a messianic passage. Poetic exuberance in this text gives way to a glorious description of the new Zion where miracles will take place. The Messianic Age will be established only under the glorious royal reign of the compassionate, miracle-working Messiah! 2

209. Isa. 40:3, 4 Preceded by forerunner John 1:23

Isaiah 40:3-4 is a prophecy about the coming of the Messiah, which says, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Prepare the way of the Lord; make straight in the desert a highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted and every mountain and hill brought low; the crooked places shall be made straight and the rough places smooth.'"

In the New Testament, this prophecy is fulfilled through the ministry of John the Baptist, who was the forerunner of Jesus Christ. John the Baptist was the voice crying out in the wilderness, calling the people to repentance and preparing the way for the coming of the Lord (Matthew 3:1-3).

When the religious leaders in Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to ask John who he was, he replied with the words of Isaiah 40:3, "I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Make straight the way of the Lord,' as the prophet Isaiah said" (John 1:23).

John's mission was to prepare the way for the coming of Jesus, to call the people to repentance and to prepare their hearts to receive the Messiah. John's baptism of repentance was a symbol of this preparation, as it symbolized a cleansing of sin and a turning back to God.

So, the connection between Isaiah 40:3-4 and John 1:23 highlights the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy through the ministry of John the Baptist, who prepared the way for the coming of the Lord. John's ministry of repentance and baptism was a necessary precursor to the ministry of Jesus, who would come to save his people from their sins.

J. F. Walvoord (2011): All four gospels attribute this passage to John the Baptist as the forerunner of Christ (Matt. 3:1–4; Mark 1:2–4; Luke 1:76–79; John 1:23).30



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210. Isa. 40:9 “Behold your God.” John 1:36; 19:14

Isaiah 40:9 says, "Get you up to a high mountain, O Zion, herald of good tidings; lift up your voice with strength, O Jerusalem, herald of good tidings, lift it up, fear not; say to the cities of Judah, 'Behold your God!'" This is a prophetic statement that calls on the people of Judah to recognize and behold their God, and to spread the good news of his coming.

In the Gospel of John, we see two instances where this prophetic statement is referenced. In John 1:36, when John the Baptist sees Jesus walking by, he exclaims, "Behold the Lamb of God!" This statement is seen as a recognition of Jesus' identity as the Messiah, the one who would take away the sins of the world.

In John 19:14, we see another reference to this prophetic statement. Pilate presents Jesus to the crowd, saying, "Here is your king!" This is a moment when the people are called to behold their God, but they reject him and instead call for his crucifixion.

Taken together, these passages suggest that the prophetic statement in Isaiah 40:9 is ultimately fulfilled in the person of Jesus. He is the one who is to be recognized as the Messiah, the Lamb of God, and the King of the Jews. While some recognize and accept him, others reject him, leading to his crucifixion.

211. Isa. 40:10. He will come to reward Revelation 22:12

Isaiah 40:10 is a prophecy about the coming of the Lord, which states: "Behold, the Lord GOD comes with might, and his arm rules for him; behold, his reward is with him, and his recompense before him." This verse speaks of the Lord's powerful arrival and the rewards that he brings with him. The rewards and recompense may refer to blessings for the faithful or judgment for those who have disobeyed God.

Similarly, Revelation 22:12 also speaks of the Lord's coming and the rewards that he brings with him. In this verse, Jesus says, "Behold, I am coming soon, bringing my recompense with me, to repay each one for what he has done." This verse also highlights the idea of a reward or recompense for one's actions, with Jesus promising to repay each person according to what they have done.

Both Isaiah 40:10 and Revelation 22:12 point to the idea that the Lord will come with rewards or recompense for his people, depending on their actions and faithfulness. These rewards may include blessings and eternal life for the faithful, or judgment for those who have rejected God. These verses serve as a reminder that God sees and rewards our actions, and that we should strive to live in a way that is pleasing to Him.

212. Isa. 40:11 A shepherd-compassionate life-giver John 10:10-18

Isaiah 40:11 and John 10:10-18 both use the imagery of a shepherd to describe God's relationship with his people. In Isaiah 40:11, the prophet writes that God "will tend his flock like a shepherd; he will gather the lambs in his arms; he will carry them in his bosom, and gently lead those that are with young." This passage speaks of God's compassion and care for his people, likening him to a gentle shepherd who leads and protects his flock.

Similarly, in John 10:10-18, Jesus describes himself as the "good shepherd" who lays down his life for his sheep. He contrasts himself with the thief who comes only to steal, kill, and destroy, and emphasizes that he has come so that his sheep may have abundant life. He also speaks of the intimate knowledge that he has of his sheep and how he calls them each by name.

Both of these passages emphasize God's tender care for his people, portrayed through the image of a shepherd who knows and loves his sheep. They also highlight the sacrificial nature of this care, as the shepherd is willing to lay down his life for the sheep. These passages offer comfort and reassurance to believers, reminding them of God's compassionate and protective presence in their lives.

213. Isa. 42:1-4 The Servant-as a faithful, patient redeemer Matthew 12:18-21

Isaiah 42:1-4 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that speaks of a servant of the Lord who is appointed to bring justice to the nations. The passage describes the servant as someone who is faithful, patient, and a redeemer. The servant is called to be a light to the Gentiles, to open blind eyes, and to bring prisoners out of darkness.

Matthew 12:18-21 is a New Testament passage that quotes from Isaiah 42:1-4 and applies it to Jesus. The passage describes Jesus as the fulfillment of the prophecy of the servant. Jesus is portrayed as the faithful and patient redeemer who will not break a bruised reed or snuff out a smoldering wick. He is the one who brings justice to the nations and in whom the Gentiles will hope.

The passage in Matthew emphasizes the compassion of Jesus and his concern for the weak and the marginalized. It highlights his mission to bring salvation and redemption to all people, regardless of their social status or background. In both passages, the servant is depicted as a figure of hope and salvation, who brings light to a world of darkness and despair.

214. Isa. 42:2 Meek and lowly Matthew 11:28-30

Isaiah 42:2 describes the servant of the Lord as someone who is gentle, humble, and patient. The verse says, "He will not shout or cry out, or raise his voice in the streets. A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out. In faithfulness he will bring forth justice."

Matthew 11:28-30 is a passage in the New Testament where Jesus speaks to the crowds and invites them to come to him for rest. He says, "Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy and my burden is light."

The passage in Matthew echoes the meek and lowly nature of the servant in Isaiah 42:2. Jesus is portrayed as the one who brings rest to the weary and burdened. He invites people to come to him and find peace in his gentle and humble nature. Like the servant in Isaiah, Jesus does not impose his will on people but invites them to come and learn from him. He offers a yoke that is easy and a burden that is light, in contrast to the heavy burdens imposed by the religious leaders of his day.

Both passages emphasize the meekness and humility of the servant or Jesus, and how they offer a source of comfort and rest to those who are burdened and in need of hope.

215. Isa. 42:3 He brings hope for the hopeless Mt. 12:14-21; John 4:1-54

Isaiah 42:3 says that the servant of the Lord will not break a bruised reed or snuff out a smoldering wick, and that he will bring justice to the nations. The passage emphasizes the compassion of the servant and his mission to bring hope to the hopeless.

Matthew 12:14-21 is a passage that describes how Jesus, after healing a man with a withered hand, withdrew from the crowds because he did not want to draw attention to himself. The passage goes on to quote from Isaiah 42, describing how Jesus fulfills the prophecy of the servant. The passage emphasizes Jesus' gentleness, humility, and concern for the weak and marginalized, portraying him as the one who brings hope to the hopeless.

John 4:1-54 is the story of Jesus' encounter with the Samaritan woman at the well. The woman is an outcast in her society, due to her lifestyle and her status as a Samaritan. But Jesus engages her in conversation, offering her living water that will quench her thirst forever. The passage portrays Jesus as the one who brings hope to the hopeless, offering salvation and eternal life to those who are rejected by society.

Both Matthew 12 and John 4 emphasize Jesus' mission to bring hope to the hopeless, fulfilling the prophecy of the servant in Isaiah 42. Through his compassion, gentleness, and humility, Jesus offers salvation and new life to all who come to him, regardless of their background or status in society.

216. Isa. 42:4 The nations shall wait on His teachings John 12:20-26

Isaiah 42:4 prophesies that the servant of the Lord will bring justice to the nations, and that they will wait for his teachings. The passage emphasizes the global impact of the servant's mission, and how his teachings will be eagerly anticipated and followed by people from all nations.

In John 12:20-26, some Greeks who had come to worship at the Jewish festival in Jerusalem approached Philip and asked to see Jesus. Philip then told Andrew, and they both told Jesus. Jesus then responds by saying, "The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. Very truly I tell you, unless a kernel of wheat falls to the ground and dies, it remains only a single seed. But if it dies, it produces many seeds."

The passage highlights the universal nature of Jesus' mission, and how his teachings are not just for the Jewish people, but for people from all nations. Jesus' response to the Greeks suggests that his mission has a global impact, and that his teachings will be followed by people from all corners of the earth. The reference to the kernel of wheat falling to the ground and producing many seeds emphasizes the transformative power of Jesus' teachings and how they can multiply and spread to all nations.

In both Isaiah 42:4 and John 12:20-26, there is an emphasis on the global impact of the servant's teachings, and how people from all nations will follow and wait for his message. The passage in John suggests that Jesus fulfills the prophecy of the servant, and that his mission has a universal impact, bringing salvation and transformation to people from all nations.

217. Isa. 42:6 The Light (salvation) of the Gentiles Luke 2:32

Isaiah 42:6 in the Old Testament is a prophecy that speaks of a coming Messiah who will be a light to the nations. The verse says:

"I am the LORD; I have called you in righteousness; I will take you by the hand and keep you; I will give you as a covenant for the people, a light for the nations,"

This verse foretells that the Messiah will bring salvation not just to the Jewish people but to all nations. The phrase "light for the nations" refers to the Messiah's role in bringing spiritual enlightenment and salvation to people of all nations.

Luke 2:32 in the New Testament is a verse that is spoken by Simeon, a devout Jew who had been waiting for the promised Messiah. When he sees the infant Jesus, he proclaims:

"Lord, now you are letting your servant depart in peace, according to your word; for my eyes have seen your salvation that you have prepared in the presence of all peoples, a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and for glory to your people Israel."

This passage shows that Jesus is the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 42:6. Simeon recognizes that Jesus is not just the Messiah for the Jewish people but for all nations, and that he brings salvation and enlightenment to people of all backgrounds.

Together, these two passages emphasize the universal nature of the Messiah's mission and the salvation that he brings. The Messiah is not just for one nation or people, but for all people, and his light shines equally on all who receive him.

218. Isa. 42:1, 6 His is a worldwide compassion Matthew 28:19, 20

Isaiah 42:1,6 describe the servant of the Lord as one who will bring justice to the nations and be a light to the Gentiles. The passage emphasizes the worldwide scope of the servant's mission, and how his compassion will extend to all peoples, regardless of their background.

Matthew 28:19-20 is known as the Great Commission, where Jesus gives his disciples a mandate to go and make disciples of all nations. He says, "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age."

The passage in Matthew echoes the worldwide compassion of the servant in Isaiah 42, and emphasizes the universal scope of Jesus' mission. Jesus instructs his disciples to go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The emphasis is on the worldwide impact of the Gospel, and how it is to be shared with people from all nations.

Both passages emphasize the worldwide scope of the servant's mission and the Gospel message, and how the message of compassion and justice is not limited to a particular people or nation, but extends to all peoples. The servant and Jesus are portrayed as agents of global transformation, whose message of hope and salvation extends to all who are willing to receive it.

219. Isa. 42:7 Blind eyes opened. John 9:25-38

Isaiah 42:7 in the Old Testament is a prophecy that speaks of a coming Messiah who will bring spiritual enlightenment and healing to people. The verse says:

"To open the eyes that are blind, to bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, from the prison those who sit in darkness."

This verse foretells that the Messiah will open the eyes of the blind, both literally and metaphorically, bringing healing and spiritual freedom to those who are trapped in darkness and despair.

John 9:25-38 in the New Testament is a passage that describes an encounter between Jesus and a man who was born blind. After Jesus heals the man, the religious leaders question him about how he was healed, and the man testifies that Jesus is a prophet sent from God. When Jesus later reveals himself to the man as the Son of God, the man responds with faith and worship.

This passage shows that Jesus is the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 42:7. Jesus physically opens the eyes of the blind man, demonstrating his power and authority, and also brings spiritual enlightenment to the man and those who witness the miracle. The man's testimony about Jesus as a prophet and later as the Son of God shows that Jesus' mission was not just to perform miracles but to bring people to a deeper understanding of God's love and grace.

Together, these two passages emphasize the Messiah's role in bringing healing and spiritual enlightenment to people who are trapped in darkness and despair. The Messiah's power to open blind eyes is both physical and spiritual, and his mission is to bring people into a deeper relationship with God.

R. B. CHISHOLM JR. (2019): Isaiah 42:1-9 is the first of Isaiah’s so-called Servant Songs (Isa 42:1-9; 49:1-13; 50:4-9; 52:13–53:12). These Songs describe the ministry of an individual Servant, pictured as an ideal Israel, who leads sinful, exiled Israel out of bondage and back to its land. This Servant also establishes worldwide justice as he brings the Lord’s deliverance to the nations. The Lord ultimately exalts the Servant, but the Servant must first suffer humiliation on behalf of Israel and “the many” so that they may be reconciled to the Lord. In the progress of biblical revelation, we discover that Jesus the Messiah is the Servant depicted in this Song. The NT identifies Jesus as the Servant of Isaiah’s first Servant Song. Simeon identified the infant Jesus as the “light” of God’s revelation who would bring salvation to the nations (Lk 2:30, 32; cf. Isa 42:6-7). From the very beginning of His ministry, Jesus began to take this light to the Gentiles (Mt 4:23-25). At His baptism the divine Spirit came upon Jesus and God identified Him as His Son, in whom He delighted (Mt 3:17; Mk 1:11; cf. Isa 42:1). At the transfiguration, God identified Jesus as the one whom He had chosen (Lk 9:35; cf. Isa 42:1) and again declared that He was well pleased with Him (Mt 17:5; cf. Isa 42:1). Very early in His ministry, Jesus read from Isa 61:1-2 and identified Himself as the Spirit-empowered anointed one described there (Lk 4:16-21). Intertextual connections between this passage, which is Isaiah’s fifth Servant Song, and the first Servant Song make it clear that Jesus was identifying Himself as the Servant of the Lord described in Isaiah’s Servant Songs. When Jesus later retreated from the public eye, Matthew saw in this the fulfillment of Isa 42:2-3, which says the Servant would not promote himself (Mt 12:15-21). 2

J. F. Walvoord (2011): Isaiah presented the revelation concerning the Servant of the Lord. This passage describes Christ Himself: “Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen One in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him and he will bring justice to the nations. He will not shout or cry out, or raise his voice in the streets. A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out. In faithfulness he will bring forth justice; he will not falter or be discouraged till he establishes justice on earth. In his law the islands will put their hope” (vv. 1–4; cf. partial quotation of this in Matt. 12:18–21). This is the first presentation of Christ as “the servant” in contrast to Israel as the servant of God (Isa. 41:8; 42:19; 43:10; 44:1–2, 21; 45:4; 48:20). The “servant” in this section is none other than Christ Himself, though some regard it as a reference to Israel. This is the first of four songs presenting the Servant as Christ (42:1–9; 49:1–13; 50:4–11; 52:13–53:12). Israel was a blind servant in contrast to Christ, who will bring justice and restoration to the world (42:19). God as the Creator would be the One who gives life to His people (v. 5). God promised to take Israel by the hand, regard them as a covenant people, and make them “a light for the Gentiles” (v. 6). The fact that Christ will be a light to the Gentiles (v. 16) is mentioned in Luke 1:79. God will not only deliver the people as a whole but open individual eyes that were blind and free captives of sin. In keeping with this, in Isaiah a voice of praise to the Lord is recorded, and the Lord’s ultimate victory is described (vv. 10–13). This was fulfilled in Christ’s first coming and will be fulfilled in His second coming.30

220. Isa. 43:11 He is the only Saviour. Acts 4:12

Isaiah 43:11 declares that the Lord is the only savior and there is no other besides Him. The passage emphasizes the uniqueness and exclusivity of God as the only one who can offer salvation to humanity.

Acts 4:12 affirms this claim in the context of the early Christian community. The passage declares, "Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to mankind by which we must be saved." The passage emphasizes the exclusive role of Jesus Christ as the only way to salvation and eternal life.

Both Isaiah 43:11 and Acts 4:12 emphasize the exclusive and unique role of God and Jesus Christ as the only savior of humanity. The passages affirm that there is no other way to salvation besides God and Jesus Christ. This exclusive claim is a foundational belief of the Christian faith and underscores the importance of faith in Jesus as the only means of receiving salvation and eternal life.

221. Isa. 44:3 He will send the Spirit of God John 16:7, 13

Isaiah 44:3 in the Old Testament is a prophecy that speaks of a time when God will pour out his Spirit on his people. The verse says:

"For I will pour water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground; I will pour my Spirit upon your offspring, and my blessing on your descendants."

This verse foretells that God will send his Spirit to bring new life and blessings to his people, who are spiritually thirsty and in need of his grace.

John 16:7, 13 in the New Testament are verses spoken by Jesus to his disciples before his crucifixion. He tells them that he must leave them but that he will send the Holy Spirit to be with them and guide them. He says:

"Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you...When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come."

This passage shows that Jesus is the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 44:3. Jesus sends the Holy Spirit to his followers, who are spiritually thirsty and in need of guidance and wisdom. The Spirit guides them into all truth and helps them understand the things that Jesus has taught them.

Together, these two passages emphasize the importance of the Holy Spirit in the life of believers. The Holy Spirit is the source of spiritual life and blessings, and he guides believers into all truth and helps them understand God's will for their lives. Jesus' sending of the Holy Spirit is the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 44:3 and demonstrates God's continuing presence and work in the world.

222. Isa. 45:21-25 He is Lord and Saviour Philippians 3:20, Titus 2:13

Isaiah 45:21-25 emphasizes that the Lord God is the only true God and that there is no other God besides Him. The passage also highlights that God is the Savior of Israel and all who believe in Him. In verse 22, God invites all people from every nation to turn to Him and be saved, declaring that He alone is God and there is no other.

Philippians 3:20 states that our citizenship is in heaven and that we eagerly await a Savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ. This passage affirms the Christian belief that Jesus Christ is not only Lord, but also our Savior, who will save us from sin and grant us eternal life.

Titus 2:13 also affirms that Jesus is both our great God and Savior, and that we eagerly await His return. This passage highlights the unique role of Jesus as both God and Savior, and the Christian hope for His return and the fulfillment of His promises.

Both Philippians 3:20 and Titus 2:13 affirm the Christian belief that Jesus Christ is not only Lord, but also our Savior. They echo the message of Isaiah 45:21-25, which declares that the Lord God is the only true God and Savior, and that salvation comes through Him alone. These passages emphasize the importance of faith in Jesus Christ as the means of receiving salvation and eternal life.

223. Isa. 45:23 He will be the Judge John 5:22; Romans 14:11

Isaiah 45:23 in the Old Testament is a prophecy that speaks of a coming judgment day when God will be the ultimate judge. The verse says:

"By myself I have sworn; from my mouth has gone out in righteousness a word that shall not return: 'To me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear allegiance.'"

This verse foretells that God will be the final judge of all people and that everyone will bow before him and acknowledge his authority.

John 5:22 and Romans 14:11 in the New Testament are verses that speak of Jesus as the ultimate judge. In John 5:22, Jesus says:

"The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son."

This passage shows that Jesus has been given the authority to judge all people by his Father. In Romans 14:11, the apostle Paul quotes Isaiah 45:23 and applies it to Jesus, saying:

"For it is written, 'As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.'"

This passage shows that Jesus is the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 45:23. He is the ultimate judge to whom every knee will bow and every tongue will confess.

Together, these passages emphasize the importance of judgment and the ultimate authority of God and Jesus. God is the ultimate judge, and Jesus has been given the authority to judge all people on his behalf. The prophecies in Isaiah 45:23 find their fulfillment in Jesus, who will judge all people with righteousness and justice.

224. Isa. 46:9, 10 Declares things not yet done John 13:19

Isaiah 46:9-10 says, "Remember the former things of old; for I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me, declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient times things not yet done, saying, 'My counsel shall stand, and I will accomplish all my purpose.'"

This passage speaks of God's ability to know the future and to bring about His plans and purposes in history. It emphasizes God's sovereignty and His unique position as the only true God.

John 13:19 is spoken by Jesus to His disciples during the Last Supper, shortly before His arrest and crucifixion. He says, "I am telling you this now, before it takes place, that when it does take place you may believe that I am he."

In this passage, Jesus is telling His disciples that He knows what is about to happen, that He will be betrayed and crucified, and He is revealing this information to them so that they will believe in Him when it comes to pass.

So while Isaiah 46:9-10 speaks of God's ability to declare the end from the beginning and bring about His purposes in history, John 13:19 shows Jesus' knowledge of specific events that were about to take place and His desire for His disciples to believe in Him.




225. Isa. 48:12 The First and the Last John 1:30, Revelation 1:8, 17

Isaiah 48:12 refers to God as the "First and the Last", emphasizing His eternal nature and sovereignty over all things. The passage declares that God is the one who created the heavens and the earth, and that His hand laid the foundation of the earth.

John 1:30 refers to Jesus Christ as the "Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world." Although this passage does not use the exact phrase "First and the Last", it emphasizes the unique role of Jesus as the one who existed before all things and through whom all things were made. It also underscores the importance of Jesus as the means of salvation for all who believe in Him.

Revelation 1:8 and 17 both use the phrase "First and the Last" in reference to Jesus Christ. In Revelation 1:8, Jesus declares Himself as the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end, who is, and who was, and who is to come. In Revelation 1:17, Jesus appears to John in a vision and identifies Himself as the First and the Last, the Living One who was dead and now lives forever.

Taken together, John 1:30 and Revelation 1:8 and 17 affirm the unique and eternal nature of Jesus Christ, and His identity as the "First and the Last" who existed before all things and through whom all things were made. These passages underscore the importance of faith in Jesus Christ as the means of receiving salvation and eternal life, and emphasize His sovereign and eternal nature as the one who is, who was, and who is to come.

THE FIRST AND THE LAST
“Who has performed and done it, Calling the generations from the beginning? ‘I, the Lord, am THE FIRST; And with THE LAST I am He.’” Isaiah‬ ‭41:4‬
““Thus says the Lord, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer, the Lord of hosts: ‘I am THE FIRST and I am THE LAST; Besides Me there is no God.” Isaiah‬ ‭44:6‬
““Listen to Me, O Jacob, And Israel, My called: I am He, I am THE FIRST, I am also THE LAST.” Isaiah‬ ‭48:12‬

“saying, “I am THE ALPHA and THE OMEGA, THE FIRST and THE LAST,” and, “What you see, write in a book and send it to the seven churches which are in Asia: to Ephesus, to Smyrna, to Pergamos, to Thyatira, to Sardis, to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.”” Revelation‬ ‭1:11
“And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. But He laid His right hand on me, saying to me, “Do not be afraid; I am THE FIRST and THE LAST. I am He who lives, AND WAS DEAD(Jesus), and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. And I have the keys of Hades and of Death.” Revelation‬ ‭1:17-18
““And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write, ‘These things says THE FIRST and THE LAST, who WAS DEAD, and came to life:” Revelation‬ ‭2:8
I am THE ALPHA and THE OMEGA, the Beginning and the End, the FIRST and THE LAST.” Revelation 22:13

226. Isa. 48:16, 17 He came as a Teacher John 3:2

Isaiah 48:16-17 says, "Come near to me and listen to this: From the first announcement I have not spoken in secret; at the time it happens, I am there." And now the Sovereign LORD has sent me, endowed with his Spirit. This is what the LORD says—your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel: "I am the LORD your God, who teaches you what is best for you, who directs you in the way you should go."

This passage in Isaiah is referring to the prophet being sent by God to teach and guide the people of Israel. It is a reminder that God has been speaking to His people all along, and that He is always present with them.

In John 3:2, it says, "He came to Jesus at night and said, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher who has come from God. For no one could perform the signs you are doing if God were not with him.”"

This passage is referring to Nicodemus, a Pharisee who came to Jesus at night to ask Him questions. Nicodemus recognized that Jesus was a teacher who had come from God because of the signs and miracles that He had performed.

While there is no direct connection between these two passages, they both emphasize the importance of having a teacher who comes from God. In Isaiah, the prophet is sent by God to teach and guide the people of Israel, while in John, Nicodemus recognizes Jesus as a teacher who has come from God because of the signs and miracles that He has performed. Both passages remind us of the importance of seeking knowledge and guidance from those who are sent by God.

227. Isa. 49:1 Called from the womb-His humanity Matthew 1:18

Isaiah 49:1 speaks of the servant of the Lord, who is called from the womb to be a servant of God. This passage emphasizes the divine calling of the servant from before his birth, and his unique role as a servant of God.

Matthew 1:18 describes the birth of Jesus Christ, and emphasizes His humanity. This passage states that Jesus was born of the virgin Mary, and that He was conceived by the Holy Spirit. It underscores the fact that Jesus was fully human, with a physical body and a human nature.

While there are differences in the context and focus of these two passages, they both emphasize the human aspect of the servant of the Lord and Jesus Christ. Isaiah 49:1 highlights the divine calling of the servant from before his birth, while Matthew 1:18 emphasizes the human birth of Jesus Christ. Together, these passages affirm the humanity of Jesus, while also acknowledging His unique divine calling and role as the servant of the Lord who would bring salvation to the world.

228. Isa. 49:5 A Servant from the womb. Luke 1:31, Philippians 2:7

Isaiah 49:5 says, "And now the LORD says— he who formed me in the womb to be his servant to bring Jacob back to him and gather Israel to himself, for I am honored in the eyes of the LORD and my God has been my strength."

This passage is referring to the Servant of the Lord, who was chosen by God before he was even born to bring the people of Israel back to God. The Servant is described as being formed in the womb to be God's servant, and is honored by God and strengthened by Him.

In Luke 1:31, the angel Gabriel says to Mary, "You will conceive and give birth to a son, and you are to call him Jesus." This passage refers to the birth of Jesus, who was also a servant of God. Like the Servant in Isaiah, Jesus was chosen by God to carry out His plan of salvation for all people.

In Philippians 2:7, it says that Jesus "made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness." This passage emphasizes the humility of Jesus, who willingly took on the role of a servant in order to fulfill God's plan of salvation.

While there are no direct connections between these passages, they all emphasize the idea of a servant who was chosen by God to carry out His plan. In Isaiah, the Servant is formed in the womb to bring the people of Israel back to God. In Luke, Jesus is conceived by the Holy Spirit and born to Mary to fulfill God's plan of salvation. And in Philippians, Jesus willingly takes on the role of a servant in order to carry out God's plan. All three passages emphasize the importance of submitting to God's will and carrying out His plan, even if it requires humility and sacrifice.

229. Isa. 49:6 He will restore Israel Acts 3:19-21; 15:16-17

Isaiah 49:6 speaks of the servant of the Lord being given as a covenant for the people, to restore the land and bring salvation to the ends of the earth. This passage highlights the hope that God's people would be restored and redeemed, through the work of the servant.

Acts 3:19-21 speaks of the promise of restoration, and affirms that Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of that promise. This passage encourages the people to repent, so that their sins may be wiped out, and to turn to Jesus Christ as the one who was promised by the prophets. Acts 15:16-17 also affirms that God is restoring His people, and quotes from Amos 9:11-12 to emphasize the fact that the Gentiles will also be included in this restoration.

Taken together, these passages affirm the hope of restoration for God's people, and emphasize the role of Jesus Christ in fulfilling that promise. They highlight the unique work of the servant of the Lord in bringing salvation to all people, and emphasize the importance of faith in Jesus Christ as the means of receiving this salvation and being included in the restoration of God's people.

230. Isa. 49:6 He is Salvation for Israel Luke 2:29-32

Isaiah 49:6 says, "It is too small a thing for you to be my servant to restore the tribes of Jacob and bring back those of Israel I have kept. I will also make you a light for the Gentiles, that my salvation may reach to the ends of the earth."

This passage is a continuation of the prophecy about the Servant of the Lord. Here, it is revealed that the Servant's mission is not only to restore the tribes of Jacob and bring back the people of Israel, but also to be a light for the Gentiles, bringing salvation to the ends of the earth.

In Luke 2:29-32, Simeon, a devout man who was waiting for the Messiah, takes the infant Jesus in his arms and says, "Sovereign Lord, as you have promised, you may now dismiss your servant in peace. For my eyes have seen your salvation, which you have prepared in the sight of all nations: a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and the glory of your people Israel."

This passage emphasizes the universality of Jesus' mission, as Simeon recognizes that Jesus is the salvation of God not only for the people of Israel, but for all nations. Like the prophecy in Isaiah, Jesus is described as a light for revelation to the Gentiles.

Therefore, while these two passages are not directly connected, they share a common theme of the universality of God's salvation. The prophecy in Isaiah anticipates the mission of the Servant of the Lord, who will be a light for the Gentiles and bring salvation to the ends of the earth. In Luke, Simeon recognizes that Jesus is the fulfillment of this prophecy, and that through Him, God's salvation has come to all nations.

231. Isa. 49:6 He is the Light of the Gentiles John 8:12, Acts 13:47

Isaiah 49:6 declares that the servant of the Lord will be a light for the nations, so that God's salvation may reach to the ends of the earth. This passage emphasizes the universality of the servant's mission, and his role in bringing salvation to all people.

In John 8:12, Jesus declares Himself to be the light of the world. He emphasizes the importance of following Him, as those who do will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life. This passage emphasizes the unique role of Jesus in bringing light and life to all people, and highlights the importance of faith in Him as the means of receiving this light and life.

In Acts 13:47, Paul and Barnabas quote from Isaiah 49:6 to emphasize the universal nature of God's salvation through Jesus Christ. They affirm that Jesus is the fulfillment of the promise made to the fathers, and that through Him, forgiveness of sins and justification are available to all who believe. This passage underscores the importance of faith in Jesus Christ as the means of receiving salvation, and highlights His unique role as the light of the nations.

Taken together, these passages emphasize the universal nature of God's salvation through Jesus Christ, and highlight His unique role as the light of the world and the nations. They underscore the importance of faith in Him as the means of receiving salvation and being included in God's plan of redemption for all people.

232. Isa. 49:6 He is Salvation unto the ends of the earth Acts 15:7-18

Isaiah 49:6 says, "It is too small a thing for you to be my servant to restore the tribes of Jacob and bring back those of Israel I have kept. I will also make you a light for the Gentiles, that my salvation may reach to the ends of the earth."

This passage is a prophecy about the Servant of the Lord, who is sent by God not only to restore the tribes of Jacob and bring back the people of Israel, but also to be a light for the Gentiles, bringing salvation to the ends of the earth.

In Acts 15:7-18, Peter is speaking to the apostles and elders in Jerusalem about the conversion of the Gentiles. He declares that God had chosen him to preach the gospel to the Gentiles and that God had given them the Holy Spirit, just as He had given to the Jews. Peter concludes by saying, "that through my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel and believe. And God, who knows the heart, bore witness to them, by giving them the Holy Spirit just as he did to us, and he made no distinction between us and them, having cleansed their hearts by faith."

This passage emphasizes the universality of the gospel message, that it is for both Jews and Gentiles, and that God makes no distinction between them. Peter's message is consistent with the prophecy in Isaiah, that God's salvation would reach to the ends of the earth, and that the Servant of the Lord would be a light for the Gentiles.

Therefore, while these two passages are not directly connected, they share a common theme of the universality of God's salvation. The prophecy in Isaiah anticipates the mission of the Servant of the Lord, who will be a light for the Gentiles and bring salvation to the ends of the earth. In Acts, Peter affirms that the gospel message is for all people, both Jews and Gentiles, and that God's salvation is not limited to any particular group or nation.

233. Isa. 49:7 He is despised of the Nation John 1:11; 8:48-49; 19:14-15

The prophecy in Isaiah 49:7 describes the servant of the Lord as one who is despised and abhorred by the nation of Israel. This passage emphasizes the rejection and persecution that the servant would face, despite his faithful service to God.

In John 1:11, the Gospel writer affirms that Jesus came to his own people, but they did not receive Him. The Jewish leaders questioned Jesus' authority in John 8:48-49, and in John 19:14-15, they demanded that Jesus be crucified, declaring that they had no king but Caesar. These passages highlight the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 49:7, as Jesus was rejected, despised, and ultimately crucified by His own people.

While the rejection and persecution of Jesus by the Jewish leaders was a tragic and unjust event, it ultimately played a crucial role in God's plan of salvation for all people. Through His death and resurrection, Jesus overcame sin and death, and made a way for all people to be reconciled to God. The rejection and persecution that Jesus faced serves as a powerful reminder of the suffering that can come with faithful service to God, and of the ultimate triumph of God's plan of redemption for all people.

R. B. CHISHOLM JR. (2019): Isaiah 49:1-13 is the second of Isaiah’s so-called Servant Songs (Isa 42:1-9; 49:1-13; 50:4-9; 52:13–53:12). These Songs describe the ministry of an ideal Israel, an individual who leads sinful, exiled Israel out of bondage and back to its land. This Servant also establishes worldwide justice as he brings the Lord’s deliverance to the nations. The Lord ultimately exalts the Servant, but the Servant must first suffer humiliation on behalf of Israel and “the many” so that they may be reconciled to the Lord. In the progress of biblical revelation, we discover that Jesus the Messiah is the Servant depicted in this Song. of the earth. He tells them of his commission as the Lord’s Servant. He is to mediate a covenant on behalf of the Lord’s exiled people, rescue them from their foreign imprisonment, and lead them home. But the Servant’s mission is not limited to Israel. He will also take the light of God’s salvation to the nations, prompting their kings to honor him. This second Servant Song identifies the Servant specifically as Israel (Isa 49:3). Yet the Servant cannot simply be equated with exiled Israel. Because he delivers exiled Israel from bondage, he must be distinct. He is best identified as an ideal Israel, who restores sinful, exiled Israel to a covenant relationship with the Lord and carries out the Lord’s original design for Israel by extending His salvation to the nations. The NT identifies Jesus as the Servant of Isaiah’s second Servant Song. Simeon identified the infant Jesus as the “light” of God’s revelation who would bring salvation to the nations (Lk 2:30, 32; cf. Isa 49:6). Paul later identified Jesus as this light and viewed his own ministry as taking this light to the nations. Very early in His ministry Jesus read from Isa 61:1-2 and identified Himself as the one who speaks in that passage (cf. Lk 4:16-21). Like the Servant of the Second Song, He will release prisoners (cf. Isa 49:8-13 with Isa 61:1). The apostle John later applied the language of the second Servant Song to the salvation of a multitude from many nations (Rev 7:16-17).2

234. Isa. 50:3 Heaven is clothed in black at His humiliation Luke 23:44, 45

Isaiah 50:3 says, "I clothe the heavens with blackness and make sackcloth their covering because of the Lord's fierce anger."

This passage is part of the suffering servant songs in Isaiah, where the servant is described as experiencing humiliation and suffering. The reference to the heavens being clothed in blackness and sackcloth is a metaphorical description of the darkness and despair that accompanies the servant's suffering.

In Luke 23:44-45, it says, "It was now about noon, and darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon, for the sun stopped shining. And the curtain of the temple was torn in two." This passage describes the darkness that covered the land when Jesus was on the cross. The tearing of the temple curtain symbolizes the end of the Old Testament system of worship and the beginning of a new era of salvation through Christ's sacrifice.

The connection between these two passages is that both describe a moment of darkness and mourning. In Isaiah, the blackness of the heavens is a sign of God's fierce anger, while in Luke, the darkness is a physical manifestation of the cosmic significance of Jesus' death. The tearing of the temple curtain symbolizes the opening of a new way to God, through Christ, and the end of the old way of worship.

Therefore, while these two passages are not directly connected, they share a common theme of the darkness that accompanies moments of great significance in God's plan of salvation. The darkness in Isaiah symbolizes God's anger, while the darkness in Luke represents the cosmic significance of Jesus' death and the beginning of a new era of salvation.

235. Isa. 50:4 He is a learned counselor for the weary Matthew 7:29; 11:28, 29

Isaiah 50:4 describes the servant of the Lord as one who is taught by God and speaks with wisdom and understanding. This passage emphasizes the servant's role as a counselor and teacher, who offers comfort and guidance to those who are weary and burdened.

In Matthew 7:29, the crowds are amazed at Jesus' teaching, noting that He teaches with authority, and not as the scribes. Jesus' teaching is grounded in a deep understanding of God's will and purpose, and His words carry great weight and power.

In Matthew 11:28-29, Jesus invites all who are weary and burdened to come to Him for rest. He promises to take upon Himself the yoke of His disciples, offering to teach them and guide them along the path of life. This passage highlights the unique role of Jesus as a teacher and counselor, who offers rest and comfort to all who seek Him.

Taken together, these passages emphasize the importance of seeking counsel and guidance from God, and highlight the unique role of Jesus as a wise and compassionate teacher. They underscore the importance of faith in Jesus as the means of finding rest and comfort for our weary souls, and of following His teaching as the path to a life of true fulfillment and joy.

236. Isa. 50:5 The Servant bound willingly to obedience Matthew 26:39

Isaiah 50:5 is a verse in the "suffering servant" section of the book of Isaiah. It says, "The Sovereign Lord has opened my ears; I have not been rebellious, I have not turned away."

This verse is a description of the servant's willing obedience to God. The servant is attentive to God's voice and has not rebelled against His commands.

In Matthew 26:39, Jesus is in the garden of Gethsemane, praying before his arrest and crucifixion. He says, "My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will."

This passage shows Jesus' willingness to submit to the will of God, even though he knows that it will involve great suffering. Jesus knows that his death on the cross is necessary for the salvation of humanity, and he willingly submits to God's plan.

The connection between these two passages is that both describe the servant's willingness to obey God, even when it involves great suffering. The servant in Isaiah is obedient and attentive to God's voice, and Jesus in Matthew willingly submits to the will of God, even though it means going to the cross.

Therefore, these two passages are connected in their portrayal of the servant's obedience to God. Both emphasize the importance of obedience to God's will, even when it involves suffering and sacrifice.

237. Isa. 50:6 “I gave my back to the smiters.” Matthew 27:26

Isaiah 50:6 describes the servant of the Lord as one who willingly submits to suffering and humiliation, offering His back to those who would strike Him. This passage highlights the servant's willingness to endure great pain and injustice for the sake of others.

In Matthew 27:26, we see the fulfillment of this prophecy in the account of Jesus' trial before Pilate. After being scourged, Jesus is handed over to the soldiers, who continue to beat Him and mock Him. This passage emphasizes the depth of suffering that Jesus endured on behalf of all people, willingly submitting to great pain and humiliation for the sake of our salvation.

The willingness of Jesus to suffer and die on the cross stands as a powerful reminder of God's love and grace for all people. It is through His sacrifice that we are able to be reconciled to God and to receive the gift of eternal life. The fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 50:6 underscores the faithfulness and courage of Jesus, and the depth of His love for all people.

238. Isa. 50:6 He was smitten on the cheeks Matthew 26:67

Isaiah 50:6 is a verse in the "suffering servant" section of the book of Isaiah. It says, "I offered my back to those who beat me, my cheeks to those who pulled out my beard; I did not hide my face from mocking and spitting."

This verse is a description of the servant's suffering, humiliation, and willingness to endure it for the sake of God's plan. The servant is willing to endure physical violence, mockery, and ridicule, without retaliation.

In Matthew 26:67, after Jesus is arrested, he is brought before the Sanhedrin, where he is mocked and beaten. It says, "Then they spat in His face and beat Him with their fists; and others slapped Him."

This passage describes the physical violence that Jesus endured at the hands of his captors. They not only beat him with their fists but also spit in his face and slapped him, as a sign of disrespect and mockery.

The connection between these two passages is that they both describe the physical violence and humiliation that the servant endures for the sake of God's plan. The servant in Isaiah willingly endures physical abuse, while Jesus in Matthew endures it as part of his arrest and trial.

Therefore, these two passages are connected in their portrayal of the servant's suffering and willingness to endure it for the sake of God's plan. They both demonstrate the servant's willingness to endure physical abuse and humiliation without retaliation, as part of their obedience to God's will.

239. Isa. 50:6 He was spat upon Matthew 27:30

Isaiah 50:6 describes the servant of the Lord as one who endures great humiliation, including being spat upon. This passage emphasizes the servant's willingness to suffer indignity and contempt for the sake of others.

In Matthew 27:30, we see the fulfillment of this prophecy in the account of Jesus' trial before Pilate. After being mocked and beaten, the soldiers continue to humiliate Jesus, spitting on Him and striking Him with a reed. This passage underscores the depth of contempt and ridicule that Jesus endured in His mission to save humanity.

The willingness of Jesus to suffer such indignity and abuse speaks to the depths of His love for all people. It is through His sacrifice that we are able to be reconciled to God and to receive the gift of eternal life. The fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 50:6 underscores the faithfulness and courage of Jesus, and the depth of His love for all people, even in the face of great humiliation and suffering.

E. E. JOHNSON (2019): One of the mysteries in the history of creation is God’s permission of a darkened world for humanity. Although Israel was chosen to serve as a light to the nations in darkness (Gn 12:3; Ex 19:4-6), Isa 6 indicates that Israel too was blinded and deepened in the same darkness. Only the Servant will avoid sin, and this testimony discloses how that would happen (50:4-9). That testimony is followed by a word of caution from the prophet for those who fear the Lord in a dark world and those who choose to make their own light (apart from the Lord) in the darkness (50:10-11). The prophet clarifies the two options for them—to listen to the testimony of the Servant or to attempt to enlighten a direction for themselves.2

240. Isa. 52:7 Published good tidings upon mountains Matthew 5:12; 15:29; 28:16

Isaiah 52:7 says, "How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him who brings good news, who publishes peace, who brings good news of happiness, who publishes salvation, who says to Zion, 'Your God reigns.'"

This verse is a proclamation of the coming of the Messiah and the good news of salvation that he brings. It speaks of a messenger who proclaims this good news from the mountaintops, bringing joy and peace to those who hear it.

In Matthew 5:12, Jesus speaks of the rewards that await those who suffer persecution for his sake. He says, "Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you."

In Matthew 15:29, Jesus travels to the Sea of Galilee and heals many people. It says, "And Jesus went on from there and walked beside the Sea of Galilee. And he went up on the mountain and sat down there."

In Matthew 28:16, after Jesus' resurrection, he appears to his disciples on a mountain in Galilee. It says, "Now the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directed them."

These passages in Matthew all involve mountains, which can be seen as a connection to the verse in Isaiah, which speaks of the messenger who proclaims good news from the mountaintops. In Matthew 5:12, Jesus speaks of the reward for those who proclaim the good news in the face of persecution. In Matthew 15:29 and 28:16, Jesus is on a mountain, teaching and appearing to his disciples after his resurrection.

Therefore, while these passages in Matthew are not a direct reference to Isaiah 52:7, they share a connection in their use of mountains as a setting for teaching, healing, and proclamation of the good news. They all demonstrate the importance of proclaiming the good news and the rewards that come with faithful obedience to God's will.




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241. Isa. 52:13 The Servant exalted Acts 1:8-11; Eph. 1:19-22, Php. 2:5-9

Isaiah 52:13 speaks of the exaltation of the servant of the Lord, which finds fulfillment in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. This passage emphasizes the servant's ultimate triumph over sin and death, and His exaltation to a place of glory and honor.

In Acts 1:8-11, we see Jesus' ascension into heaven, where He is seated at the right hand of God, fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah 52:13. Jesus is exalted above all other powers and authorities, and given the name that is above every name (Philippians 2:5-9). This passage emphasizes the supreme authority and power of Jesus, and His ultimate triumph over sin and death.

In Ephesians 1:19-22, we see the fulfillment of Isaiah 52:13 in the exaltation of Jesus as the head of the church, and the ruler of all things. This passage emphasizes the centrality of Jesus in the plan of salvation, and His ultimate triumph over all powers and authorities.

The fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 52:13 underscores the power and authority of Jesus, and the ultimate triumph of His mission to save humanity. Through His life, death, and resurrection, Jesus has been exalted to a place of honor and glory, and His name is above every name. This passage speaks to the depth of God's love and grace for all people, and the power of the gospel to transform lives and bring hope to all who believe.

242. Isa. 52:14 The Servant shockingly abused Luke 18:31-34; Mt. 26:67, 68

Isaiah 52:14 says, "As many were astonished at you— his appearance was so marred, beyond human semblance, and his form beyond that of the children of mankind—"

This verse is a prophecy of the suffering and abuse that the Servant will endure. It speaks of the Servant's appearance being so marred and disfigured that people will be astonished at it.

In Luke 18:31-34, Jesus tells his disciples that he will be delivered to the Gentiles, mocked, shamefully treated, spit on, and killed, but on the third day, he will rise. The disciples did not understand what Jesus was telling them, and his words were hidden from them.

In Matthew 26:67-68, after Jesus is arrested, he is brought before the Sanhedrin, where he is mocked, spat upon, and beaten. It says, "Then they spat in his face and struck him with their fists. Others slapped him and said, 'Prophesy to us, Messiah. Who hit you?'"

These passages in Luke and Matthew describe the shockingly abusive treatment that Jesus endured, which fulfilled the prophecy in Isaiah 52:14. Jesus' appearance was so marred and disfigured that people were astonished at it. He was mocked, beaten, spat upon, and ultimately killed.

Therefore, these passages are connected in their portrayal of the Servant's suffering and abuse. Isaiah 52:14 prophesies the Servant's appearance being so marred that people will be astonished at it, while Luke 18:31-34 and Matthew 26:67-68 describe the shocking abuse that Jesus endured. Together, these passages demonstrate the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus' suffering and abuse, as well as his willingness to endure it for the sake of God's plan.

243. Isa. 52:15 Nations startled by message of the Servant Luke 18:31-34; Mt. 26:67, 68

Isaiah 52:15 speaks of the impact of the servant's message on the nations, causing them to be startled and amazed. This passage emphasizes the power and authority of the servant's message, which has the ability to transform lives and bring hope to all who hear it.

In Luke 18:31-34, Jesus predicts His own death and resurrection, which startles and confuses His disciples. This passage underscores the depth of Jesus' love and commitment to His mission, even in the face of great opposition and suffering.

In Matthew 26:67-68, we see the fulfillment of Isaiah 52:15 in the reaction of the religious leaders and others who witnessed Jesus' trial before the Sanhedrin. Jesus' message and claims startled and offended them, leading them to mock and abuse Him. This passage underscores the depth of opposition and rejection that Jesus faced in His mission to save humanity.

The fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 52:15 underscores the power and authority of the servant's message, which has the ability to transform lives and bring hope to all who hear it. Despite the opposition and rejection that Jesus faced, His message continues to have a powerful impact on people around the world today, inspiring faith, hope, and love.

244. Isa. 52:15 His blood shed sprinkles nations Hebrews 9:13-14, Rev. 1:5

Isaiah 52:15 says, "so shall he sprinkle many nations. Kings shall shut their mouths because of him, for that which has not been told them they see, and that which they have not heard they understand."

This verse speaks of the Servant's sacrificial death and how it will bring salvation to many nations. The act of sprinkling is often associated with the shedding of blood in the Old Testament, and this verse suggests that the Servant's blood will be shed and that it will have a purifying effect on many nations.

In Hebrews 9:13-14, the author compares the blood of animals that were sacrificed in the Old Testament with the blood of Christ, which was shed for the forgiveness of sins. It says, "For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the sprinkling of defiled persons with the ashes of a heifer, sanctify for the purification of the flesh, how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our conscience from dead works to serve the living God."

Revelation 1:5 also speaks of the purifying power of Christ's blood. It says, "and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood."

Therefore, while Hebrews 9:13-14 and Revelation 1:5 do not directly reference Isaiah 52:15, they do speak of the purifying power of Christ's blood and how it was shed for the forgiveness of sins. This aligns with the prophecy in Isaiah that the Servant's blood would be shed and that it would have a purifying effect on many nations. Together, these passages demonstrate the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus' sacrificial death and the salvation that it brings to all who believe.

245. Isa. 53:1 His people would not believe Him John 12:37-38

Isaiah 53:1 prophesies that the servant would not be believed by his own people. This passage highlights the rejection and unbelief that the servant would experience despite his teachings and miracles.

In John 12:37-38, the apostle records that although Jesus had performed many miracles in the presence of the people, they did not believe in Him. This passage is a fulfillment of Isaiah 53:1, indicating that Jesus' own people, the Jews, did not recognize Him as the Messiah, despite the evidence of His miracles and teachings.

The unbelief of the people of Jesus' time is a reminder of the need for faith and trust in God's plan, even when it does not align with our expectations or desires. Jesus' ministry and message were not well-received by many of His contemporaries, but His sacrifice on the cross ultimately brought salvation to all who would believe in Him.

Today, we are called to believe in Jesus as the Messiah and to put our faith in Him for salvation. Though we may face opposition and rejection, we can trust in God's plan and rest in the assurance that Jesus has overcome the world.

246. Isa. 53:2 Appearance of an ordinary man Philippians 2:6-8

Isaiah 53:2 says, "He had no form or majesty that we should look at him, and no beauty that we should desire him."

This verse describes the Servant's physical appearance as unremarkable and ordinary. It suggests that the Servant did not possess the kind of beauty or majesty that would draw people's attention to him.

Philippians 2:6-8 speaks of Jesus Christ, who is identified elsewhere in the New Testament as the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy about the Servant. In Philippians 2:6-8, it says, "who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross."

This passage describes the humility of Christ, who despite being equal with God, took on the form of a servant and was born as a man. The emphasis on his humanity and his willingness to humble himself aligns with the description of the Servant in Isaiah 53:2, who is portrayed as having an unremarkable physical appearance.

Therefore, while Philippians 2:6-8 does not directly reference Isaiah 53:2, it does speak of Christ's humility and willingness to take on the form of a servant. This aligns with the prophecy in Isaiah that the Servant would have no form or majesty that would draw people's attention to him. Together, these passages demonstrate the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus Christ's life and ministry.

247. Isa. 53:3 Despised Luke 4:28-29

Isaiah 53:3 prophesies that the servant would be despised and rejected by men. This passage underscores the depth of the servant's suffering and the extent of the rejection and scorn that he would experience.

In Luke 4:28-29, we see the fulfillment of this prophecy as Jesus is rejected by the people of His hometown, Nazareth. Despite the wisdom and power that Jesus demonstrated in His teachings and miracles, the people were offended by His claims and attempted to throw Him off a cliff.

The rejection and disdain that Jesus experienced during His earthly ministry is a reminder of the depth of His love and commitment to His mission. Though He was despised and rejected by many, Jesus remained steadfast in His mission to seek and save the lost, ultimately sacrificing Himself on the cross for the sins of the world.

Today, we are called to follow in the footsteps of Jesus, bearing witness to His truth and love even in the face of opposition and rejection. We can take comfort in the knowledge that Jesus understands our suffering and is with us always, even in the midst of our darkest trials.

248. Isa. 53:3 Rejected Matthew 27:21-23

Isaiah 53:3 says, "He was despised and rejected by men, a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; and as one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not."

This verse describes the rejection that the Servant would experience, being despised and rejected by men. It portrays the Servant as a man of sorrows and grief, who would not be esteemed by others.

Matthew 27:21-23 records the moment when Pilate offered to release either Jesus or Barabbas, a notorious criminal, to the crowd. In response, the crowd demanded that Barabbas be released and Jesus be crucified. It says, "The governor again said to them, ‘Which of the two do you want me to release to you?’ And they said, ‘Barabbas!’ Pilate said to them, ‘Then what shall I do with Jesus who is called Christ?’ They all said, ‘Let him be crucified!’ And he said, ‘Why? What evil has he done?’ But they shouted all the more, ‘Let him be crucified!’"

This passage highlights the rejection that Jesus faced from the people, who chose to release a criminal instead of him and demanded his crucifixion. This rejection aligns with the prophecy in Isaiah 53:3, which describes the Servant as being despised and rejected by men.

Therefore, Matthew 27:21-23 is a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:3, as it describes the rejection that Jesus faced at the hands of the people. It demonstrates the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus Christ's life and ministry.

249. Isa. 53:3 Great sorrow and grief Matthew 26:37-38, Luke 19:41, Heb. 4:15

Isaiah 53:3 prophesies that the servant would experience great sorrow and grief. This passage emphasizes the depth of the servant's suffering and the intense emotional pain that he would endure.

In Matthew 26:37-38, we see the fulfillment of this prophecy as Jesus experiences deep sorrow and distress in the Garden of Gethsemane. Knowing the suffering and death that awaited Him, Jesus cried out to God in anguish, asking that the cup of suffering be taken from Him.

Similarly, in Luke 19:41, we see Jesus weeping over the city of Jerusalem, knowing the destruction and suffering that would come upon the people. These passages reveal the depth of Jesus' love and compassion for humanity, even in the face of rejection and scorn.

The writer of Hebrews also affirms that Jesus understands our sorrow and grief, having experienced them Himself during His earthly life (Hebrews 4:15). This reassurance provides comfort and hope for all who are struggling with emotional pain and turmoil.

Today, we can take comfort in the knowledge that Jesus understands our suffering and is with us in our times of grief and sorrow. We can draw near to Him in prayer and find comfort and healing in His love and grace.



250. Isa. 53:3 Men hide from being associated with Him Mark 14:50-52

Isaiah 53:3 prophesies that the servant would be despised and rejected by men. This rejection is seen in the fulfillment of the prophecy when Jesus was betrayed by one of his disciples and arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane.

In Mark 14:50-52, we see that when Jesus was arrested, all of his disciples fled, leaving him alone. In this moment, Jesus was abandoned by those who had been closest to him, fulfilling the prophecy that he would be rejected by men.

The fear and shame that the disciples felt in association with Jesus reveals the depth of their rejection of him. In that moment, they were not willing to risk their own safety and security to stand with Jesus, and so they fled and hid from him.

Today, we can be challenged by this example to consider our own willingness to stand with Jesus in the face of rejection and persecution. We can draw strength from his example and trust in his promise to be with us always, even in the darkest moments of our lives.

251. Isa. 53:4 He would have a healing ministry Matthew 8:16-17

Isaiah 53:4 says, "Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we esteemed him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted."

This verse describes the Servant as one who would bear the griefs and sorrows of others, implying a healing ministry. It suggests that the Servant would take on the burdens of others and offer relief from their pain and suffering.

Matthew 8:16-17 records Jesus' healing ministry, saying, "That evening they brought to him many who were oppressed by demons, and he cast out the spirits with a word and healed all who were sick. This was to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah: ‘He took our illnesses and bore our diseases.’"

This passage quotes from Isaiah 53:4 and applies it to Jesus' healing ministry, emphasizing that Jesus was the fulfillment of the prophecy. By healing the sick and casting out demons, Jesus demonstrated his authority and power over illness and spiritual oppression, fulfilling the prophecy that the Servant would have a healing ministry.

Therefore, Matthew 8:16-17 is a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:4, as it describes Jesus' healing ministry and applies the prophecy directly to him. It demonstrates the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus Christ's life and ministry.

252. Isa. 53:4 Thought to be cursed by God Matthew 26:66; 27:41-43

Isaiah 53:4 prophesies that the servant would be "despised and rejected by men, a man of sorrows, and familiar with suffering." This rejection and suffering would lead some to believe that he was cursed by God.

In the fulfillment of this prophecy, Jesus was accused of blasphemy by the religious leaders of his time and brought before the high priest and the Sanhedrin for trial. They sought false witnesses to testify against him, and ultimately accused him of blasphemy for claiming to be the Son of God.

In Matthew 26:66, the high priest asks Jesus if he is the Messiah, the Son of God. When Jesus affirms this, the high priest tears his robes and accuses Jesus of blasphemy, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Look, now you have heard the blasphemy. What do you think?" The religious leaders considered Jesus to be speaking against God and believed that he was deserving of punishment.

Similarly, when Jesus was on the cross, the religious leaders and people passing by mocked him, saying, "He trusts in God; let God rescue him now if he wants him, for he said, 'I am the Son of God.'" (Matthew 27:43). They thought that if Jesus truly was the Son of God, God would not have allowed him to suffer and die in such a way.

Despite these accusations and misunderstandings, Jesus remained faithful to his mission and obedient to God. He knew that his suffering was necessary to accomplish God's plan of salvation, and he willingly endured it for the sake of all humanity.

253. Isa. 53:5 Bears penalty for mankind’s iniquities 2Cor. 5:21, Heb. 2:9

Isaiah 53:5 says, "But he was pierced for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that brought us peace, and with his wounds we are healed."

This verse describes the Servant as bearing the penalty for mankind's sins and iniquities, emphasizing the sacrificial nature of his suffering. It suggests that the Servant would take on the punishment that others deserved, in order to bring about peace and healing.

2 Corinthians 5:21 says, "For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God."

This verse describes how Jesus, as the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:5, took on the penalty for our sins by becoming sin on our behalf. It emphasizes that Jesus, who was sinless, became sin in order to take on the punishment that we deserved, so that we could become the righteousness of God in him.

Hebrews 2:9 also emphasizes Jesus' sacrificial death, saying, "But we see him who for a little while was made lower than the angels, namely Jesus, crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone."

This passage highlights that Jesus suffered and died on our behalf, taking on the penalty for our sins so that we could be reconciled to God. It emphasizes that Jesus' sacrificial death was necessary for our salvation and was the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:5.

Therefore, 2 Corinthians 5:21 and Hebrews 2:9 are fulfillments of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:5, as they describe Jesus' sacrificial death on our behalf and emphasize that he bore the penalty for our sins. They demonstrate the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus Christ's life and ministry.

254. Isa. 53:5 His sacrifice provides peace between man and God Colossians 1:20

Isaiah 53:5 says, "But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was on him, and by his wounds we are healed." This verse prophesies that the servant's suffering and death would serve as a sacrifice for the sins of humanity, bringing peace between God and man.

In the New Testament, the apostle Paul explains how Jesus' sacrifice accomplished this peace. In Colossians 1:19-20, Paul writes, "For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross."

Paul emphasizes that Jesus' sacrifice was necessary for reconciliation with God. By shedding his blood on the cross, Jesus paid the penalty for our sins and made peace between us and God possible. Through faith in Jesus, we can be reconciled to God and receive forgiveness for our sins.

Thus, Jesus' sacrifice provides the means for us to have peace with God. We no longer need to fear God's wrath and judgment, for we have been forgiven and made righteous through faith in Christ.

255. Isa. 53:5 His sacrifice would heal man of sin 1Peter 2:24

Isaiah 53:5 says, "But he was pierced for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that brought us peace, and with his wounds we are healed."

This verse describes the Servant as bearing the penalty for mankind's sins and iniquities, and emphasizes the sacrificial nature of his suffering. It suggests that the Servant's sacrifice would bring about healing and peace, both physically and spiritually.

1 Peter 2:24 echoes this idea, saying, "He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we might die to sin and live to righteousness. By his wounds you have been healed."

This passage emphasizes that Jesus, the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:5, bore our sins in his body on the cross, and through his sacrifice, we are healed from the effects of sin. It suggests that through Jesus' death and resurrection, we can die to sin and live to righteousness, receiving both physical and spiritual healing.

Therefore, 1 Peter 2:24 is a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:5, as it describes Jesus' sacrifice on the cross as bringing about healing and redemption from sin. It demonstrates the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus Christ's life and ministry.

256. Isa. 53:6 He would be the sin-bearer for all mankind 1John 2:2; 4:10

Isaiah 53:6 says, "We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to our own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all." This verse prophesies that the servant would bear the sins of all people.

The New Testament confirms this prophecy and explains how Jesus fulfilled it. In 1 John 2:2, John writes, "He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world." John emphasizes that Jesus' sacrifice on the cross was not just for the sins of a select few, but for the sins of all people. Jesus became the sin-bearer for the whole world.

Similarly, in 1 John 4:10, John writes, "This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins." Again, John emphasizes that Jesus' sacrifice on the cross was an atonement for our sins. Jesus became the sin-bearer, paying the penalty for our sins and making it possible for us to be reconciled to God.

In short, the prophecy in Isaiah 53:6 was fulfilled by Jesus, who became the sin-bearer for all people, taking on the penalty for our sins and making it possible for us to be reconciled to God.

257. Isa. 53:6 God’s will that He bear sin for all mankind Galatians 1:4

Isaiah 53:6 says, "All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned—every one—to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all."

This verse describes the Servant as bearing the sins of all mankind, taking on the punishment that we deserved in order to bring about reconciliation with God.

Galatians 1:4 describes Jesus as "giving himself for our sins to deliver us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father."

This verse emphasizes that Jesus, as the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:6, gave himself for our sins according to the will of God the Father. It suggests that it was God's will that Jesus take on the sins of mankind and bear the punishment that we deserved in order to deliver us from sin and reconcile us to God.

Therefore, Galatians 1:4 is a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:6, as it describes Jesus' sacrificial death as fulfilling God's will to bear the sins of mankind and deliver us from sin. It demonstrates the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus Christ's life and ministry.

258. Isa. 53:7 Oppressed and afflicted Matthew 27:27-31

Isaiah 53:7 prophesies that the Servant would be oppressed and afflicted, and we see this fulfilled in Matthew 27:27-31 when Jesus is mocked and beaten by the soldiers before His crucifixion. The verse in Matthew states, "Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the governor’s headquarters, and they gathered the whole battalion before him. And they stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him, and twisting together a crown of thorns, they put it on his head and put a reed in his right hand. And kneeling before him, they mocked him, saying, 'Hail, King of the Jews!' And they spit on him and took the reed and struck him on the head."

259. Isa. 53:7 Silent before his accusers Matthew 27:12-14

Isaiah 53:7 says, "He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and like a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he opened not his mouth."

This verse describes the Servant as being silent before his accusers, even though he was oppressed and afflicted. It compares him to a lamb being led to the slaughter, emphasizing his innocence and willingness to suffer for the sake of others.

Matthew 27:12-14 describes Jesus as being silent before his accusers, even though they were making false accusations against him. The passage says, "But when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he gave no answer. Then Pilate said to him, 'Do you not hear how many things they testify against you?' But he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge, so that the governor was greatly amazed."

This passage demonstrates the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:7, as it describes Jesus' silence before his accusers. It emphasizes Jesus' innocence and willingness to suffer for the sake of others, just as the Servant in Isaiah 53 was described as being oppressed and afflicted, yet not opening his mouth.

Therefore, Matthew 27:12-14 is a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:7, as it describes Jesus' silence before his accusers, fulfilling the prophecy of the Servant's willingness to suffer silently for the sake of others. It demonstrates the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus Christ's life and ministry.

260. Isa. 53:7 Sacrificial lamb John 1:29, 1Peter 1:18-19

Isaiah 53:7 also describes the Servant as a sacrificial lamb, and this is fulfilled in the New Testament when John the Baptist declares Jesus to be the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world in John 1:29. The apostle Peter also refers to Jesus as the "precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect" in 1 Peter 1:18-19.

261. Isa. 53:8 Confined and persecuted Matthew 26:47-75; 27:1-31

Isaiah 53:8 says, "By oppression and judgment he was taken away; and as for his generation, who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living, stricken for the transgression of my people?"

This verse describes the Servant as being taken away by oppression and judgment, and being cut off from the land of the living because of the transgression of God's people. It emphasizes his persecution and confinement, and suggests that he was unjustly treated.

Matthew 26:47-75 and 27:1-31 describe Jesus as being persecuted, arrested, and ultimately condemned to death. These passages demonstrate the fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:8, as they describe Jesus as being taken away by oppression and judgment, and being cut off from the land of the living.

In Matthew 26:47-75, Jesus is arrested and taken before the Jewish authorities, who falsely accuse him and ultimately condemn him to death. In Matthew 27:1-31, Jesus is taken before Pilate, the Roman governor, who also condemns him to death. These passages emphasize the injustice of Jesus' persecution and confinement, and suggest that he was falsely accused and unjustly treated.

Therefore, Matthew 26:47-75 and 27:1-31 are fulfillments of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:8, as they describe Jesus' persecution, confinement, and unjust treatment, fulfilling the prophecy of the Servant being taken away by oppression and judgment. They demonstrate the fulfillment of the prophecy in Jesus Christ's life and ministry.

262. Isa. 53:8 He would be judged John 18:13-22

Isaiah 53:8 prophesies that the Servant would be taken from prison and from judgment, which could refer to being removed from the justice system or unjustly condemned. While there is no direct mention of Jesus being taken from prison, it is clear from the New Testament that Jesus was unjustly tried and condemned to death. John 18:13-22 records Jesus' appearance before the high priest, where he is questioned and beaten before being sent to Pilate for trial. So, in that sense, the prophecy of being judged is fulfilled in Jesus' trial and crucifixion.

263. Isa. 53:8 Killed Matthew 27:35

Isaiah 53:8 says, "By oppression and judgment he was taken away; and as for his generation, who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living, stricken for the transgression of my people?"

This verse suggests that the Servant would be "cut off" or killed, as a result of oppression and judgment.

Matthew 27:35 describes the crucifixion of Jesus, which resulted in his death. The verse says, "And when they had crucified him, they divided his garments among them by casting lots." This verse is a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 53:8, as it describes the death of the Servant, who was "cut off" from the land of the living.

Thus, Isaiah 53:8 and Matthew 27:35 both confirm that the Servant would be killed, as a result of oppression and judgment. The crucifixion of Jesus fulfills this prophecy and is a clear demonstration of how Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies.

264. Isa. 53:8 Dies for the sins of the world 1John 2:2

Isaiah 53:8 states that the Servant was cut off from the land of the living and was stricken for the transgression of God's people. This verse, along with the rest of the passage, is understood to be a prophecy of Jesus Christ's death on the cross. As the New Testament teaches, Jesus died on the cross to pay the penalty for the sins of the world, as 1 John 2:2 affirms: "He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world." So, in that sense, the prophecy of the Servant's death for the sins of the world is fulfilled in Jesus' death on the cross.

265. Isa. 53:9 Buried in a rich man’s grave Matthew 27:57

Isaiah 53:9 says, "And they made his grave with the wicked and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth."

Matthew 27:57-60 confirms that Jesus, the Servant, was buried in a rich man's tomb. The passage reads, "When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who also was a disciple of Jesus. He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be given to him. And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen shroud and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut in the rock."

Thus, the burial of Jesus in a rich man's tomb, as recorded in Matthew 27:57-60, fulfills the prophecy in Isaiah 53:9. It is another example of how Jesus fulfilled Old Testament prophecies, providing further evidence of his divine nature and the truth of the Christian faith.

266. Isa. 53:9 Innocent and had done no violence Luke 23:41, John 18:38

Isaiah 53:9 prophesies that the Servant would be innocent and have done no violence, which is fulfilled in Luke 23:41 and John 18:38, where both the thief on the cross and Pilate attest to Jesus' innocence.

267. Isa. 53:9 No deceit in his mouth 1Peter 2:22

Isaiah 53:9 says, "And they made his grave with the wicked and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth."

1 Peter 2:22 confirms this prophecy by stating that Jesus "committed no sin, neither was deceit found in his mouth." This verse points to the sinless nature of Jesus and his perfect obedience to God the Father. Jesus was without deceit, and he did not speak falsely or manipulate others for his own gain.

The fulfillment of this prophecy in the life of Jesus is significant because it further establishes his divinity and his role as the perfect sacrifice for the sins of mankind. By living a sinless life and offering himself as a blameless sacrifice, Jesus made it possible for humanity to be reconciled with God and receive salvation.

268. Isa. 53:10 God’s will that He die for mankind John 18:11

It was God's will for Jesus to die for the sins of the world, in fulfillment of Isaiah 53:10. For example:

Romans 3:25-26: "God presented Christ as a sacrifice of atonement, through the shedding of his blood—to be received by faith. He did this to demonstrate his righteousness, because in his forbearance he had left the sins committed beforehand unpunished—he did it to demonstrate his righteousness at the present time, so as to be just and the one who justifies those who have faith in Jesus."
1 Peter 2:24: "He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross, so that we might die to sins and live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed."
1 John 4:10: "This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins."

269. Isa. 53:10 An offering for sin Matthew 20:28, Galatians 3:13

Isaiah 53:10 says, "Yet it was the will of the LORD to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the LORD shall prosper in his hand."

The phrase "when his soul makes an offering for guilt" refers to the sacrificial death of the Servant, who is Jesus Christ. This sacrifice was necessary to atone for the sins of humanity, and it was God's will that the Servant should offer himself as an offering for sin.

Matthew 20:28 confirms the fulfillment of this prophecy, as Jesus himself says, "the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many." Galatians 3:13 also affirms this by stating that "Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us—for it is written, 'Cursed is everyone who is hanged on a tree.'"

Through his sacrificial death, Jesus offered himself as an offering for sin, satisfying the demands of God's justice and reconciling humanity to God. This fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy is central to the Christian faith and underscores the significance of Jesus' sacrifice on the cross.

270. Isa. 53:10 Resurrected and live forever Romans 6:9

Isaiah 53:10 says, "Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the Lord shall prosper in his hand." This verse is referring to the Servant who will bear the sins of many (Isaiah 53:11-12) and will be an offering for guilt (Isaiah 53:10).

Although the verse does not explicitly mention the resurrection, it does say that the Servant "shall prolong his days," which can be understood to mean that he will live forever. This idea is supported by other verses in the New Testament, such as Romans 6:9, which says, "We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him."

271. Isa. 53:10 He would prosper John 17:1-5

Isaiah 53:10 says, "Yet it was the will of the LORD to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the LORD shall prosper in his hand."

This verse indicates that although the Servant (Jesus Christ) was crushed and put to grief, his sacrifice would result in the ultimate fulfillment of God's will and the prosperity of his kingdom. Jesus himself speaks of this prosperity in John 17:1-5, where he prays to the Father, saying, "Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent. I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do. And now, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory that I had with you before the world existed."

Jesus' prayer reveals his understanding that his sacrifice was not in vain and that it would ultimately result in the glorification of God and the extension of his kingdom. The phrase "he shall prolong his days" in Isaiah 53:10 also suggests that Jesus' resurrection and eternal life are a part of this ultimate prosperity.

Therefore, Isaiah's prophecy of the Servant's prosperity finds its fulfillment in Jesus' sacrifice and resurrection, which ultimately resulted in the advancement of God's kingdom and the glorification of his name.

272. Isa. 53:11 God fully satisfied with His suffering John 12:27

The verse reads, "He shall see the travail of His soul, and shall be satisfied: by His knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for He shall bear their iniquities" (Isaiah 53:11). This verse speaks of God being fully satisfied with the suffering of the servant, who is Jesus Christ, and the atoning sacrifice that He made for the sins of many. This is confirmed in John 12:27, where Jesus speaks of His upcoming death and says, "Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour." Jesus knew that His death was necessary to satisfy God's righteous judgment against sin and bring salvation to all who would believe in Him.

273. Isa. 53:11 God’s servant would justify man Romans 5:8-9, 18-19

Isaiah 53:11 says, "By his knowledge shall the righteous one, my servant, make many to be accounted righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities." This verse prophesies that the Servant (Jesus Christ) would make many righteous by bearing their iniquities.

The New Testament confirms this prophecy in several passages, such as Romans 5:8-9, which says, "But God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Since, therefore, we have now been justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God." Similarly, Romans 5:18-19 states, "Therefore, as one trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all men. For as by the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man's obedience the many will be made righteous."

These verses make it clear that through Jesus' sacrificial death, he made it possible for humanity to be justified and made righteous before God. By bearing the penalty of sin on behalf of mankind, Jesus made it possible for people to be declared righteous before God, despite their own sinfulness. This is the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy that the Servant would justify many by bearing their iniquities.

274. Isa. 53:11 The sin-bearer for all mankind Hebrews 9:28

Isaiah 53:11 prophesies that the suffering Servant will bear the iniquities of many, and through His knowledge, He will justify many, for He will bear their iniquities. This is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who came to earth as the sacrificial Lamb of God to take away the sins of the world (John 1:29). Hebrews 9:28 confirms this by stating that Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many.

275. Isa. 53:12 Exalted by God because of his sacrifice Matthew 28:18

Isaiah 53:12 prophesies that the servant of God would be exalted by God because of his sacrifice. The verse says, "Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors."

This prophecy finds its fulfillment in Jesus Christ, who, after his sacrificial death on the cross, was exalted by God to the highest place of honor and authority. In Philippians 2:8-11, it says, "And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father."

Similarly, in Matthew 28:18, Jesus himself declares, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me." This statement is a clear affirmation of Jesus' exaltation by God following his sacrificial death on the cross. Therefore, Isaiah's prophecy that the servant of God would be exalted by God because of his sacrifice finds its ultimate fulfillment in Jesus Christ.



276. Isa. 53:12 He would give up his life to save mankind Luke 23:46

Isaiah 53:12 is a prophecy in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) that describes a suffering servant who would give his life as a sacrifice for the sins of others. It says, "Therefore I will give him a portion among the great, and he will divide the spoils with the strong, because he poured out his life unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors. For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors."

Luke 23:46 is a verse in the New Testament that describes the moment of Jesus' death on the cross. It says, "Jesus called out with a loud voice, 'Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.' When he had said this, he breathed his last."

Many Christians believe that Jesus' death on the cross fulfilled the prophecy in Isaiah 53:12, as he willingly gave up his life as a sacrifice for the sins of humanity. Luke 23:46 is seen as the moment when Jesus surrendered his life to God and completed his mission on earth.

277. Isa. 53:12 Numbered with the transgressors Mark 15:27-28; Luke 22:37

Isaiah 53:12 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors."

This verse is a prophecy about the suffering servant who would bear the sins of many. The phrase "numbered with the transgressors" refers to the fact that the suffering servant would be treated as a criminal and be counted among the wicked.

Mark 15:27-28 and Luke 22:37 both refer to this prophecy when they describe the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. In Mark 15:27-28, it says: "And with him they crucified two robbers, one on his right and one on his left. And the Scripture was fulfilled that says, 'He was numbered with the transgressors.'" In Luke 22:37, Jesus himself quotes from Isaiah 53:12, saying: "For I tell you that this Scripture must be fulfilled in me: 'And he was numbered with the transgressors.'"

These verses show that Jesus was not only fulfilling the prophecy of the suffering servant in Isaiah 53, but also that he was being treated as a criminal and counted among the wicked when he was crucified between two robbers.

278. Isa. 53:12 Sin-bearer for all mankind 1Peter 2:24

Isaiah 53:12 and 1 Peter 2:24 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the concept of Jesus Christ bearing the sins of humanity.

In Isaiah 53:12, the prophet Isaiah is prophesying about the coming Messiah, who he describes as being "numbered with the transgressors" and bearing the sins of many. This passage is often seen as a prophetic foreshadowing of Jesus' crucifixion and his sacrifice for the sins of humanity.

In 1 Peter 2:24, the apostle Peter is reflecting on the significance of Jesus' death and resurrection. He writes, "He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, so that we might die to sins and live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed." This passage is seen as a reflection on the atonement that Jesus made for the sins of humanity through his death on the cross.

Both of these passages speak to the idea that Jesus Christ, as the Son of God, bore the sins of humanity and made atonement for those sins through his death and resurrection. This concept is central to Christian theology and the belief in the salvation of humanity through faith in Jesus Christ.

279. Isa. 53:12 Intercede to God in behalf of mankind Luke 23:34, Rom. 8:34

Isaiah 53:12 does not specifically mention intercession, but it does describe the suffering servant as making intercession for the transgressors. The verse says, "For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors." This could be interpreted as the suffering servant pleading or praying on behalf of those who had sinned.

Luke 23:34 records Jesus' words while he was on the cross, where he prayed for the forgiveness of those who were crucifying him, saying, "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing." This can be seen as an act of intercession on behalf of the very people who were responsible for his crucifixion.

Romans 8:34 also speaks of Jesus' intercession for believers, saying, "Who then is the one who condemns? No one. Christ Jesus who died—more than that, who was raised to life—is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us." This verse teaches that Jesus, who died and rose again, is now at the right hand of God interceding for believers.

So while these passages do not directly correspond to each other, they do allude to the idea of intercession in different ways.

M. L. BROWN  (2019): At the center of the gospel message is the atoning, substitutionary death of Jesus the Messiah, and nowhere in the Bible is this theme of vicarious suffering laid out more clearly than in Isa 53. Accordingly, among those who affirm Jesus as the Messiah of Israel, this chapter (or, more precisely, Isa 52:13–53:12) is widely considered to be the most specific messianic prophecy in the Tanakh. While it is not quoted in the New
Testament as frequently as Ps 110,1 it has been pointed to through the centuries as a central messianic prophecy because of its clearly expressed theology of vicarious atonement, its vivid description of the Servant of the Lord being rejected by His own people, and its glorious portrayal of the Servant’s exaltation.

Of this passage, Franz Delitzsch exclaimed, “How many are there whose eyes have been opened when reading this ‘golden passional of the Old Testament evangelist,’ as Polycarp the Lysian calls it! In how many an Israelite has it melted the crust of his heart! It looks as if it had been written beneath the cross upon Golgotha, and was illuminated by the heavenly brightness of the full shēb lîmînî (‘sit at my right hand’).”

According to Hermann Spieckermann, “Five criteria seem central to the idea of vicarious suffering in Isaiah 53:

a. One person intercedes for the sins of others….
b. The one who intercedes for the sins of others is himself sinless and righteous….
c. The vicarious act of the one occurs once for all….
d. One intercedes for the sins of others of his own will….
e. God brings about the vicarious action of the one for the sins of the others intentionally.” Or, as expressed by Bernd Janowski: “The bottomless depth of this text is reflected in the vicarious event: an innocent one bears the guilt of others, perishes by it, and will nevertheless have ‘success.’”

That Jewish theology developed the concept of the atoning power of the death of the righteous, despite its centrality in Christian theology, indicates just how deep the biblical roots of vicarious suffering can be found, even if they are brought to a distinct climax in Isa 53. The chapter finds striking and specific fulfillment in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. But since there is no reference here to “David” (see, e.g., Ezk 34:23-24; 37:24-25) or to the “stump of Jesse” (see Isa 11:1), one might question on what basis this passage can be identified as messianic. First, Isa 53 connects to the priestly ministry of the Messiah, an essential and important part of his work (see Zch 6:9-
13), and the chapter is filled with priestly language (cf. Paul). Second, the promised exaltation of the Servant (Isa 52:13; 53:12) is in messianic proportions. Third, the Servant of the Lord fulfills the mission of failing Israel, becoming a light to the nations while being rejected by His own people before ultimately regathering and restoring the tribes of Jacob (see Isa 42:1-7; 49:1-7). No one other than the Messiah is tasked with this mission, and it is Isa 53 that opens up the dimensions of just how this will happen, as the people of Israel realize that the One they thought was dying a criminal’s death was actually paying the price for their sins. It is through His wounds that Israel will be healed. F. B. Meyer was correct in saying, “There is only one brow upon which this crown of thorns will fit.”27 It is Jesus of Nazareth, who suffered innocently, died vicariously, was raised gloriously, and will return triumphantly, just as Isaiah foretold.2

280. Isa. 55:3 Resurrected by God Acts 13:34

Isaiah 55:3 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "Incline your ear, and come to me; hear, that your soul may live; and I will make with you an everlasting covenant, my steadfast, sure love for David."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Isaiah calls on the people of Israel to turn back to God and receive his mercy and forgiveness. In this verse, God promises to make an everlasting covenant with the people, a covenant that is rooted in his steadfast and sure love for David, the great king of Israel.

Acts 13:34 is a verse in the New Testament that refers to this passage in Isaiah. In this verse, the apostle Paul is preaching to a group of people in Antioch, and he says: "And as for the fact that he [God] raised him [Jesus] from the dead, no more to return to corruption, he has spoken in this way, 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.'"

Paul is quoting from Isaiah 55:3 and using it to show that the resurrection of Jesus was part of God's plan to fulfill his promises to David and establish his eternal kingdom. Paul is saying that just as God made an everlasting covenant with David, he has now made a new covenant with all people through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

So while Isaiah 55:3 does not explicitly mention the resurrection of Jesus, it is a key part of the larger context in which God promises to make an everlasting covenant with his people. Acts 13:34 shows how this promise was fulfilled through the resurrection of Jesus, who is the ultimate fulfillment of God's covenant with David.



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281. Isa. 55:4 A witness John 18:37

Isaiah 55:4 and John 18:37 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the concept of bearing witness.

In Isaiah 55:4, the prophet Isaiah is speaking about a future leader, whom he describes as a witness to the people. The context of the passage suggests that this leader is a reference to the Messiah, and the language used to describe him as a witness suggests that he will bear witness to the truth of God's word and the salvation that is offered to all people.

In John 18:37, Jesus is standing before Pilate, who is questioning him about his identity and his claims to be a king. Jesus responds by saying, "You are right in saying that I am a king. In fact, for this reason I was born, and for this I came into the world, to bear witness to the truth. Everyone on the side of truth listens to me."

In this passage, Jesus is referring to his mission on earth as a witness to the truth of God's word and the salvation that is offered to all people through him. He is acknowledging his kingly status, but he is also emphasizing that his mission is not to establish an earthly kingdom, but rather to bear witness to the truth of God's kingdom.

Both of these passages speak to the idea of bearing witness to the truth of God's word and the salvation that is offered through faith in him. They suggest that the witness of God's chosen leader or Messiah, as well as the witness of Jesus Christ himself, are central to understanding God's plan for humanity and our relationship with him.

282. Isa. 55:4 He is a leader and commander Hebrews 2:10

Isaiah 55:4 says, "See, I have made him a witness to the peoples, a ruler and commander of the peoples." This verse is speaking of the promised Davidic Messiah, who would come as a leader and ruler over the nations.

Hebrews 2:10 also speaks of Jesus as a leader, saying, "In bringing many sons and daughters to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through what he suffered." The word "pioneer" can also be translated as "captain" or "leader," and it suggests that Jesus went ahead of his followers, leading the way to salvation.

So while these passages use different language and were written in different contexts, they both refer to the idea of Jesus as a leader. Isaiah 55:4 specifically prophesies the coming of a ruler and commander who would lead and guide the people, while Hebrews 2:10 speaks of Jesus as the pioneer and leader of salvation for his followers.

283. Isa. 55:5 God would glorify Him Acts 3:13

Isaiah 55:5 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "Behold, you shall call a nation that you do not know, and a nation that did not know you shall run to you, because of the Lord your God, and of the Holy One of Israel, for he has glorified you."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Isaiah is calling on the people of Israel to turn back to God and receive his mercy and forgiveness. In this verse, Isaiah is speaking to the people of Israel, telling them that God will call a nation that they do not know to himself and that this nation will run to him. This nation will be drawn to God because of his glory, which he has bestowed on his people.

Acts 3:13 is a verse in the New Testament that refers to this passage in Isaiah. In this verse, the apostle Peter is speaking to a crowd in Jerusalem, and he says: "The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified his servant Jesus, whom you delivered over and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he had decided to release him."

Peter is using the phrase "glorified his servant Jesus" to refer to Jesus' resurrection and exaltation to the right hand of God. Peter is saying that Jesus is the one who has been glorified by God, and that this was foretold by the prophets, including Isaiah.

So while Isaiah 55:5 does not explicitly mention Jesus, it is a key part of the larger context in which God promises to glorify his people. Acts 3:13 shows how this promise was fulfilled through Jesus, who was glorified by God through his resurrection and exaltation.

R. B. CHISHOLM JR. (2019): Isaiah 55 is important to a study of the OT’s messianic vision for at least two reasons: (1) It anticipates the positive outcome of the ministry of the Suffering Servant, who comes in the person of Jesus the Messiah. His atoning work opens the door to repentance and covenant renewal. (2) The Servant, as described in the first two Servant Songs (42:1-9; 49:1- 13), brings justice to the nations, as does the ideal Davidic king depicted in Isa 11:1-9. Consequently, it is reasonable to equate the Servant with the messianic king of Isa 11 and regard the Servant Songs as messianic. However, some argue that the Davidic promises are democratized in Isa 55:3-5, meaning that Israel replaces an individual Davidic king as God’s instrument of salvation. If so, this affects our understanding of the Servant Songs. That is one of the reasons so many scholars are hesitant to view the Songs as messianic. This essay will attempt to show that the promise is not democratized in Isa 55:3-5, at least not in the way some scholars argue. Rather, the passage envisions the national benefits that result from the realization of the Davidic promises, just as 2Sm 7, the classic text on the Davidic covenant, anticipates.

In Isa 55, the Lord calls Israel to covenant renewal, assuring them that repentance will bring forgiveness of sins and restoration of divine blessing. He promises He will make a new, perpetual covenant with them. This covenant is not democratized in the sense that the Lord’s promises to David are now transferred to the nation Israel. On the contrary, this covenant, which will be mediated through the Suffering Servant of the Lord (see Isa 49:8 ), is rooted in and will bring to fulfillment the Lord’s ancient promises to David that He will exalt His people Israel through His chosen king. This should come as no surprise, since the Suffering Servant and the ideal Davidic king, the Messiah, are one and the same. Isaiah 55 is an important messianic text, for it describes the goal of the Servant’s ministry. Through Him the new covenant is inaugurated and the Davidic promise is realized. 2

284. Isa. 59:16 Intercessor between man and God Matthew 10:32

Isaiah 59:16 and Matthew 10:32 are both passages from the Bible that speak to the concept of intercession between humanity and God.

In Isaiah 59:16, the prophet Isaiah laments that there is no one who is able to intercede or plead on behalf of the people to God, in order to bring about justice and salvation. However, he goes on to describe how God himself intervenes to bring about salvation, by putting on righteousness like a breastplate and a helmet of salvation.

In Matthew 10:32, Jesus is instructing his disciples on the importance of confessing their faith in him before others. He says, "Whoever acknowledges me before others, I will also acknowledge before my Father in heaven." This passage suggests that Jesus acts as an intercessor on behalf of those who confess their faith in him before others, acknowledging them before God the Father.

While these passages use slightly different language, they both speak to the concept of intercession, or acting as a mediator between humanity and God. Isaiah 59:16 highlights the need for an intercessor, while Matthew 10:32 suggests that Jesus himself acts as an intercessor for those who acknowledge him. Both passages emphasize the importance of our relationship with God and the role that intercession plays in that relationship.

285. Isa. 59:16 He would come to provide salvation John 6:40

Isaiah 59:16 says, "He saw that there was no one, he was appalled that there was no one to intervene; so his own arm achieved salvation for him, and his own righteousness sustained him." This verse describes how God looked for someone to provide salvation, but found no one, so He Himself provided salvation through His own arm and righteousness.

John 6:40 is a statement made by Jesus where He says, "For my Father's will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life, and I will raise them up at the last day." This verse suggests that Jesus came to provide salvation for those who believe in Him and look to Him for eternal life.

While Isaiah 59:16 does not specifically mention the coming of Jesus, it is part of a larger prophetic context in which God promised to send a Messiah to save His people. John 6:40, on the other hand, is a direct statement from Jesus about His own role in providing salvation. Both passages speak to the idea of salvation being provided by God, either through His own arm and righteousness or through belief in Jesus.

286. Isa. 59:20 He would come to Zion as their Redeemer Luke 2:38

Isaiah 59:20 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "And a Redeemer will come to Zion, to those in Jacob who turn from transgression, declares the Lord."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Isaiah is speaking about the sins of the people of Israel and their need for redemption. In this verse, Isaiah prophesies that a Redeemer will come to Zion, the holy city of Jerusalem, to save those who turn from their sins.

Luke 2:38 is a verse in the New Testament that refers to this prophecy in Isaiah. In this verse, the prophetess Anna sees the infant Jesus in the temple in Jerusalem and begins to give thanks to God. She then "spoke about the child to all who were looking forward to the redemption of Jerusalem."

Anna's words suggest that she and others in Jerusalem at the time were looking forward to the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy about the coming Redeemer who would come to Zion. In Luke's gospel, Jesus is presented as the fulfillment of this prophecy, as he comes to Jerusalem and offers redemption to all who turn from their sins and put their faith in him.

So while Isaiah 59:20 does not explicitly mention Jesus, it is a key part of the larger context in which God promises to send a Redeemer to Zion. Luke 2:38 shows how this promise was fulfilled in the person of Jesus, who came to Jerusalem as the Redeemer of all who put their faith in him.

287. Isa. 60:1-3 He would shew light to the Gentiles Acts 26:23

Isaiah 60:1-3 and Acts 26:23 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the idea of bringing light to the Gentiles.

In Isaiah 60:1-3, the prophet Isaiah speaks of a future time when the glory of the Lord will rise upon Israel, and nations will come to that light. The passage suggests that the nations, or Gentiles, will be drawn to the light of the Lord that is shining upon Israel, and that this light will be a sign of God's salvation and blessing for all people.

In Acts 26:23, the apostle Paul is describing his mission and his message to King Agrippa. He speaks of how he was commissioned by Jesus to preach to the Gentiles and to open their eyes, so that they may turn from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God.

Both passages speak to the idea of bringing light to the Gentiles, or to those who are outside of Israel or the Jewish community. Isaiah 60:1-3 suggests that the light of the Lord shining upon Israel will draw the nations to God, while Acts 26:23 speaks of the mission of the apostle Paul to bring the light of the gospel to the Gentiles, so that they may turn from darkness to light.

These passages highlight the universal nature of God's salvation, which is offered to all people, regardless of their ethnicity or background. They emphasize the importance of sharing the light of the gospel with others, so that they too may come to know the salvation that is available through faith in Jesus Christ.

288. Isa. 61:1 The Spirit of God upon him Matthew 3:16-17

Isaiah 61:1 says, "The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners." This verse describes a servant of God who is empowered by the Holy Spirit to bring good news and freedom to those in need.

Matthew 3:16-17 describes the baptism of Jesus, saying, "As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, 'This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.'" This passage reveals that the Holy Spirit came upon Jesus at His baptism and that He is the beloved Son of God.

The connection between these two passages is that they both refer to the Holy Spirit being upon a servant of God. In Isaiah 61:1, the Spirit is upon the servant to empower him to bring good news and freedom to those in need. In Matthew 3:16-17, the Spirit is upon Jesus as a sign of His divine mission and identity as the Son of God.

289. Isa. 61:1 The Messiah would preach the good news Luke 4:16-21

Isaiah 61:1 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me to bring good news to the poor; he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Isaiah is speaking about the coming of the Messiah, who will bring good news to the people and set them free from their oppression. In this verse, Isaiah describes how the Spirit of the Lord will rest upon the Messiah, anointing him to proclaim good news to the poor and set the captives free.

Luke 4:16-21 is a passage in the New Testament that refers to this prophecy in Isaiah. In this passage, Jesus enters the synagogue in Nazareth and reads from the scroll of Isaiah, including the passage in Isaiah 61:1. He then tells the people in the synagogue that this passage is fulfilled in their hearing.

By reading this passage from Isaiah and declaring that it is fulfilled in him, Jesus is claiming to be the Messiah, the one anointed by the Spirit of the Lord to bring good news to the people and set them free. He is also announcing the arrival of the kingdom of God, in which the poor and oppressed will be lifted up and given hope.

So while Isaiah 61:1 does not explicitly mention Jesus, it is a key part of the larger context in which God promises to send the Messiah to bring good news to the people and set them free. Luke 4:16-21 shows how this promise was fulfilled in the person of Jesus, who preached the good news of the kingdom and brought salvation to all who put their faith in him.

290. Isa. 61:1 Provide freedom from the bondage of sin John 8:31-36

Isaiah 61:1 and John 8:31-36 are both passages from the Bible that speak to the idea of freedom from the bondage of sin.

In Isaiah 61:1, the prophet Isaiah is speaking about the anointed servant of the Lord who has been sent to bring good news to the poor, to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives, and release from darkness for the prisoners. The context of the passage suggests that the freedom that is being offered is not only physical, but also spiritual, as the captives are those who are in bondage to sin and the prisoners are those who are trapped in spiritual darkness.

In John 8:31-36, Jesus is speaking to the Jews who had believed in him, and he tells them that if they hold to his teaching, they are really his disciples, and they will know the truth, and the truth will set them free. When they object and claim that they have never been slaves, Jesus responds by saying that everyone who sins is a slave to sin, but if the Son sets them free, they will be free indeed.

Both passages speak to the idea of freedom from the bondage of sin, which is offered through the work of God's chosen servant or the Son of God, Jesus Christ. They emphasize that all people are in bondage to sin and in need of spiritual freedom, and that this freedom is offered through faith in God's chosen servant or in Jesus Christ. They also suggest that this freedom is not simply a matter of being released from physical bondage, but is a spiritual liberation that sets us free to live as children of God.

291. Isa. 61:1-2 Proclaim a period of grace Galatians 4:4-5

Isaiah 61:1-2 says, "The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor and the day of vengeance of our God." This passage speaks of a servant of God who is anointed by the Spirit to proclaim good news and freedom to those in need, and also to announce the coming of the "year of the Lord's favor," which can be interpreted as a period of grace.

Galatians 4:4-5 says, "But when the set time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem those under the law, that we might receive adoption to sonship." This passage describes the timing and purpose of Jesus' coming, which was to redeem humanity and make it possible for people to become children of God through faith in Him.

The connection between these two passages is that both speak of a special time when God intervenes in history to provide salvation and grace to humanity. In Isaiah 61:1-2, this is described as the "year of the Lord's favor," while in Galatians 4:4-5, it is described as the "set time" when Jesus came to redeem humanity. Both passages offer hope and promise to those in need of salvation and grace, and both emphasize the importance of God's timing and plan in bringing about redemption.

E. E. HINDSON (2019): The announcement of the messianic anointing in Isa 61:1-3 introduces the voice of the Messiah who will proclaim the “good news”. That Jesus quoted this passage in the synagogue in Nazareth and applied it to Himself clearly indicates that He understood its messianic implications (Lk 4:16-22). To deny this or to simply limit the voice of the speaker to the role of some other prophet flies in the face of Jesus’ own declaration. Noting the continuity of the Servant’s anointing with the Spirit (Isa 42:1) and that of the Messiah (Isa 11:2), John Oswalt identifies the speaker as the servant/Messiah. Walter Kaiser suggests that the act of anointing is the central factor in the installation of the Anointed One, stating, “Yahweh appoints the Servant and the Spirit anoints him, thereby making one of the earliest constructs of the doctrine of the Trinity.” The Anointed One is “sent” with what Joseph Blenkinsopp calls “five charges that coalesce into one undertaking.” A series of infinitives follows dependent on the verb “sent”: “bind … proclaim … proclaim … comfort … grant” (NASB). Thus, the speaker not only acknowledges His anointing but also describes His evangelistic calling to proclaim “good news” to those who desperately need it most: “afflicted … brokenhearted … captives … prisoners … mourners” (NASB). The message of proclamation in vv. 1-2 is then followed by a description of salvation in v. 3 through a use of what Claus Westermann calls “paronomasia” (a series of contrasts emphasized by a list of “insteads”). Thus, the sent one will grant a garland instead of ashes; gladness instead of mourning; praise instead of fainting (v. 3). 2

J. F. Walvoord (2011):  The Servant of the Lord, who is Christ Himself, will have the anointing of the Holy Spirit. “The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is on me, because the LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim the year of the LORD’s favor and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all who mourn” (vv. 1–2). His anointing, like that of Saul and David, will set Him apart as King because the title “Christ” has the meaning of being anointed (cf. Matt. 3:16–17). In Luke 4:18–19, Christ quoted Isaiah 61:1 and part of verse 2 in connection with Himself. Significantly, He stopped the quotation before the mention of “the day of vengeance of our God” (v. 2). The previous verses harmonize with His first coming, but the day of vengeance refers to His second coming. By this, Christ signified the difference between the two events and their prophetic fulfillment. As in other millennial passages, the reconstruction of the cities of Israel is prophesied (vv. 4–6). Not only will material places be restored, but the people of Israel will also be restored as a nation, and aliens will be servants to them. Israel herself will live as “priests of the LORD” (v. 6). Her prosperity included that she would be forgiven her sins and would have a double portion of her inheritance and everlasting joy. Her= prosperity will be a token to the nations of the Lord’s blessings. The prophet himself described his joy in the Lord and enumerated the blessings that God has showered on him (vv. 10–11). These prophecies will be fulfilled primarily in the millennium.

Summary of Messianic Prophecies in Isaiah

The prophecy concerning the virgin birth of Christ should be considered in the context of other messianic prophecies in the whole book of Isaiah. Major future messianic prophecies in Isaiah include the reign of Christ in the kingdom (2:3–5), the virgin birth of Christ (7:14), the joyful reign of Christ (9:2, 7), the rule of Christ over the world (v. 4), Christ as a descendant of Jesse and David (11:1, 10), Christ to be filled with the Spirit (v. 2; 42:1), Christ to judge with righteousness (11:3–5; 42:1, 4), Christ to rule over the nations (11:10), Christ to be gentle to the weak (42:3), Christ to make possible the new covenant (v. 6; 49:8 ), Christ to be a light to the Gentiles and to be worshipped by them (42:6; 49:6–7; 52:15), Christ to be rejected by Israel (49:7; 53:1–3), Christ to be obedient to God and subject to suffering (50:6; 53:7–8 ), Christ to be exalted (52:13; 53:12), Christ to restore Israel and judge the wicked (61:1–3). 30

Jeremiah

292. Jer. 11:21 Conspiracy to kill Jesus John 7:1, Matthew 21:38

Jeremiah 11:21 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "Therefore, this is what the Lord says about the people of Anathoth who are threatening to kill you. They say, 'Do not prophesy in the name of the Lord or you will die by our hands.'"

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Jeremiah is speaking about the plot of his fellow citizens in the town of Anathoth to kill him because of his prophesying against them. The verse describes the threat that the people of Anathoth make against Jeremiah, warning him not to prophesy in the name of the Lord or he will be killed.

John 7:1 and Matthew 21:38 are verses in the New Testament that do not directly refer to this particular verse in Jeremiah. John 7:1 is a verse that describes how Jesus avoided going to Judea because the Jewish leaders were looking for an opportunity to kill him. Matthew 21:38 is a verse in which Jesus tells a parable about a vineyard owner whose servants are killed by the vineyard's tenants.

While there is no direct connection between Jeremiah 11:21 and these New Testament verses, there is a general theme of opposition and threat of violence against prophets and messengers of God. In the case of Jeremiah, he was threatened with death for speaking the word of God. In the case of Jesus, he was also threatened with death because of his teachings and the claims he made about himself as the Son of God.

So while there is no direct reference to Jeremiah 11:21 in these New Testament verses, they do reflect the broader theme of opposition and persecution faced by prophets and messengers of God, including Jesus.

Accordingtothescriptures (2015): Not many commentators apply this verse in Jeremiah to Christ. Most apply it to Jeremiah, and indeed the people of apostate Israel and Judah at that time were speaking that to him. Nevertheless, what many have forgotten, is that many of the prophets, in one form or another of their ministry, exemplified in his own person some one feature or more in the manifold attributes and sufferings of the Messiah to come, and so that which applied to them, was in fact being spoken also of Christ. And this is not hard to discern as this was also clearly spoken of the Messiah in Isaiah 53, that He "was cut off out of the land of the living", and ever so clearly in Daniel 9:27, that at the appointed time "shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself", no, not for Himself, but "for the transgression of my people was he stricken" (Isaiah 53:Cool. Furthermore, this being conspired in the minds of the detractors, "that his name be no more remembered", would certainly remind us of Psalm 83, where it is written, "Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance." Here speaking of Israel, but once again, typified as Christ (Ex. 4:22, Hosea 11:1, Mt. 2:15) whom is identified as Israel, my firstborn Son whom He called out of Egypt, whom through the loins of Israel He was to come as the promised Seed of Abraham. And Christ, foreknowing all things prophesied of this also saying, "the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again" (Mark 8:31). And again, "they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again." (Mark 10:34) And this being in their mind, we are told, "the Jews sought to kill him" (John 7:1), the Prince of life. And for what purpose? Even the ignorant Caiaphas prophesied that, "it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people" (John 11:50). And so, Christ died for our sins, He was buried, and rose again from the dead according to the Scriptures. Hallelujah! There are so many riches and treasures and wonders hidden in the Scriptures that they are just too wonderful for me. 3

293. Jer. 23:5-6 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31

Jeremiah 23:5-6 and Luke 3:23-31 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the ancestry of the Messiah and his connection to the line of David.

In Jeremiah 23:5-6, the prophet Jeremiah speaks of a future time when God will raise up a righteous branch from the line of David, who will reign as king and execute justice and righteousness in the land. The passage emphasizes the importance of the Davidic line and suggests that the coming Messiah will be a descendant of David.

In Luke 3:23-31, Luke provides a genealogy of Jesus that traces his ancestry back to David. The passage lists a series of names, beginning with Jesus and moving backwards through his ancestors, until it reaches David. The genealogy emphasizes Jesus' connection to the line of David and his rightful claim to the title of Messiah.

Both passages speak to the idea of the Messiah's ancestry and his connection to the line of David. They emphasize the importance of this connection, both as a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy and as a means of establishing Jesus' rightful claim to the title of Messiah. They suggest that the coming of the Messiah is a significant event in history, and that his ancestry and lineage are important markers of his identity and mission.

294. Jer. 23:5-6 The Messiah would be both God and Man John 13:13, 1Ti 3:16

Jeremiah 23:5-6 says, "The days are coming," declares the Lord, "when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, a King who will reign wisely and do what is just and right in the land. In his days Judah will be saved and Israel will live in safety. This is the name by which he will be called: The Lord Our Righteous Savior." This passage describes the coming of a righteous Branch, who is both a king from the line of David and a savior sent by God.

In John 13:13, Jesus says to His disciples, "You call me 'Teacher' and 'Lord,' and rightly so, for that is what I am." This statement suggests that Jesus is both a human teacher and also Lord, a title that is often used to refer to God.

1 Timothy 3:16 says, "Beyond all question, the mystery from which true godliness springs is great: He appeared in the flesh, was vindicated by the Spirit, was seen by angels, was preached among the nations, was believed on in the world, was taken up in glory." This verse refers to the mystery of the incarnation, the fact that God became man in the person of Jesus Christ.

The connection between these passages is that they all speak to the idea that the Messiah or Savior would be both God and man. Jeremiah 23:5-6 speaks of the Messiah being called "The Lord Our Righteous Savior," suggesting that He is both divine and righteous. John 13:13 and 1 Timothy 3:16 both affirm the deity of Jesus Christ, while also acknowledging His humanity. Together, these passages help to illustrate the Christian belief that Jesus is both fully God and fully man, which is a central doctrine of the Christian faith.

M. L. BROWN (2019): Jeremiah 23:5-6 is an important messianic prophecy because: (1) it envisions the coming of the Messianic King on the heels of the return from Babylonian exile, which is in keeping with a larger prophetic
pattern that expected the establishment of God’s glorious kingdom in the aftermath of this return; (2) it explicitly connects the title Branch  with this Davidic King (see further Jer 33:15; cf. also Isa 4:2; Zch 3:8; 6:12; see Zch 6:9-15)2


295. Jer. 31:22 Born of a virgin Matthew 1:18-20

Jeremiah 31:22 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "How long will you waver, O faithless daughter? For the Lord has created a new thing on the earth: a woman shall encompass a man."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Jeremiah is speaking about the restoration of Israel and the coming of a new covenant between God and his people. The verse describes a new thing that the Lord has created on the earth, in which a woman will encompass a man.

Matthew 1:18-20 is a passage in the New Testament that is often cited as a fulfillment of this prophecy in Jeremiah. In this passage, it is revealed that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was found to be with child through the Holy Spirit, and that Joseph, her betrothed husband, was told in a dream not to be afraid to take Mary as his wife.

The birth of Jesus to a virgin is seen by many Christians as the fulfillment of this prophecy in Jeremiah 31:22, in which a new thing is created on the earth, a woman encompassing a man. The idea is that Mary, as a virgin, encompassed Jesus, who was fully God and fully man, in her womb.

So while Jeremiah 31:22 does not explicitly mention Jesus or the virgin birth, it is seen as a prophecy that was fulfilled in the birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary, as described in Matthew 1:18-20.

296. Jer. 31:31 The Messiah would be the new covenant Matthew 26:28

Jeremiah 31:31 and Matthew 26:28 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the new covenant that would be established by the Messiah.

In Jeremiah 31:31, the prophet Jeremiah speaks of a time when God will make a new covenant with the people of Israel, a covenant that will not be like the old covenant made at Mount Sinai. This new covenant will be written on their hearts, and God will be their God, and they will be his people.

In Matthew 26:28, Jesus is at the Last Supper with his disciples, and he takes the cup, gives thanks, and gives it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins." In this passage, Jesus is establishing a new covenant with his disciples, one that is sealed by his blood.

Both passages speak to the idea of a new covenant that would be established by the Messiah. Jeremiah 31:31 suggests that this new covenant would be different from the old covenant, and that it would be written on the hearts of the people. Matthew 26:28 reveals that Jesus, the Messiah, is the one who establishes this new covenant, and that it is sealed by his blood. Both passages emphasize the importance of this new covenant in bringing about the forgiveness of sins and restoring the relationship between God and humanity.

JOSH MATHEWS (2019): Jeremiah 31:31-34 is a theologically significant passage for the message of the book of Jeremiah and for the whole Old Testament and New Testament as well. The passage is familiar for its presentation of the new covenant. These four verses include a grouping of features associated with the anticipated new covenant. In Jeremiah, they are intended to instill hope in a future time of restoration from the dismal circumstances God’s people are experiencing. The cluster of features also continues a trajectory of eschatological anticipation that has been advancing in the Tanakh from its earliest chapters, which find their realization in the NT. In the NT, the fulfillment of new covenant expectations is clearly associated with the coming of the Messiah Jesus and with His messianic life and ministry. In Lk 22 Jesus breaks bread and distributes the cup of the new covenant, established by His blood shed for His followers (Lk 22:20; 1Co 11:25). In 2Co 3 Paul assures his readers that, as ministers of the new covenant, they have confidence toward God through the Messiah Jesus. In the Messiah, and only in the Messiah, the veil over the old covenant is set aside, bringing about the Spirit-empowered freedom and transformation of the new covenant (2Co 3:4-18). The most extensive expression of the new covenant in the NT is in Hebrews, which quotes Jer 31 repeatedly. The great high priestly sacrifice and ministry of Jesus and the new covenant He established and continues to mediate are presented as profoundly superior to the old covenant and its priesthood (Heb 7:22–10:18).

This survey of several key texts, a few from the Pentateuch and several from Jeremiah, inform the understanding of Jer 31:31-34 as a messianic text. Various terms and themes occur throughout these passages, and together they form a cluster related to the anticipation of a new covenant. Leading up to the Book of Consolation and its central new covenant text, there is a thread of eschatological hope running through Jeremiah’s prophetic message of judgment. Already by the beginning of chap. 30 there has appeared a great deal of content influencing this understanding of what new covenant expectation entails. Then in chaps. 30–33 these future-oriented expectations burst forth with God’s own eschatological resolution to the sin problem. Until the new covenant came, this problem remained without any solution, and the history of God’s relationship with His people was riddled with failedattempts to obey God’s law and keep the stipulations of the covenant. The solution, which must be a work of the Lord Himself, will be found in a new covenant in the distant future from Jeremiah’s perspective. Jeremiah 31:31-34 summarizes this new covenant hope of a work of God that is fundamentally different from the old covenant. The Scripture context leading up to and surrounding this passage makes clear an integral element of this new covenant work of God: the coming of His Messianic King. In this new covenant situation, instead of law written on tablets of stone, or sin written on uncircumcised hearts of stone, God’s Torah will be within His people and written on their hearts. They will no longer need to mediate the knowledge of Yahweh for each other, because by the coming and mediation of the Righteous Branch of David, all will know Him. This new covenant will resolve the problem of sin, which has been insurmountable through the entire life of God’s people. Wrongdoing will be forgiven, and sin will be forgotten forever. The new covenant has come, the Messianic King is seated at the right hand of His Father, and He will return to take up His eternal throne.2

297. Jer. 33:14-15 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31

Jeremiah 33:14-15 says, "The days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will fulfill the good promise I made to the people of Israel and Judah. In those days and at that time I will make a righteous Branch sprout from David's line; he will do what is just and right in the land." This passage speaks of a promise from God to raise up a righteous Branch from the line of David.

Luke 3:23-31 contains a genealogy of Jesus Christ, tracing His lineage back to Adam through the line of David. This genealogy establishes Jesus' descent from David, fulfilling the prophetic promise made in Jeremiah 33:14-15.

The connection between these passages is that they both speak to the idea that the Messiah or Savior would be a descendant of David. Jeremiah 33:14-15 refers to a "righteous Branch" that will sprout from David's line, while Luke 3:23-31 traces Jesus' ancestry back to David. The fulfillment of this prophecy is important because it establishes Jesus' legitimacy as the Messiah and as a rightful heir to the throne of David. Together, these passages help to establish Jesus' identity as the long-awaited Savior and King, whose coming was foretold by the prophets of the Old Testament.

Ezekiel

298. Eze.34:23-24 Descendant of David Matthew 1:1

Ezekiel 34:23-24 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that reads: "I will set up over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he shall feed them: he shall feed them and be their shepherd. And I, the Lord, will be their God, and my servant David shall be prince among them; I, the Lord, have spoken."

This prophecy speaks about a future ruler who would be a descendant of David and would serve as a shepherd to the people of Israel. The ruler is referred to as "my servant David," but scholars generally understand this to be a reference to a future ruler who would be a descendant of David, rather than a literal reference to David himself.

Matthew 1:1 is the beginning of the New Testament Gospel according to Matthew, which provides a genealogy of Jesus Christ. The genealogy traces the ancestry of Jesus back through his earthly father, Joseph, all the way to Abraham, and ultimately to David. The first verse of Matthew 1 reads: "The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham."

So Matthew 1:1 affirms Jesus' descent from David, which fulfills the prophecy in Ezekiel 34:23-24. According to the Christian understanding of these prophecies, Jesus is the descendant of David who fulfills the role of the shepherd and prince described in Ezekiel 34:23-24.

299. Eze.37:24-25 Descendant of David Luke 1:31-33

Ezekiel 37:24-25 and Luke 1:31-33 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the descendant of David who would become king and rule over Israel.

In Ezekiel 37:24-25, the prophet Ezekiel speaks of a time when God will raise up a king from the line of David, who will rule over the people of Israel. This king will be a shepherd to the people, and he will make a covenant of peace with them. The passage emphasizes the importance of the Davidic line and suggests that the coming king will be a descendant of David.

In Luke 1:31-33, the angel Gabriel appears to Mary and tells her that she will conceive and give birth to a son, who will be called Jesus. The passage goes on to say that he will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High, and that the Lord God will give him the throne of his father David. He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and his kingdom will never end.

Both passages speak to the idea of a descendant of David who would become king and rule over Israel. They emphasize the importance of the Davidic line and suggest that the coming king will be a descendant of David. Ezekiel 37:24-25 speaks in more general terms about this coming king, while Luke 1:31-33 provides more specific details about Jesus, who is the promised descendant of David and the King of Kings. Both passages suggest that the coming of this king is a significant event in history, and that his reign will be characterized by peace and righteousness.

Daniel

300. Dan. 2:44-45 The Stone that shall break the kingdoms Matthew 21:44

Daniel 2:44-45 speaks of a great stone that will destroy the kingdoms of the world: "In the time of those kings, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that will never be destroyed, nor will it be left to another people. It will crush all those kingdoms and bring them to an end, but it will itself endure forever. This is the meaning of the vision of the rock cut out of a mountain, but not by human hands—a rock that broke the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver and the gold to pieces."

In Matthew 21:44, Jesus refers to Himself as the stone that will break the kingdoms of the world: "Anyone who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; anyone on whom it falls will be crushed." Here, Jesus is speaking about the inevitability of His coming and the ultimate judgment that will take place at the end of time.

The connection between these passages is that they both speak of a great stone that will destroy the kingdoms of the world. In Daniel 2:44-45, the stone is described as being cut out of a mountain by the hand of God and will establish a kingdom that will never be destroyed. In Matthew 21:44, Jesus describes Himself as the stone that will ultimately bring judgment and destruction to the kingdoms of the world. Together, these passages emphasize the power and authority of God and His ultimate plan for the world.

A. M. WOODS (2019): Daniel was a prophet whom God used in a strategic way to bless His chosen people, the nation of Israel, during a difficult period in her history known as the Babylonian captivity. During that era, the nation had been removed from her homeland and instead found herself captive roughly 350 miles to the east of Jerusalem. Because the nation of Israel had only limited prophetic information governing this era, God raised up Daniel to
prophetically reveal and explain it. Chapter 1 relates how Daniel and his three friends had been taken into captivity by the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar. Chapters 2-7 form an independent literary unit. Not only does the language shift from Hebrew to Aramaic, but also this section is organized as a chiasm.This prophecy constitutes a tremendous source of encouragement for the  nation of Israel throughout the millennia comprising the times of the
Gentiles. Although the nation would be oppressed by various political powers, God intends to preserve Israel as a distinct nation and eventually establish His kingdom through them. God will ultimately fulfill His Word according to His own timetable. On the horizon is a coming kingdom that cannot be shaken that God’s people will inherit. While the message to the Jewish people would be one of comfort, the message to the Gentile nations would be one of warning. Although they may now have the upper hand in history, their day in the sun will one day come to an end. How important, therefore, it is for us to heed this warning and not live for the fleeting values of this world but, rather, for the values of God’s coming and eternal kingdom.2



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276. Isa. 53:12 He would give up his life to save mankind Luke 23:46

Isaiah 53:12 is a prophecy in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) that describes a suffering servant who would give his life as a sacrifice for the sins of others. It says, "Therefore I will give him a portion among the great, and he will divide the spoils with the strong, because he poured out his life unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors. For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors."

Luke 23:46 is a verse in the New Testament that describes the moment of Jesus' death on the cross. It says, "Jesus called out with a loud voice, 'Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.' When he had said this, he breathed his last."

Many Christians believe that Jesus' death on the cross fulfilled the prophecy in Isaiah 53:12, as he willingly gave up his life as a sacrifice for the sins of humanity. Luke 23:46 is seen as the moment when Jesus surrendered his life to God and completed his mission on earth.

277. Isa. 53:12 Numbered with the transgressors Mark 15:27-28; Luke 22:37

Isaiah 53:12 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors."

This verse is a prophecy about the suffering servant who would bear the sins of many. The phrase "numbered with the transgressors" refers to the fact that the suffering servant would be treated as a criminal and be counted among the wicked.

Mark 15:27-28 and Luke 22:37 both refer to this prophecy when they describe the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. In Mark 15:27-28, it says: "And with him they crucified two robbers, one on his right and one on his left. And the Scripture was fulfilled that says, 'He was numbered with the transgressors.'" In Luke 22:37, Jesus himself quotes from Isaiah 53:12, saying: "For I tell you that this Scripture must be fulfilled in me: 'And he was numbered with the transgressors.'"

These verses show that Jesus was not only fulfilling the prophecy of the suffering servant in Isaiah 53, but also that he was being treated as a criminal and counted among the wicked when he was crucified between two robbers.

278. Isa. 53:12 Sin-bearer for all mankind 1Peter 2:24

Isaiah 53:12 and 1 Peter 2:24 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the concept of Jesus Christ bearing the sins of humanity.

In Isaiah 53:12, the prophet Isaiah is prophesying about the coming Messiah, who he describes as being "numbered with the transgressors" and bearing the sins of many. This passage is often seen as a prophetic foreshadowing of Jesus' crucifixion and his sacrifice for the sins of humanity.

In 1 Peter 2:24, the apostle Peter is reflecting on the significance of Jesus' death and resurrection. He writes, "He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, so that we might die to sins and live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed." This passage is seen as a reflection on the atonement that Jesus made for the sins of humanity through his death on the cross.

Both of these passages speak to the idea that Jesus Christ, as the Son of God, bore the sins of humanity and made atonement for those sins through his death and resurrection. This concept is central to Christian theology and the belief in the salvation of humanity through faith in Jesus Christ.

279. Isa. 53:12 Intercede to God in behalf of mankind Luke 23:34, Rom. 8:34

Isaiah 53:12 does not specifically mention intercession, but it does describe the suffering servant as making intercession for the transgressors. The verse says, "For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors." This could be interpreted as the suffering servant pleading or praying on behalf of those who had sinned.

Luke 23:34 records Jesus' words while he was on the cross, where he prayed for the forgiveness of those who were crucifying him, saying, "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing." This can be seen as an act of intercession on behalf of the very people who were responsible for his crucifixion.

Romans 8:34 also speaks of Jesus' intercession for believers, saying, "Who then is the one who condemns? No one. Christ Jesus who died—more than that, who was raised to life—is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us." This verse teaches that Jesus, who died and rose again, is now at the right hand of God interceding for believers.

So while these passages do not directly correspond to each other, they do allude to the idea of intercession in different ways.

M. L. BROWN  (2019): At the center of the gospel message is the atoning, substitutionary death of Jesus the Messiah, and nowhere in the Bible is this theme of vicarious suffering laid out more clearly than in Isa 53. Accordingly, among those who affirm Jesus as the Messiah of Israel, this chapter (or, more precisely, Isa 52:13–53:12) is widely considered to be the most specific messianic prophecy in the Tanakh. While it is not quoted in the New
Testament as frequently as Ps 110,1 it has been pointed to through the centuries as a central messianic prophecy because of its clearly expressed theology of vicarious atonement, its vivid description of the Servant of the Lord being rejected by His own people, and its glorious portrayal of the Servant’s exaltation.

Of this passage, Franz Delitzsch exclaimed, “How many are there whose eyes have been opened when reading this ‘golden passional of the Old Testament evangelist,’ as Polycarp the Lysian calls it! In how many an Israelite has it melted the crust of his heart! It looks as if it had been written beneath the cross upon Golgotha, and was illuminated by the heavenly brightness of the full shēb lîmînî (‘sit at my right hand’).”

According to Hermann Spieckermann, “Five criteria seem central to the idea of vicarious suffering in Isaiah 53:

a. One person intercedes for the sins of others….
b. The one who intercedes for the sins of others is himself sinless and righteous….
c. The vicarious act of the one occurs once for all….
d. One intercedes for the sins of others of his own will….
e. God brings about the vicarious action of the one for the sins of the others intentionally.” Or, as expressed by Bernd Janowski: “The bottomless depth of this text is reflected in the vicarious event: an innocent one bears the guilt of others, perishes by it, and will nevertheless have ‘success.’”

That Jewish theology developed the concept of the atoning power of the death of the righteous, despite its centrality in Christian theology, indicates just how deep the biblical roots of vicarious suffering can be found, even if they are brought to a distinct climax in Isa 53. The chapter finds striking and specific fulfillment in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. But since there is no reference here to “David” (see, e.g., Ezk 34:23-24; 37:24-25) or to the “stump of Jesse” (see Isa 11:1), one might question on what basis this passage can be identified as messianic. First, Isa 53 connects to the priestly ministry of the Messiah, an essential and important part of his work (see Zch 6:9-
13), and the chapter is filled with priestly language (cf. Paul). Second, the promised exaltation of the Servant (Isa 52:13; 53:12) is in messianic proportions. Third, the Servant of the Lord fulfills the mission of failing Israel, becoming a light to the nations while being rejected by His own people before ultimately regathering and restoring the tribes of Jacob (see Isa 42:1-7; 49:1-7). No one other than the Messiah is tasked with this mission, and it is Isa 53 that opens up the dimensions of just how this will happen, as the people of Israel realize that the One they thought was dying a criminal’s death was actually paying the price for their sins. It is through His wounds that Israel will be healed. F. B. Meyer was correct in saying, “There is only one brow upon which this crown of thorns will fit.”27 It is Jesus of Nazareth, who suffered innocently, died vicariously, was raised gloriously, and will return triumphantly, just as Isaiah foretold.2

280. Isa. 55:3 Resurrected by God Acts 13:34

Isaiah 55:3 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "Incline your ear, and come to me; hear, that your soul may live; and I will make with you an everlasting covenant, my steadfast, sure love for David."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Isaiah calls on the people of Israel to turn back to God and receive his mercy and forgiveness. In this verse, God promises to make an everlasting covenant with the people, a covenant that is rooted in his steadfast and sure love for David, the great king of Israel.

Acts 13:34 is a verse in the New Testament that refers to this passage in Isaiah. In this verse, the apostle Paul is preaching to a group of people in Antioch, and he says: "And as for the fact that he [God] raised him [Jesus] from the dead, no more to return to corruption, he has spoken in this way, 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.'"

Paul is quoting from Isaiah 55:3 and using it to show that the resurrection of Jesus was part of God's plan to fulfill his promises to David and establish his eternal kingdom. Paul is saying that just as God made an everlasting covenant with David, he has now made a new covenant with all people through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

So while Isaiah 55:3 does not explicitly mention the resurrection of Jesus, it is a key part of the larger context in which God promises to make an everlasting covenant with his people. Acts 13:34 shows how this promise was fulfilled through the resurrection of Jesus, who is the ultimate fulfillment of God's covenant with David.

281. Isa. 55:4 A witness John 18:37

Isaiah 55:4 and John 18:37 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the concept of bearing witness.

In Isaiah 55:4, the prophet Isaiah is speaking about a future leader, whom he describes as a witness to the people. The context of the passage suggests that this leader is a reference to the Messiah, and the language used to describe him as a witness suggests that he will bear witness to the truth of God's word and the salvation that is offered to all people.

In John 18:37, Jesus is standing before Pilate, who is questioning him about his identity and his claims to be a king. Jesus responds by saying, "You are right in saying that I am a king. In fact, for this reason I was born, and for this I came into the world, to bear witness to the truth. Everyone on the side of truth listens to me."

In this passage, Jesus is referring to his mission on earth as a witness to the truth of God's word and the salvation that is offered to all people through him. He is acknowledging his kingly status, but he is also emphasizing that his mission is not to establish an earthly kingdom, but rather to bear witness to the truth of God's kingdom.

Both of these passages speak to the idea of bearing witness to the truth of God's word and the salvation that is offered through faith in him. They suggest that the witness of God's chosen leader or Messiah, as well as the witness of Jesus Christ himself, are central to understanding God's plan for humanity and our relationship with him.

282. Isa. 55:4 He is a leader and commander Hebrews 2:10

Isaiah 55:4 says, "See, I have made him a witness to the peoples, a ruler and commander of the peoples." This verse is speaking of the promised Davidic Messiah, who would come as a leader and ruler over the nations.

Hebrews 2:10 also speaks of Jesus as a leader, saying, "In bringing many sons and daughters to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through what he suffered." The word "pioneer" can also be translated as "captain" or "leader," and it suggests that Jesus went ahead of his followers, leading the way to salvation.

So while these passages use different language and were written in different contexts, they both refer to the idea of Jesus as a leader. Isaiah 55:4 specifically prophesies the coming of a ruler and commander who would lead and guide the people, while Hebrews 2:10 speaks of Jesus as the pioneer and leader of salvation for his followers.

283. Isa. 55:5 God would glorify Him Acts 3:13

Isaiah 55:5 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "Behold, you shall call a nation that you do not know, and a nation that did not know you shall run to you, because of the Lord your God, and of the Holy One of Israel, for he has glorified you."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Isaiah is calling on the people of Israel to turn back to God and receive his mercy and forgiveness. In this verse, Isaiah is speaking to the people of Israel, telling them that God will call a nation that they do not know to himself and that this nation will run to him. This nation will be drawn to God because of his glory, which he has bestowed on his people.

Acts 3:13 is a verse in the New Testament that refers to this passage in Isaiah. In this verse, the apostle Peter is speaking to a crowd in Jerusalem, and he says: "The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified his servant Jesus, whom you delivered over and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he had decided to release him."

Peter is using the phrase "glorified his servant Jesus" to refer to Jesus' resurrection and exaltation to the right hand of God. Peter is saying that Jesus is the one who has been glorified by God, and that this was foretold by the prophets, including Isaiah.

So while Isaiah 55:5 does not explicitly mention Jesus, it is a key part of the larger context in which God promises to glorify his people. Acts 3:13 shows how this promise was fulfilled through Jesus, who was glorified by God through his resurrection and exaltation.

R. B. CHISHOLM JR. (2019): Isaiah 55 is important to a study of the OT’s messianic vision for at least two reasons: (1) It anticipates the positive outcome of the ministry of the Suffering Servant, who comes in the person of Jesus the Messiah. His atoning work opens the door to repentance and covenant renewal. (2) The Servant, as described in the first two Servant Songs (42:1-9; 49:1- 13), brings justice to the nations, as does the ideal Davidic king depicted in Isa 11:1-9. Consequently, it is reasonable to equate the Servant with the messianic king of Isa 11 and regard the Servant Songs as messianic. However, some argue that the Davidic promises are democratized in Isa 55:3-5, meaning that Israel replaces an individual Davidic king as God’s instrument of salvation. If so, this affects our understanding of the Servant Songs. That is one of the reasons so many scholars are hesitant to view the Songs as messianic. This essay will attempt to show that the promise is not democratized in Isa 55:3-5, at least not in the way some scholars argue. Rather, the passage envisions the national benefits that result from the realization of the Davidic promises, just as 2Sm 7, the classic text on the Davidic covenant, anticipates.

In Isa 55, the Lord calls Israel to covenant renewal, assuring them that repentance will bring forgiveness of sins and restoration of divine blessing. He promises He will make a new, perpetual covenant with them. This covenant is not democratized in the sense that the Lord’s promises to David are now transferred to the nation Israel. On the contrary, this covenant, which will be mediated through the Suffering Servant of the Lord (see Isa 49:8 ), is rooted in and will bring to fulfillment the Lord’s ancient promises to David that He will exalt His people Israel through His chosen king. This should come as no surprise, since the Suffering Servant and the ideal Davidic king, the Messiah, are one and the same. Isaiah 55 is an important messianic text, for it describes the goal of the Servant’s ministry. Through Him the new covenant is inaugurated and the Davidic promise is realized. 2

284. Isa. 59:16 Intercessor between man and God Matthew 10:32

Isaiah 59:16 and Matthew 10:32 are both passages from the Bible that speak to the concept of intercession between humanity and God.

In Isaiah 59:16, the prophet Isaiah laments that there is no one who is able to intercede or plead on behalf of the people to God, in order to bring about justice and salvation. However, he goes on to describe how God himself intervenes to bring about salvation, by putting on righteousness like a breastplate and a helmet of salvation.

In Matthew 10:32, Jesus is instructing his disciples on the importance of confessing their faith in him before others. He says, "Whoever acknowledges me before others, I will also acknowledge before my Father in heaven." This passage suggests that Jesus acts as an intercessor on behalf of those who confess their faith in him before others, acknowledging them before God the Father.

While these passages use slightly different language, they both speak to the concept of intercession, or acting as a mediator between humanity and God. Isaiah 59:16 highlights the need for an intercessor, while Matthew 10:32 suggests that Jesus himself acts as an intercessor for those who acknowledge him. Both passages emphasize the importance of our relationship with God and the role that intercession plays in that relationship.

285. Isa. 59:16 He would come to provide salvation John 6:40

Isaiah 59:16 says, "He saw that there was no one, he was appalled that there was no one to intervene; so his own arm achieved salvation for him, and his own righteousness sustained him." This verse describes how God looked for someone to provide salvation, but found no one, so He Himself provided salvation through His own arm and righteousness.

John 6:40 is a statement made by Jesus where He says, "For my Father's will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life, and I will raise them up at the last day." This verse suggests that Jesus came to provide salvation for those who believe in Him and look to Him for eternal life.

While Isaiah 59:16 does not specifically mention the coming of Jesus, it is part of a larger prophetic context in which God promised to send a Messiah to save His people. John 6:40, on the other hand, is a direct statement from Jesus about His own role in providing salvation. Both passages speak to the idea of salvation being provided by God, either through His own arm and righteousness or through belief in Jesus.

286. Isa. 59:20 He would come to Zion as their Redeemer Luke 2:38

Isaiah 59:20 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "And a Redeemer will come to Zion, to those in Jacob who turn from transgression, declares the Lord."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Isaiah is speaking about the sins of the people of Israel and their need for redemption. In this verse, Isaiah prophesies that a Redeemer will come to Zion, the holy city of Jerusalem, to save those who turn from their sins.

Luke 2:38 is a verse in the New Testament that refers to this prophecy in Isaiah. In this verse, the prophetess Anna sees the infant Jesus in the temple in Jerusalem and begins to give thanks to God. She then "spoke about the child to all who were looking forward to the redemption of Jerusalem."

Anna's words suggest that she and others in Jerusalem at the time were looking forward to the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy about the coming Redeemer who would come to Zion. In Luke's gospel, Jesus is presented as the fulfillment of this prophecy, as he comes to Jerusalem and offers redemption to all who turn from their sins and put their faith in him.

So while Isaiah 59:20 does not explicitly mention Jesus, it is a key part of the larger context in which God promises to send a Redeemer to Zion. Luke 2:38 shows how this promise was fulfilled in the person of Jesus, who came to Jerusalem as the Redeemer of all who put their faith in him.

287. Isa. 60:1-3 He would shew light to the Gentiles Acts 26:23

Isaiah 60:1-3 and Acts 26:23 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the idea of bringing light to the Gentiles.

In Isaiah 60:1-3, the prophet Isaiah speaks of a future time when the glory of the Lord will rise upon Israel, and nations will come to that light. The passage suggests that the nations, or Gentiles, will be drawn to the light of the Lord that is shining upon Israel, and that this light will be a sign of God's salvation and blessing for all people.

In Acts 26:23, the apostle Paul is describing his mission and his message to King Agrippa. He speaks of how he was commissioned by Jesus to preach to the Gentiles and to open their eyes, so that they may turn from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God.

Both passages speak to the idea of bringing light to the Gentiles, or to those who are outside of Israel or the Jewish community. Isaiah 60:1-3 suggests that the light of the Lord shining upon Israel will draw the nations to God, while Acts 26:23 speaks of the mission of the apostle Paul to bring the light of the gospel to the Gentiles, so that they may turn from darkness to light.

These passages highlight the universal nature of God's salvation, which is offered to all people, regardless of their ethnicity or background. They emphasize the importance of sharing the light of the gospel with others, so that they too may come to know the salvation that is available through faith in Jesus Christ.

288. Isa. 61:1 The Spirit of God upon him Matthew 3:16-17

Isaiah 61:1 says, "The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners." This verse describes a servant of God who is empowered by the Holy Spirit to bring good news and freedom to those in need.

Matthew 3:16-17 describes the baptism of Jesus, saying, "As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, 'This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.'" This passage reveals that the Holy Spirit came upon Jesus at His baptism and that He is the beloved Son of God.

The connection between these two passages is that they both refer to the Holy Spirit being upon a servant of God. In Isaiah 61:1, the Spirit is upon the servant to empower him to bring good news and freedom to those in need. In Matthew 3:16-17, the Spirit is upon Jesus as a sign of His divine mission and identity as the Son of God.

289. Isa. 61:1 The Messiah would preach the good news Luke 4:16-21

Isaiah 61:1 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me to bring good news to the poor; he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Isaiah is speaking about the coming of the Messiah, who will bring good news to the people and set them free from their oppression. In this verse, Isaiah describes how the Spirit of the Lord will rest upon the Messiah, anointing him to proclaim good news to the poor and set the captives free.

Luke 4:16-21 is a passage in the New Testament that refers to this prophecy in Isaiah. In this passage, Jesus enters the synagogue in Nazareth and reads from the scroll of Isaiah, including the passage in Isaiah 61:1. He then tells the people in the synagogue that this passage is fulfilled in their hearing.

By reading this passage from Isaiah and declaring that it is fulfilled in him, Jesus is claiming to be the Messiah, the one anointed by the Spirit of the Lord to bring good news to the people and set them free. He is also announcing the arrival of the kingdom of God, in which the poor and oppressed will be lifted up and given hope.

So while Isaiah 61:1 does not explicitly mention Jesus, it is a key part of the larger context in which God promises to send the Messiah to bring good news to the people and set them free. Luke 4:16-21 shows how this promise was fulfilled in the person of Jesus, who preached the good news of the kingdom and brought salvation to all who put their faith in him.

290. Isa. 61:1 Provide freedom from the bondage of sin John 8:31-36

Isaiah 61:1 and John 8:31-36 are both passages from the Bible that speak to the idea of freedom from the bondage of sin.

In Isaiah 61:1, the prophet Isaiah is speaking about the anointed servant of the Lord who has been sent to bring good news to the poor, to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives, and release from darkness for the prisoners. The context of the passage suggests that the freedom that is being offered is not only physical, but also spiritual, as the captives are those who are in bondage to sin and the prisoners are those who are trapped in spiritual darkness.

In John 8:31-36, Jesus is speaking to the Jews who had believed in him, and he tells them that if they hold to his teaching, they are really his disciples, and they will know the truth, and the truth will set them free. When they object and claim that they have never been slaves, Jesus responds by saying that everyone who sins is a slave to sin, but if the Son sets them free, they will be free indeed.

Both passages speak to the idea of freedom from the bondage of sin, which is offered through the work of God's chosen servant or the Son of God, Jesus Christ. They emphasize that all people are in bondage to sin and in need of spiritual freedom, and that this freedom is offered through faith in God's chosen servant or in Jesus Christ. They also suggest that this freedom is not simply a matter of being released from physical bondage, but is a spiritual liberation that sets us free to live as children of God.

291. Isa. 61:1-2 Proclaim a period of grace Galatians 4:4-5

Isaiah 61:1-2 says, "The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor and the day of vengeance of our God." This passage speaks of a servant of God who is anointed by the Spirit to proclaim good news and freedom to those in need, and also to announce the coming of the "year of the Lord's favor," which can be interpreted as a period of grace.

Galatians 4:4-5 says, "But when the set time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem those under the law, that we might receive adoption to sonship." This passage describes the timing and purpose of Jesus' coming, which was to redeem humanity and make it possible for people to become children of God through faith in Him.

The connection between these two passages is that both speak of a special time when God intervenes in history to provide salvation and grace to humanity. In Isaiah 61:1-2, this is described as the "year of the Lord's favor," while in Galatians 4:4-5, it is described as the "set time" when Jesus came to redeem humanity. Both passages offer hope and promise to those in need of salvation and grace, and both emphasize the importance of God's timing and plan in bringing about redemption.

E. E. HINDSON (2019): The announcement of the messianic anointing in Isa 61:1-3 introduces the voice of the Messiah who will proclaim the “good news”. That Jesus quoted this passage in the synagogue in Nazareth and applied it to Himself clearly indicates that He understood its messianic implications (Lk 4:16-22). To deny this or to simply limit the voice of the speaker to the role of some other prophet flies in the face of Jesus’ own declaration. Noting the continuity of the Servant’s anointing with the Spirit (Isa 42:1) and that of the Messiah (Isa 11:2), John Oswalt identifies the speaker as the servant/Messiah. Walter Kaiser suggests that the act of anointing is the central factor in the installation of the Anointed One, stating, “Yahweh appoints the Servant and the Spirit anoints him, thereby making one of the earliest constructs of the doctrine of the Trinity.” The Anointed One is “sent” with what Joseph Blenkinsopp calls “five charges that coalesce into one undertaking.” A series of infinitives follows dependent on the verb “sent”: “bind … proclaim … proclaim … comfort … grant” (NASB). Thus, the speaker not only acknowledges His anointing but also describes His evangelistic calling to proclaim “good news” to those who desperately need it most: “afflicted … brokenhearted … captives … prisoners … mourners” (NASB). The message of proclamation in vv. 1-2 is then followed by a description of salvation in v. 3 through a use of what Claus Westermann calls “paronomasia” (a series of contrasts emphasized by a list of “insteads”). Thus, the sent one will grant a garland instead of ashes; gladness instead of mourning; praise instead of fainting (v. 3). 2

J. F. Walvoord (2011):  The Servant of the Lord, who is Christ Himself, will have the anointing of the Holy Spirit. “The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is on me, because the LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim the year of the LORD’s favor and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all who mourn” (vv. 1–2). His anointing, like that of Saul and David, will set Him apart as King because the title “Christ” has the meaning of being anointed (cf. Matt. 3:16–17). In Luke 4:18–19, Christ quoted Isaiah 61:1 and part of verse 2 in connection with Himself. Significantly, He stopped the quotation before the mention of “the day of vengeance of our God” (v. 2). The previous verses harmonize with His first coming, but the day of vengeance refers to His second coming. By this, Christ signified the difference between the two events and their prophetic fulfillment. As in other millennial passages, the reconstruction of the cities of Israel is prophesied (vv. 4–6). Not only will material places be restored, but the people of Israel will also be restored as a nation, and aliens will be servants to them. Israel herself will live as “priests of the LORD” (v. 6). Her prosperity included that she would be forgiven her sins and would have a double portion of her inheritance and everlasting joy. Her= prosperity will be a token to the nations of the Lord’s blessings. The prophet himself described his joy in the Lord and enumerated the blessings that God has showered on him (vv. 10–11). These prophecies will be fulfilled primarily in the millennium.

Summary of Messianic Prophecies in Isaiah

The prophecy concerning the virgin birth of Christ should be considered in the context of other messianic prophecies in the whole book of Isaiah. Major future messianic prophecies in Isaiah include the reign of Christ in the kingdom (2:3–5), the virgin birth of Christ (7:14), the joyful reign of Christ (9:2, 7), the rule of Christ over the world (v. 4), Christ as a descendant of Jesse and David (11:1, 10), Christ to be filled with the Spirit (v. 2; 42:1), Christ to judge with righteousness (11:3–5; 42:1, 4), Christ to rule over the nations (11:10), Christ to be gentle to the weak (42:3), Christ to make possible the new covenant (v. 6; 49:8 ), Christ to be a light to the Gentiles and to be worshipped by them (42:6; 49:6–7; 52:15), Christ to be rejected by Israel (49:7; 53:1–3), Christ to be obedient to God and subject to suffering (50:6; 53:7–8 ), Christ to be exalted (52:13; 53:12), Christ to restore Israel and judge the wicked (61:1–3). 30

292. Jer. 11:21 Conspiracy to kill Jesus John 7:1, Matthew 21:38

Jeremiah 11:21 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "Therefore, this is what the Lord says about the people of Anathoth who are threatening to kill you. They say, 'Do not prophesy in the name of the Lord or you will die by our hands.'"

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Jeremiah is speaking about the plot of his fellow citizens in the town of Anathoth to kill him because of his prophesying against them. The verse describes the threat that the people of Anathoth make against Jeremiah, warning him not to prophesy in the name of the Lord or he will be killed.

John 7:1 and Matthew 21:38 are verses in the New Testament that do not directly refer to this particular verse in Jeremiah. John 7:1 is a verse that describes how Jesus avoided going to Judea because the Jewish leaders were looking for an opportunity to kill him. Matthew 21:38 is a verse in which Jesus tells a parable about a vineyard owner whose servants are killed by the vineyard's tenants.

While there is no direct connection between Jeremiah 11:21 and these New Testament verses, there is a general theme of opposition and threat of violence against prophets and messengers of God. In the case of Jeremiah, he was threatened with death for speaking the word of God. In the case of Jesus, he was also threatened with death because of his teachings and the claims he made about himself as the Son of God.

So while there is no direct reference to Jeremiah 11:21 in these New Testament verses, they do reflect the broader theme of opposition and persecution faced by prophets and messengers of God, including Jesus.

Accordingtothescriptures (2015): Not many commentators apply this verse in Jeremiah to Christ. Most apply it to Jeremiah, and indeed the people of apostate Israel and Judah at that time were speaking that to him. Nevertheless, what many have forgotten, is that many of the prophets, in one form or another of their ministry, exemplified in his own person some one feature or more in the manifold attributes and sufferings of the Messiah to come, and so that which applied to them, was in fact being spoken also of Christ. And this is not hard to discern as this was also clearly spoken of the Messiah in Isaiah 53, that He "was cut off out of the land of the living", and ever so clearly in Daniel 9:27, that at the appointed time "shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself", no, not for Himself, but "for the transgression of my people was he stricken" (Isaiah 53:Cool. Furthermore, this being conspired in the minds of the detractors, "that his name be no more remembered", would certainly remind us of Psalm 83, where it is written, "Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance." Here speaking of Israel, but once again, typified as Christ (Ex. 4:22, Hosea 11:1, Mt. 2:15) whom is identified as Israel, my firstborn Son whom He called out of Egypt, whom through the loins of Israel He was to come as the promised Seed of Abraham. And Christ, foreknowing all things prophesied of this also saying, "the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again" (Mark 8:31). And again, "they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again." (Mark 10:34) And this being in their mind, we are told, "the Jews sought to kill him" (John 7:1), the Prince of life. And for what purpose? Even the ignorant Caiaphas prophesied that, "it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people" (John 11:50). And so, Christ died for our sins, He was buried, and rose again from the dead according to the Scriptures. Hallelujah! There are so many riches and treasures and wonders hidden in the Scriptures that they are just too wonderful for me. 3

293. Jer. 23:5-6 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31

Jeremiah 23:5-6 and Luke 3:23-31 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the ancestry of the Messiah and his connection to the line of David.

In Jeremiah 23:5-6, the prophet Jeremiah speaks of a future time when God will raise up a righteous branch from the line of David, who will reign as king and execute justice and righteousness in the land. The passage emphasizes the importance of the Davidic line and suggests that the coming Messiah will be a descendant of David.

In Luke 3:23-31, Luke provides a genealogy of Jesus that traces his ancestry back to David. The passage lists a series of names, beginning with Jesus and moving backwards through his ancestors, until it reaches David. The genealogy emphasizes Jesus' connection to the line of David and his rightful claim to the title of Messiah.

Both passages speak to the idea of the Messiah's ancestry and his connection to the line of David. They emphasize the importance of this connection, both as a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy and as a means of establishing Jesus' rightful claim to the title of Messiah. They suggest that the coming of the Messiah is a significant event in history, and that his ancestry and lineage are important markers of his identity and mission.

294. Jer. 23:5-6 The Messiah would be both God and Man John 13:13, 1Ti 3:16

Jeremiah 23:5-6 says, "The days are coming," declares the Lord, "when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, a King who will reign wisely and do what is just and right in the land. In his days Judah will be saved and Israel will live in safety. This is the name by which he will be called: The Lord Our Righteous Savior." This passage describes the coming of a righteous Branch, who is both a king from the line of David and a savior sent by God.

In John 13:13, Jesus says to His disciples, "You call me 'Teacher' and 'Lord,' and rightly so, for that is what I am." This statement suggests that Jesus is both a human teacher and also Lord, a title that is often used to refer to God.

1 Timothy 3:16 says, "Beyond all question, the mystery from which true godliness springs is great: He appeared in the flesh, was vindicated by the Spirit, was seen by angels, was preached among the nations, was believed on in the world, was taken up in glory." This verse refers to the mystery of the incarnation, the fact that God became man in the person of Jesus Christ.

The connection between these passages is that they all speak to the idea that the Messiah or Savior would be both God and man. Jeremiah 23:5-6 speaks of the Messiah being called "The Lord Our Righteous Savior," suggesting that He is both divine and righteous. John 13:13 and 1 Timothy 3:16 both affirm the deity of Jesus Christ, while also acknowledging His humanity. Together, these passages help to illustrate the Christian belief that Jesus is both fully God and fully man, which is a central doctrine of the Christian faith.

M. L. BROWN (2019): Jeremiah 23:5-6 is an important messianic prophecy because: (1) it envisions the coming of the Messianic King on the heels of the return from Babylonian exile, which is in keeping with a larger prophetic
pattern that expected the establishment of God’s glorious kingdom in the aftermath of this return; (2) it explicitly connects the title Branch  with this Davidic King (see further Jer 33:15; cf. also Isa 4:2; Zch 3:8; 6:12; see Zch 6:9-15)2


295. Jer. 31:22 Born of a virgin Matthew 1:18-20

Jeremiah 31:22 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "How long will you waver, O faithless daughter? For the Lord has created a new thing on the earth: a woman shall encompass a man."

This verse is part of a larger passage in which the prophet Jeremiah is speaking about the restoration of Israel and the coming of a new covenant between God and his people. The verse describes a new thing that the Lord has created on the earth, in which a woman will encompass a man.

Matthew 1:18-20 is a passage in the New Testament that is often cited as a fulfillment of this prophecy in Jeremiah. In this passage, it is revealed that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was found to be with child through the Holy Spirit, and that Joseph, her betrothed husband, was told in a dream not to be afraid to take Mary as his wife.

The birth of Jesus to a virgin is seen by many Christians as the fulfillment of this prophecy in Jeremiah 31:22, in which a new thing is created on the earth, a woman encompassing a man. The idea is that Mary, as a virgin, encompassed Jesus, who was fully God and fully man, in her womb.

So while Jeremiah 31:22 does not explicitly mention Jesus or the virgin birth, it is seen as a prophecy that was fulfilled in the birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary, as described in Matthew 1:18-20.

296. Jer. 31:31 The Messiah would be the new covenant Matthew 26:28

Jeremiah 31:31 and Matthew 26:28 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the new covenant that would be established by the Messiah.

In Jeremiah 31:31, the prophet Jeremiah speaks of a time when God will make a new covenant with the people of Israel, a covenant that will not be like the old covenant made at Mount Sinai. This new covenant will be written on their hearts, and God will be their God, and they will be his people.

In Matthew 26:28, Jesus is at the Last Supper with his disciples, and he takes the cup, gives thanks, and gives it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins." In this passage, Jesus is establishing a new covenant with his disciples, one that is sealed by his blood.

Both passages speak to the idea of a new covenant that would be established by the Messiah. Jeremiah 31:31 suggests that this new covenant would be different from the old covenant, and that it would be written on the hearts of the people. Matthew 26:28 reveals that Jesus, the Messiah, is the one who establishes this new covenant, and that it is sealed by his blood. Both passages emphasize the importance of this new covenant in bringing about the forgiveness of sins and restoring the relationship between God and humanity.

JOSH MATHEWS (2019): Jeremiah 31:31-34 is a theologically significant passage for the message of the book of Jeremiah and for the whole Old Testament and New Testament as well. The passage is familiar for its presentation of the new covenant. These four verses include a grouping of features associated with the anticipated new covenant. In Jeremiah, they are intended to instill hope in a future time of restoration from the dismal circumstances God’s people are experiencing. The cluster of features also continues a trajectory of eschatological anticipation that has been advancing in the Tanakh from its earliest chapters, which find their realization in the NT. In the NT, the fulfillment of new covenant expectations is clearly associated with the coming of the Messiah Jesus and with His messianic life and ministry. In Lk 22 Jesus breaks bread and distributes the cup of the new covenant, established by His blood shed for His followers (Lk 22:20; 1Co 11:25). In 2Co 3 Paul assures his readers that, as ministers of the new covenant, they have confidence toward God through the Messiah Jesus. In the Messiah, and only in the Messiah, the veil over the old covenant is set aside, bringing about the Spirit-empowered freedom and transformation of the new covenant (2Co 3:4-18). The most extensive expression of the new covenant in the NT is in Hebrews, which quotes Jer 31 repeatedly. The great high priestly sacrifice and ministry of Jesus and the new covenant He established and continues to mediate are presented as profoundly superior to the old covenant and its priesthood (Heb 7:22–10:18).

This survey of several key texts, a few from the Pentateuch and several from Jeremiah, inform the understanding of Jer 31:31-34 as a messianic text. Various terms and themes occur throughout these passages, and together they form a cluster related to the anticipation of a new covenant. Leading up to the Book of Consolation and its central new covenant text, there is a thread of eschatological hope running through Jeremiah’s prophetic message of judgment. Already by the beginning of chap. 30 there has appeared a great deal of content influencing this understanding of what new covenant expectation entails. Then in chaps. 30–33 these future-oriented expectations burst forth with God’s own eschatological resolution to the sin problem. Until the new covenant came, this problem remained without any solution, and the history of God’s relationship with His people was riddled with failedattempts to obey God’s law and keep the stipulations of the covenant. The solution, which must be a work of the Lord Himself, will be found in a new covenant in the distant future from Jeremiah’s perspective. Jeremiah 31:31-34 summarizes this new covenant hope of a work of God that is fundamentally different from the old covenant. The Scripture context leading up to and surrounding this passage makes clear an integral element of this new covenant work of God: the coming of His Messianic King. In this new covenant situation, instead of law written on tablets of stone, or sin written on uncircumcised hearts of stone, God’s Torah will be within His people and written on their hearts. They will no longer need to mediate the knowledge of Yahweh for each other, because by the coming and mediation of the Righteous Branch of David, all will know Him. This new covenant will resolve the problem of sin, which has been insurmountable through the entire life of God’s people. Wrongdoing will be forgiven, and sin will be forgotten forever. The new covenant has come, the Messianic King is seated at the right hand of His Father, and He will return to take up His eternal throne.2

297. Jer. 33:14-15 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31

Jeremiah 33:14-15 says, "The days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will fulfill the good promise I made to the people of Israel and Judah. In those days and at that time I will make a righteous Branch sprout from David's line; he will do what is just and right in the land." This passage speaks of a promise from God to raise up a righteous Branch from the line of David.

Luke 3:23-31 contains a genealogy of Jesus Christ, tracing His lineage back to Adam through the line of David. This genealogy establishes Jesus' descent from David, fulfilling the prophetic promise made in Jeremiah 33:14-15.

The connection between these passages is that they both speak to the idea that the Messiah or Savior would be a descendant of David. Jeremiah 33:14-15 refers to a "righteous Branch" that will sprout from David's line, while Luke 3:23-31 traces Jesus' ancestry back to David. The fulfillment of this prophecy is important because it establishes Jesus' legitimacy as the Messiah and as a rightful heir to the throne of David. Together, these passages help to establish Jesus' identity as the long-awaited Savior and King, whose coming was foretold by the prophets of the Old Testament.

298. Eze.34:23-24 Descendant of David Matthew 1:1

Ezekiel 34:23-24 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that reads: "I will set up over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he shall feed them: he shall feed them and be their shepherd. And I, the Lord, will be their God, and my servant David shall be prince among them; I, the Lord, have spoken."

This prophecy speaks about a future ruler who would be a descendant of David and would serve as a shepherd to the people of Israel. The ruler is referred to as "my servant David," but scholars generally understand this to be a reference to a future ruler who would be a descendant of David, rather than a literal reference to David himself.

Matthew 1:1 is the beginning of the New Testament Gospel according to Matthew, which provides a genealogy of Jesus Christ. The genealogy traces the ancestry of Jesus back through his earthly father, Joseph, all the way to Abraham, and ultimately to David. The first verse of Matthew 1 reads: "The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham."

So Matthew 1:1 affirms Jesus' descent from David, which fulfills the prophecy in Ezekiel 34:23-24. According to the Christian understanding of these prophecies, Jesus is the descendant of David who fulfills the role of the shepherd and prince described in Ezekiel 34:23-24.

299. Eze.37:24-25 Descendant of David Luke 1:31-33

Ezekiel 37:24-25 and Luke 1:31-33 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the descendant of David who would become king and rule over Israel.

In Ezekiel 37:24-25, the prophet Ezekiel speaks of a time when God will raise up a king from the line of David, who will rule over the people of Israel. This king will be a shepherd to the people, and he will make a covenant of peace with them. The passage emphasizes the importance of the Davidic line and suggests that the coming king will be a descendant of David.

In Luke 1:31-33, the angel Gabriel appears to Mary and tells her that she will conceive and give birth to a son, who will be called Jesus. The passage goes on to say that he will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High, and that the Lord God will give him the throne of his father David. He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and his kingdom will never end.

Both passages speak to the idea of a descendant of David who would become king and rule over Israel. They emphasize the importance of the Davidic line and suggest that the coming king will be a descendant of David. Ezekiel 37:24-25 speaks in more general terms about this coming king, while Luke 1:31-33 provides more specific details about Jesus, who is the promised descendant of David and the King of Kings. Both passages suggest that the coming of this king is a significant event in history, and that his reign will be characterized by peace and righteousness.

300. Dan. 2:44-45 The Stone that shall break the kingdoms Matthew 21:44

Daniel 2:44-45 speaks of a great stone that will destroy the kingdoms of the world: "In the time of those kings, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that will never be destroyed, nor will it be left to another people. It will crush all those kingdoms and bring them to an end, but it will itself endure forever. This is the meaning of the vision of the rock cut out of a mountain, but not by human hands—a rock that broke the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver and the gold to pieces."

In Matthew 21:44, Jesus refers to Himself as the stone that will break the kingdoms of the world: "Anyone who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; anyone on whom it falls will be crushed." Here, Jesus is speaking about the inevitability of His coming and the ultimate judgment that will take place at the end of time.

The connection between these passages is that they both speak of a great stone that will destroy the kingdoms of the world. In Daniel 2:44-45, the stone is described as being cut out of a mountain by the hand of God and will establish a kingdom that will never be destroyed. In Matthew 21:44, Jesus describes Himself as the stone that will ultimately bring judgment and destruction to the kingdoms of the world. Together, these passages emphasize the power and authority of God and His ultimate plan for the world.

A. M. WOODS (2019): Daniel was a prophet whom God used in a strategic way to bless His chosen people, the nation of Israel, during a difficult period in her history known as the Babylonian captivity. During that era, the nation had been removed from her homeland and instead found herself captive roughly 350 miles to the east of Jerusalem. Because the nation of Israel had only limited prophetic information governing this era, God raised up Daniel to
prophetically reveal and explain it. Chapter 1 relates how Daniel and his three friends had been taken into captivity by the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar. Chapters 2-7 form an independent literary unit. Not only does the language shift from Hebrew to Aramaic, but also this section is organized as a chiasm.This prophecy constitutes a tremendous source of encouragement for the  nation of Israel throughout the millennia comprising the times of the
Gentiles. Although the nation would be oppressed by various political powers, God intends to preserve Israel as a distinct nation and eventually establish His kingdom through them. God will ultimately fulfill His Word according to His own timetable. On the horizon is a coming kingdom that cannot be shaken that God’s people will inherit. While the message to the Jewish people would be one of comfort, the message to the Gentile nations would be one of warning. Although they may now have the upper hand in history, their day in the sun will one day come to an end. How important, therefore, it is for us to heed this warning and not live for the fleeting values of this world but, rather, for the values of God’s coming and eternal kingdom.2



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301. Dan. 7:13-14 He would ascend into heaven Acts 1:9-11

Daniel 7:13-14 speaks of a vision that Daniel had, where he saw one like a son of man coming with the clouds of heaven and approaching the Ancient of Days. This son of man was given authority, glory and sovereign power, and people of all nations and languages worshiped him. "He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all nations and peoples of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed."

In Acts 1:9-11, after Jesus' resurrection, He ascended into heaven in the presence of His disciples: "After he said this, he was taken up before their very eyes, and a cloud hid him from their sight. They were looking intently up into the sky as he was going, when suddenly two men dressed in white stood beside them. 'Men of Galilee,' they said, 'why do you stand here looking into the sky? This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.'"

The connection between these passages is that both speak of a figure ascending into heaven. In Daniel 7:13-14, the figure is a vision of the son of man who is given authority and worshiped by all nations. In Acts 1:9-11, the figure is Jesus Himself, who ascends into heaven in the presence of His disciples after His resurrection. These passages reinforce the idea that Jesus is the fulfillment of the prophecy in Daniel and establish His authority as the son of man who was given dominion and sovereignty over all the earth.

302. Dan. 7:13-14 Highly exalted Ephesians 1:20-22

Daniel 7:13-14 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that reads: "I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him. And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed."

This prophecy speaks about a figure who is highly exalted and given dominion over all peoples, nations, and languages. This figure is referred to as "one like a son of man" and is presented before the Ancient of Days, who is often understood to be a representation of God.

Ephesians 1:20-22 is a passage in the New Testament that speaks about the exaltation of Jesus Christ. The passage reads: "that he worked in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come. And he put all things under his feet and gave him as head over all things to the church."

This passage speaks about how God exalted Jesus Christ after his death and resurrection, seating him at his right hand in the heavenly places and giving him authority over all things. The language of exaltation and authority used in this passage is similar to that used in the prophecy in Daniel 7:13-14.

Thus, many Christians see a connection between Daniel 7:13-14 and Ephesians 1:20-22, understanding Jesus Christ to be the "one like a son of man" who is highly exalted and given dominion over all things, as described in Daniel 7:13-14, and the one who has been exalted and given authority over all things by God, as described in Ephesians 1:20-22.

303. Dan. 7:13-14 His dominion would be everlasting Luke 1:31-33

Daniel 7:13-14 and Luke 1:31-33 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the eternal nature of the reign of the Messiah.

In Daniel 7:13-14, the prophet Daniel has a vision in which he sees one like a son of man coming with the clouds of heaven. He is presented to the Ancient of Days, and to him is given dominion, glory, and a kingdom that will never be destroyed. This kingdom will be given to the people of the saints of the Most High, and his dominion will be an everlasting dominion.

In Luke 1:31-33, the angel Gabriel appears to Mary and tells her that she will conceive and give birth to a son, who will be called Jesus. The passage goes on to say that he will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High, and that the Lord God will give him the throne of his father David. He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and his kingdom will never end.

Both passages speak to the idea of the eternal nature of the reign of the Messiah. Daniel 7:13-14 emphasizes the everlasting dominion that will be given to the Son of Man, and his reign will be characterized by glory and power. Luke 1:31-33 provides more specific details about Jesus, who is the promised Messiah and the King of Kings. It emphasizes that his reign will be eternal, and his kingdom will never end. Both passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah is a significant event in history, and that his reign will bring about a new era of peace, righteousness, and glory that will last forever.

J. P. TANNER (2019): One of the most profound messianic prophecies of the Old Testament appears in Daniel 7:13-14. In this passage, an individual referred to as “One like a son of man” is presented before the “Ancient of Days” and given an everlasting kingdom over all nations who will “serve” Him. In this passage, Daniel records what he saw in a night vision,

I continued watching in the night visions, and I saw One like a son of man coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was escorted before Him. He was given authority to rule, and glory, and a kingdom; so that those of every people, nation, and language should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and His kingdom is one that will not be destroyed.

Although the phrase “one like a son of man” is strikingly similar to Jesus’ favorite self-designation, the Son of Man, there is great debate in scholarly circles as to the identity of the one mentioned in Dan 7:13, as well as to how and when the fulfillment takes place. The traditional Christian opinion has been to identify Daniel’s “one like a son of man” with Jesus Christ, and even Jewish expositors—although they reject the identification with Jesus—have historically understood this as a reference to the Messiah. Critical scholars, on the other hand, have rejected the messianic view and have offered several alternative interpretations in its place. Nevertheless, the traditional Christian interpretation that sees the ultimate fulfillment in Messiah Jesus is the most defensible position and is the view expounded in this article. 

Daniel 7:13-14 predicts that “One like a son of man” will come with the clouds of heaven, and He will be given “authority to rule, and glory, and a kingdom; so that those of every people, nation, and language should serve Him.” This passage most certainly finds its fulfillment in Messiah Jesus, despite the skepticism of critical scholars. Their skepticism stems from a presupposition that the book of Daniel was not authored by the prophet Daniel in the sixth century BC, but rather was composed about 165 BC during the Jewish persecution of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. This theory colors all other interpretations of the book, including Dan 7. Hence, they interpret the “little horn” of Dan 7 as Antiochus IV and propose various nonmessianic identifications for “one like a son of man” that they consider commensurate with this era. Yet their dating of the book is entirely wrong, and Daniel did write the book bearing his name, much of which contains authentic prophecies.2

J. F Walvoord (2012): Daniel 7:13–14 is the climax of Daniel’s vision. Again, heaven rather than earth is in view. verse 13 follows verse 10 chronologically. verses 11–12 are explanatory and do not advance the narrative. Porteous correctly notes, “The interposition, however, of vv. 11 and 12 is necessary to express the author’s meaning.” One described as “like a son of man,” in obvious contrast with the beasts and the little horn, comes before the throne of the Ancient of Days, attended by the clouds of heaven. The purpose of this heavenly presentation is indicated in verse 14 where the Son of Man is given a worldwide kingdom involving all peoples. In contrast to the preceding kingdoms, this is a kingdom that “shall not be destroyed.” This kingdom is obviously the expression of divine sovereignty dealing dramatically with the human situation in a way that introduces the eternal state where God is manifestly supreme in His government of the universe.

Conservative scholars are agreed that the Son of Man is a picture of the Lord Jesus Christ rather than an angelic agency.55 The description of Him as being worthy of ruling all nations is obviously in keeping with many passages in the Bible referring to the millennial rule of Jesus Christ, for example, Psalm 2:6–9 and Isaiah 11. Like the scene in Revelation 4–5, Christ is portrayed as a separate person from God the Father. The expression that He is attended by “clouds of heaven” implies His deity (1 Thess. 4:17). A parallel appears in Revelation 1:7, “Behold, he is coming with the clouds,” in fulfillment of Acts 1 where in His ascension Christ was received by a cloud and the angels tell the disciples that Christ “will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven” (Acts 1:9–11). Clouds in Scripture are frequently characteristic of revelation of deity (Exod. 13:21–22; 19:9, 16; 1 Kings 8:10–11; Isa. 19:1; Jer. 4:13; Ezek. 10:4; Matt. 24:30; 26:64; Mark 13:26). Some liberal scholars argue that the lack of the de????nite article with the title “son of man” means that this was merely a human being who appeared to Daniel.56 Although there might be some linguistic support for this idea, Jesus’ frequent use of this title for Himself in the New Testament is the divine commentary on the phrase (cf. Matt. 8:20; 9:6; 10:23; 11:19; 12:8, 32, 40; 13:37, 41; 16:13, 27, 28; 17:9, 12, 22, etc.). “Son of Man” was, in fact, Jesus’ favorite description of Himself during His earthly ministry. In verse 13, the Son of Man is presented as being near the Ancient of Days, and in verse 14 He is given dominion over all peoples and nations. This could not be an angel, nor could it be the body of saints, as it corresponds clearly to other Scriptures that predict that Christ will rule over all nations (Ps. 72:11; Rev. 19:15–16). Only Christ will come with clouds of heaven, and be the King of kings and Lord of lords over all nations throughout eternity.30

304. Dan. 9:24 To make an end to sins Galatians 1:3-5

Daniel 9:24 is a prophecy that speaks of the Messiah's work of salvation: "Seventy ‘sevens’ are decreed for your people and your holy city to finish transgression, to put an end to sin, to atone for wickedness, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy and to anoint the Most Holy Place."

Galatians 1:3-5 emphasizes the same idea of Christ's work of salvation: "Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, who gave himself for our sins to rescue us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen."

The connection between these passages is that they both speak of the Messiah's work of making an end to sin. In Daniel 9:24, the prophecy states that the Messiah would put an end to sin and atone for wickedness. In Galatians 1:3-5, Paul speaks of Jesus giving Himself for our sins and rescuing us from the present evil age. Both passages emphasize the idea of Jesus as the one who came to save humanity from sin and to bring about everlasting righteousness through His work on the cross.

305. Dan. 9:24 To make reconciliation for iniquity Romans 5:10, 2Cor. 5:18-21

Daniel 9:24 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that reads: "Seventy weeks are decreed about your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal both vision and prophet, and to anoint a most holy place."

This prophecy speaks about the coming of a period of seventy weeks during which certain events will occur, including the atonement for iniquity. The term "atonement" refers to the act of making amends for wrongdoing or sin.

Romans 5:10 and 2 Corinthians 5:18-21 are passages in the New Testament that speak about reconciliation and atonement through Jesus Christ. Romans 5:10 reads: "For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, now that we are reconciled, shall we be saved by his life."

Similarly, 2 Corinthians 5:18-21 reads: "All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself and gave us the ministry of reconciliation; that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting to us the message of reconciliation. Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ, God making his appeal through us. We implore you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God. For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God."

These passages affirm the belief among Christians that Jesus Christ's death and resurrection provided the means for the atonement and reconciliation of humanity with God. This is seen as a fulfillment of the prophecy in Daniel 9:24, which speaks about the atonement for iniquity that will occur during the seventy weeks.

306. Dan. 9:24 He would be holy Luke 1:35

Daniel 9:24 and Luke 1:35 are both passages from the Bible that speak to the holiness of the Messiah.

In Daniel 9:24, the prophet Daniel is praying and confessing the sins of the people of Israel. As part of his prayer, he asks God to show mercy on the people and to restore Jerusalem. In response, the angel Gabriel comes to him and tells him that a period of seventy weeks has been determined for the people and for the holy city. During this period, the people will experience a time of testing and tribulation, and at the end of it, the Messiah will come.

In Luke 1:35, the angel Gabriel appears to Mary and tells her that she will conceive and give birth to a son, who will be called the Son of God. He goes on to explain that the Holy Spirit will come upon her, and that the child will be called holy, the Son of God.

Both passages speak to the idea that the Messiah would be holy. Daniel 9:24 suggests that the coming of the Messiah will be a time of redemption and restoration, and that his arrival will mark the end of a period of testing for the people of Israel. Luke 1:35 provides more specific details about Jesus, who is the promised Messiah and the Son of God. It emphasizes that he will be holy and that he will be set apart from all others. Both passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah is a significant event in history, and that his holiness is a key aspect of his identity and his mission.


307. Dan. 9:25 His announcement John 12:12-13

Daniel 9:25 prophesies that a decree would be issued to rebuild Jerusalem and that there would be a period of 69 "sevens" until the coming of the Messiah: "Know and understand this: From the time the word goes out to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes, there will be seven ‘sevens,’ and sixty-two ‘sevens.’"

In John 12:12-13, we see the fulfillment of this prophecy as Jesus entered Jerusalem, and the crowds recognized Him as the promised Messiah: "The next day the great crowd that had come for the festival heard that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem. They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting, 'Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Blessed is the king of Israel!'"

The connection between these passages is that they both refer to the announcement of the coming of the Messiah. In Daniel 9:25, the prophecy speaks of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem, which would be followed by the coming of the Messiah. In John 12:12-13, the crowds announced Jesus as the Messiah, who had come to Jerusalem. These passages reinforce the idea that Jesus is the fulfillment of the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament, and that His arrival in Jerusalem was the fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy of the coming of the Anointed One, the ruler.

308. Dan. 9:26 Cut off Matthew 16:21; 21:38-39

Daniel 9:26 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that reads: "And after the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one shall be cut off and shall have nothing. And the people of the prince who is to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its end shall come with a flood, and to the end there shall be war. Desolations are decreed."

This prophecy speaks about the coming of an "anointed one" who will be "cut off" and have nothing. The term "cut off" refers to being put to death or killed. The prophecy also speaks about the destruction of the city and the sanctuary.

Matthew 16:21 and Matthew 21:38-39 are passages in the New Testament that speak about the death of Jesus Christ. Matthew 16:21 reads: "From that time Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised."

Similarly, Matthew 21:38-39 reads: "But when the tenants saw the son, they said to themselves, ‘This is the heir. Come, let us kill him and have his inheritance.’ And they took him and threw him out of the vineyard and killed him."

These passages affirm the belief among Christians that Jesus Christ was the "anointed one" referred to in the prophecy in Daniel 9:26, who was "cut off" or put to death. The destruction of the city and the sanctuary, mentioned in the prophecy, is seen as a reference to the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD by the Romans.

309. Dan. 9:26 Die for the sins of the world Hebrews 2:9

Daniel 9:26 prophesies that after the 69 "sevens," the Messiah would be cut off, which is often interpreted as a reference to His death: "After the sixty-two ‘sevens,’ the Anointed One will be put to death and will have nothing."

Hebrews 2:9 confirms this interpretation by stating that Jesus, the Messiah, died for the sins of the world: "But we do see Jesus, who was made lower than the angels for a little while, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone."

The connection between these passages is that they both speak of the Messiah's death. Daniel 9:26 prophesies that the Messiah would be cut off, and Hebrews 2:9 confirms that Jesus, the Messiah, suffered death. Both passages reinforce the idea that Jesus' death was not a tragic accident, but rather a part of God's plan of salvation. Jesus died to atone for the sins of the world, fulfilling the prophecy in Daniel 9:26 and providing a way for all people to be reconciled with God.

310. Dan. 9:26 Killed before the destruction of the temple Matthew 27:50-51

Daniel 9:26 and Matthew 27:50-51 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the idea that the Messiah would be killed before the destruction of the temple.

In Daniel 9:26, the prophet Daniel is given a vision of the future that includes the coming of the Messiah. The verse says that after sixty-two weeks, the Messiah will be cut off and have nothing. This has been interpreted by many biblical scholars to mean that the Messiah would be killed or executed.

In Matthew 27:50-51, the Gospel writer describes the events that took place at the moment of Jesus' death on the cross. The verse says that Jesus cried out with a loud voice and then yielded up his spirit. At that moment, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. This tearing of the veil is often interpreted as a symbolic representation of the end of the old covenant and the beginning of a new covenant, brought about by the death of the Messiah.

Both passages speak to the idea that the Messiah would be killed before the destruction of the temple. Daniel 9:26 predicts that the Messiah would be cut off, indicating that he would suffer and die. Matthew 27:50-51 describes the death of Jesus, which is seen by many Christians as the fulfillment of the prophecy in Daniel 9:26. The tearing of the veil in the temple is also seen as a significant event, indicating that the death of Jesus brought about a new covenant between God and humanity. Together, these passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah was marked by his death and that this event had profound theological significance for the people of God.

K. D. ZUBER (2019): It would be difficult to exaggerate the significance of this prophecy. Many would argue that this is the key text, both for understanding the person and work of the Messiah and also for comprehending the Lord’s whole unfolding program for His chosen nation, Israel. “The study of Daniel, and especially this chapter, is the key to understanding the prophetic Scriptures,” wrote John F. Walvoord. He added, “the third vision of Daniel … provides one of the most important keys to understanding the Scriptures as a whole. In many respects, this is the high point of the book of Daniel. 2

We come now to what might be the most difficult, but at the same time, greatest, most rewarding, and amazing prophecy given by Daniel in regards to the date of the coming of the messiah, which was fulfilled in Jesus Christ.

311. Dan. 10:5-6 Messiah in a glorified state Revelation 1:13-16

In Daniel 10:5-6, the prophet describes a vision he had of a "man dressed in linen, with a belt of fine gold around his waist. His body was like topaz, his face like lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and his voice like the sound of a multitude."

Similarly, in Revelation 1:13-16, the apostle John sees a vision of the glorified Christ: "Among the lampstands was someone like a son of man, dressed in a robe reaching down to his feet and with a golden sash around his chest. The hair on his head was white like wool, as white as snow, and his eyes were like blazing fire. His feet were like bronze glowing in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of rushing waters. In his right hand he held seven stars, and coming out of his mouth was a sharp, double-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining in all its brilliance."

The connection between these passages is that they both describe the Messiah in a glorified state. In Daniel 10:5-6, the prophet sees a vision of a man in fine linen with a glorious appearance. In Revelation 1:13-16, John sees a vision of the glorified Christ, whose appearance is also described in great detail. Both passages emphasize the majesty and power of the Messiah, which is a common theme throughout the Old and New Testaments.

312. Hos. 11:1 He would be called out of Egypt Matthew 2:15

Hosea 11:1 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that reads: "When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son." This verse refers to God's love for Israel and how he had called them out of Egypt during the time of Moses.

Matthew 2:15 refers to Jesus Christ being called out of Egypt. After the Magi had visited Jesus and his family in Bethlehem, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream and instructed him to take Jesus and Mary to Egypt to escape the persecution of King Herod. Matthew 2:15 reads: "And he [Joseph] rose and took the child and his mother by night and departed to Egypt and remained there until the death of Herod. This was to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophet, 'Out of Egypt I called my son.'"

The Gospel of Matthew sees Jesus as the fulfillment of the prophecy in Hosea 11:1, as he was called out of Egypt just as God had called Israel out of Egypt in the time of Moses. This is one of several Old Testament prophecies that the Gospel writers point to as evidence of Jesus being the promised Messiah.

Joseph is warned by an angel in a dream to take Jesus and Mary to Egypt to escape King Herod’s wrath. They escape by night, just before Herod orders the murder of all baby boys born in and around Bethlehem during the last two years.

B.Graham association: King Herod (or Herod the Great, as he liked to be called) was a cruel, power-hungry ruler who destroyed anyone he feared was trying to topple him from his throne. He even killed several members of his own family because he thought they were plotting against him. When a group of wise men (or scholars) came to Jerusalem shortly after Jesus was born they asked one question: Where could they find the newly-born king of the Jews? They added, “We have seen His star in the east and have come to worship him” (Matthew 2:2). When word of this reached King Herod, he sent for them and urged them to find the child, so he could worship him, too. But Herod was lying. His real goal was to destroy the child, fearing (illogically) that in time Jesus would take over his throne. God warned the wise men of Herod’s plot in a dream, and after Herod realized they had evaded him, he ordered the death of every child in Bethlehem below the age of two. The slaughter of the innocents is unattested in secular records, but the historical plausibility of this event happening is consistent with the character and actions of Herod the Great. Besides killing his enemies, he had no qualms in killing family members and friends as well. Herod would not have given a second thought about killing a handful of babies in a small, obscure village south of Jerusalem in order to keep his throne secure for himself, or his sons, even if it was one of the last dastardly deeds he committed before he died. As Herod lay dying, raked in pain and agony, the men of God and those with special wisdom opined that Herod was suffering these things because it was “the penalty that God was exacting of the king for his great impiety” (Antiquities 17:170; LCL 8:449-451). 31

Biblearchaeology.org: The slaughter of the innocents is unattested in secular records, but the historical plausibility of this event happening is consistent with the character and actions of Herod the Great. Besides killing his enemies, he had no qualms in killing family members and friends as well. Herod would not have given a second thought about killing a handful of babies in a small, obscure village south of Jerusalem in order to keep his throne secure for himself, or his sons, even if it was one of the last dastardly deeds he committed before he died. As Herod lay dying, raked in pain and agony, the men of God and those with special wisdom opined that Herod was suffering these things because it was “the penalty that God was exacting of the king for his great impiety” (Antiquities 17:170; LCL 8:449-451).32

313. Hos. 13:14 He would defeat death 1Corinthians 15:55-57

Hosea 13:14 and 1 Corinthians 15:55-57 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the idea that the Messiah would defeat death.

In Hosea 13:14, the prophet Hosea speaks about God's power to save his people. The verse says that God will ransom them from the power of Sheol, which is often interpreted as a reference to death. Hosea goes on to say that God will redeem them from death, implying that death has been defeated by God's power.

In 1 Corinthians 15:55-57, the Apostle Paul is speaking about the resurrection of the dead. The verse says that "death has been swallowed up in victory" and that the victory has been won through Jesus Christ. Paul goes on to say that because of this victory, believers should be steadfast, immovable, and always abounding in the work of the Lord.

Both passages speak to the idea that the Messiah would defeat death. Hosea 13:14 predicts that God will redeem his people from death, indicating that death has been defeated by God's power. 1 Corinthians 15:55-57 speaks of the victory over death that has been won through Jesus Christ, suggesting that the Messiah has defeated death for all who believe in him. Together, these passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah was marked by his victory over death and that this victory has significant theological implications for the people of God.

314. Joel 2:32 Offer salvation to all mankind Romans 10:9-13

Joel 2:32 prophesies that "everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved." This is a promise of salvation for all who turn to God in faith and repentance, regardless of their nationality or background.

This prophecy is quoted in Romans 10:9-13, where the apostle Paul explains that salvation comes through faith in Jesus Christ: "If you declare with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved. As Scripture says, ‘Anyone who believes in him will never be put to shame.’ For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile—the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him, for, ‘Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved’."

The connection between these passages is that they both emphasize the universal offer of salvation to all who call on the name of the Lord. Joel 2:32 prophesies that all who call on the name of the Lord will be saved, and Romans 10:9-13 explains that this promise is fulfilled in Jesus Christ. Both passages emphasize that salvation is available to all people, regardless of their nationality or background, through faith in Jesus Christ.

E. A. BLUM (2109): What is the pouring out of God’s “Spirit” or “spirit”? The OT has about one hundred instances of God’s Spirit, the Spirit of God, or the Spirit of the Lord. Jewish translations in Gn 1:2 normally have a “wind from God” or something similar to the mistaken “vital force” of James Crenshaw in the Anchor Bible on Joel (rather than the more literal “the Spirit of God”).1 The OT word (ruakh) occurs 387 times in the OT. It has a wide range: breath, wind, mind, spirits (good) i.e. angels, evil spirits, and the Holy Spirit. The context determines the meaning of the word “ruakh.” The NT context and analogy supports a Trinitarian understanding of God’s Spirit. Isaiah perhaps has the fullest revelation of the Spirit among the prophets. In Isa 11:1-9, a “shoot will grow from the stump of Jesse … the Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him.” In Isa 42:1, God puts His Spirit on the chosen Servant. In Isa 48:16, the Lord says “and now the Lord GOD has sent me and His Spirit.” In Isa 59:21, the Lord says, “My Spirit who is on you, and My words that I have put in your mouth.” Jesus chose this passage in His Nazareth sermon (Lk 4:18-19) to announce His gracious ministry (Lk 4:20-22). Many have noted that Jesus omitted the words “the day of our God’s vengeance” from His reading. Even John the Baptist was confused by the messianic sufferings and the rejection of Jesus (Cf. 1Pt 1:10-12; Lk 7:20). All four Gospel writers (Mt 3:11; Mk 1:8; Lk 3:16; Jn 1:33) report John’s prediction of the Holy Spirit baptism, but no detail of what that meant or when that would happen was given. Jesus in His ministry was the servant of the Lord endued with the Holy Spirit (Mt 12:18), and He cast out Satan’s demons by the power of the Holy Spirit (Mt 12:28). Jesus chose to reveal more about the Holy Spirit to His disciples in the upper room discourse (Jn 14–16). Jesus promised that the Father would send another Counselor (paracletos) to be with His disciples, who will teach and remind them of Jesus’ ministry (Jn 14:16-18, 25-26; 16:5-15). The Holy Spirit would guide them into “all the truth” and glorify Jesus (16:13; cf. 15:26, 27).

J. F. Walvoord (2011): In addition to material blessings, the prophets promised that God would pour out His Spirit in the day of the Lord with the result that “your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions. Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days” (vv. 28–29). The apostle Peter quoted from this passage in his Pentecostal sermon (Acts 2:14–21). It was quite clear that the entire prophecy of Joel was not fulfilled, but what Peter was alluding to was the similarity of the situation. Just as in Joel’s time the people of Israel were called to repentance in the hope that the day of the Lord’s blessing would come on them, so those who listened to Peter’s Pentecostal sermon were exhorted to turn to the Lord in anticipation that the promised blessings might follow. The length of the present church age was unknown to Peter and to everyone else at the time of his Pentecostal sermon. On the basis of existing Scripture, he could rightfully expect the rapture to occur and the events following to come about immediately. This would include thedark days of the great tribulation described in Joel 2:30–31, which would precede the second coming of Christ and a time of blessing to follow. Accordingly, the children of Israel should not have been surprised to see the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. At the same time, it was a reminder that God could bless those in Israel who trusted in her Messiah. Though many individual Jews accepted Christ as Savior on the day of Pentecost, the nation as a whole as well as her religious leaders had failed to come to the Lord. Her ultimate repentance was pictured in Scripture as occurring just before the second coming of Christ (Zech. 12:10–13). The prophecy of Joel awaits complete fulfillment in relation to the second coming of Christ. It will include supernatural revelation and miraculous events in the heavens and earth and will open the day of salvation to all who call on the name of the Lord (cf. Rom. 10:13).30

315. Jonah 1:17 Death and resurrection of Christ Matthew 12:40; 16:4

Jonah 1:17 is a verse in the Old Testament that reads: "And the Lord appointed a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights."

In the New Testament, Jesus refers to the story of Jonah and his time spent in the belly of the fish as a sign that points to his own death and resurrection. In Matthew 12:40, Jesus says: "For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth."

Similarly, in Matthew 16:4, Jesus tells the Pharisees and Sadducees, "An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah.”

These passages show that Jesus believed that his own death and resurrection were foreshadowed by the story of Jonah, who was swallowed by a great fish and emerged alive after three days. Jesus is seen as the ultimate fulfillment of this prophecy, as he was crucified and buried in a tomb for three days before being resurrected.

316. Mic. 5:2 Born in Bethlehem Matthew 2:1-6

Micah 5:2 and Matthew 2:1-6 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the idea that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem.

In Micah 5:2, the prophet Micah speaks about the birthplace of the future ruler of Israel. The verse says that the ruler will come from Bethlehem, which is a small town in the territory of Judah. This prophecy suggests that the coming of the Messiah would be marked by his birth in Bethlehem.

In Matthew 2:1-6, the Gospel writer describes the visit of the magi, or wise men, to King Herod in Jerusalem. The magi had seen a star in the sky and had come to pay homage to the newborn king of the Jews. When Herod asks the chief priests and scribes where the Messiah is to be born, they quote the prophecy from Micah 5:2, saying that the Messiah will be born in Bethlehem.

Both passages speak to the idea that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem. Micah 5:2 predicts that the future ruler of Israel will come from Bethlehem, indicating that the birthplace of the Messiah is significant. Matthew 2:1-6 shows that the magi recognized the importance of the prophecy from Micah 5:2 and traveled to Bethlehem to pay homage to the newborn king of the Jews. Together, these passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah was marked by his birth in Bethlehem and that this event had significant theological implications for the people of God.

317. Mic. 5:2 Ruler in Israel Luke 1:33

Micah 5:2 prophesies that a ruler will come out of Bethlehem in Judah: "But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times."

This prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who was born in Bethlehem and is recognized as the ruler of Israel. In Luke 1:33, the angel Gabriel announces to Mary that her son will be a king: "He will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever; his kingdom will never end."

The connection between these passages is that they both point to the birth of a ruler in Bethlehem who would lead and reign over Israel. Micah 5:2 identifies Bethlehem as the birthplace of the ruler, and Luke 1:33 confirms that Jesus, who was born in Bethlehem, is the king who would reign over Israel forever. Both passages emphasize the importance of Jesus as the leader and ruler of God's people.

318. Mic. 5:2 From everlasting John 8:58

Micah 5:2 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that speaks of a coming ruler from the town of Bethlehem: "But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times."

In the New Testament, Jesus claims a divine nature that aligns with this prophecy. In John 8:58, Jesus says to the Jewish religious leaders, "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am." By using the phrase "I am," Jesus was invoking the divine name of God, which was significant and even blasphemous to many Jews.

By making this claim, Jesus was declaring that he existed from eternity past, which is in line with Micah's prophecy of a ruler whose origins are from ancient times. Thus, the Gospel of John portrays Jesus as the fulfillment of Micah's prophecy, as he is the eternal ruler who was born in Bethlehem.

319. Hag. 2:6-9 He would visit the second Temple Luke 2:27-32

Haggai 2:6-9 and Luke 2:27-32 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the idea that the Messiah would visit the second Temple.

In Haggai 2:6-9, the prophet speaks about the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem. The verse says that the Lord promises to shake the nations and fill the temple with glory. Haggai goes on to say that the glory of the second temple will be greater than the glory of the first temple. This prophecy suggests that the coming of the Messiah would be marked by a visit to the second temple.

In Luke 2:27-32, the Gospel writer describes the visit of Mary and Joseph to the temple in Jerusalem to present the baby Jesus to the Lord. While they were there, they met Simeon, a devout man who had been waiting for the consolation of Israel. When Simeon saw the baby Jesus, he took him in his arms and praised God, saying that he had seen the salvation of the Lord. This event suggests that the coming of the Messiah was marked by a visit to the second temple.

Both passages speak to the idea that the Messiah would visit the second temple. Haggai 2:6-9 predicts that the glory of the second temple will be greater than the glory of the first temple, suggesting that the coming of the Messiah would be marked by a visit to this new temple. Luke 2:27-32 describes the visit of Mary and Joseph to the temple, where they meet Simeon and recognize the significance of the baby Jesus. Together, these passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah was marked by a visit to the second temple and that this event had significant theological implications for the people of God.

D. FINKBEINER (2019): What does the NT teach about Haggai’s Messiah? As seen above in the discussion of the fulfillment of both messianic texts in Haggai, the NT makes it abundantly clear that the Messiah of whom Haggai speaks is Jesus of Nazareth, who fulfills both texts primarily in connection with His second coming. But in addition to the NT texts mentioned there, two other NT texts are noteworthy in light of their connection with Hag 2. The first of these is Heb 12:26, which quotes from Hag 2:6 and the promise “yet once more” to “shake not only the earth but also heaven.” In this context, the reference to Hag 2:6 “points to the cataclysmic judgment coming on the earth at the end of the age, when Christ returns. In light of that coming event, believers should reverently serve God.”50 The second noteworthy NT text is Rev 21:22-27. In this description of the New Jerusalem in the new heaven and earth, the existence of the Temple itself is replaced by “the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb” (v. 22). Their glory makes the need for any other light superfluous (v. 23). “The nations will walk in its light,” and their kings “will bring the glory and honor of the nations into” the New Jerusalem (vv. 24-26). In light of this passage, Haggai’s picture of the glorious Messiah reigning over His worldwide millennial kingdom from His spectacular Temple anticipates the greatest manifestation of His glorious presence in the New Jerusalem, dwelling with His people forever.2

320. Hag. 2:23 Descendant of Zerubbabel Luke 2:27-32

Haggai 2:23 prophesies that Zerubbabel, the governor of Judah, will have a descendant who will become a signet ring for God: "‘On that day,’ declares the Lord Almighty, ‘I will take you, my servant Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel,’ declares the Lord, ‘and I will make you like my signet ring, for I have chosen you,’ declares the Lord Almighty."

This prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who is a descendant of Zerubbabel through his earthly parents, Mary and Joseph. In Luke 2:27-32, Simeon, a righteous and devout man, takes the infant Jesus in his arms and praises God, saying, "Sovereign Lord, as you have promised, you may now dismiss your servant in peace. For my eyes have seen your salvation, which you have prepared in the sight of all nations: a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and the glory of your people Israel."

The connection between these passages is that they both point to the coming of a descendant of Zerubbabel who would be chosen by God and would bring salvation to Israel and to all nations. Haggai 2:23 identifies Zerubbabel as the ancestor of the chosen one, and Luke 2:27-32 confirms that Jesus, who is descended from Zerubbabel, is the chosen one who would bring salvation to Israel and to all nations. Both passages emphasize the importance of Jesus as the promised Savior and Messiah, who fulfills the prophecies of the Old Testament.

321. Zech. 3:8 God’s servant John 17:4

Zechariah 3:8 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that speaks of a "Branch" who will come from the line of David: "‘Listen, High Priest Joshua, you and your associates seated before you, who are men symbolic of things to come: I am going to bring my servant, the Branch."

In the New Testament, Jesus is identified as the "servant" or "Branch" mentioned in this prophecy. In John 17:4, Jesus prays to the Father, saying, "I have brought you glory on earth by finishing the work you gave me to do."

This verse refers to Jesus as the faithful servant who has completed the work that God sent him to do on earth. This work involved preaching the good news of the Kingdom of God, performing miracles, and ultimately sacrificing himself on the cross for the sins of humanity.

Thus, John's Gospel portrays Jesus as the fulfillment of Zechariah's prophecy, as he is the faithful servant who has accomplished the work that God sent him to do.

M. STALLARD (2019): The apostle John calls Jesus an “advocate” (1Jn 2:1) to defend Christian believers if they sin. This courtroom terminology presumes an accuser. Revelation 12:10 calls Satan the accuser who is thrown down to earth. In Zch 3:2, the Angel of the Lord who is the Lord rebukes Satan for his unwarranted denunciations. In the NT, Jesus is the One who rebukes Satan and defends believers. The apostle Paul in Rom 9–11 teaches that Israel is not cast aside forever. God promises “all Israel will be saved” (Rom 11:26). This deliverance takes place when a deliverer comes from Zion and takes away the nation’s sin (Rom 11:26-27). The eschaton is in view. The second coming of Jesus sets up His kingdom on earth for the saved in both Israel and among the nations (Rev 19–22). Similarly, Zechariah clearly sees the end times when Messiah removes the sin of Israel in one day (Zch 3:9; 12:10; 13:1). Such teaching from both the OT and NT rejects any supersessionist theology in which Israel no longer receives such a future promise. The work of Jesus the Messiah on the cross and in the resurrection provides a final example. Jesus took away our sins as He died as the substitute for our sins and was raised from the dead. However, He not only removed our sins, He also imputed righteousness to us. In the great swap, He gets our sins while believers get His goodness so they can stand before God. This twofold aspect of His work is precisely what Zch 3:3-5 teaches. Joshua the high priest needed his filthy clothes (sin and guilt) removed, but he also required new “splendid robes” in their place. A subtraction and an addition were required. In the analogy between Zechariah and the NT on this matter, the work of God is perhaps best summed up in 2Co 5:21—“He made the One who did not know sin to be sin for us, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.” 2

322. Zech. 6:12-13 Priest and King Hebrews 8:1

Zechariah 6:12-13 and Hebrews 8:1 are both passages from the Bible that refer to the idea that the Messiah would be both a priest and a king.

In Zechariah 6:12-13, the prophet speaks about a man named "the Branch" who will rebuild the temple of the Lord and rule as both a king and a priest. The verse says that he will sit on his throne and be a priest on his throne, uniting the two roles of king and priest into one. This prophecy suggests that the coming of the Messiah would be marked by his dual role as both a priest and a king.

In Hebrews 8:1, the writer of the epistle speaks about Jesus as a high priest who has taken his seat at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven. The verse suggests that Jesus is both a priest and a king, fulfilling the prophecy from Zechariah 6:12-13.

Both passages speak to the idea that the Messiah would be both a priest and a king. Zechariah 6:12-13 predicts that the coming of the Messiah would be marked by his dual role as both a priest and a king, while Hebrews 8:1 affirms that Jesus fulfills this prophecy as a high priest who has taken his seat at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven. Together, these passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah was marked by his unique role as both a priest and a king, bringing salvation and restoration to the people of God.

M. L. BROWN (2019): Messianic Jewish and Christian scholars speak of two streams of messianic prophecy: the royal prophecies, which point to the worldwide reign of the son of David, and the suffering prophecies, which point to his vicarious suffering and death (see especially Isa 53). In contrast, traditional Judaism embraces the royal stream of prophecy as messianic while rejecting, for the most part, the messianic interpretation of the suffering passages. Zechariah 6:9-15, then, is highly significant, since it explicitly connects the high priest Joshua, son of Jehozadak, with “the Branch,” which is an epithet of the Messiah son of David (see esp. Jer 23:5; 33:15; cf. also Isa 4:2; Zch 3:8, all with ; cf. further Isa 11:1 with ne er). Thus, the royal messianic prophecies connect here with the priestly (= suffering) messianic prophecies, since it is a high priest who is crowned and who sits on a throne, all while serving as a sign of “a man whose name is the Branch” (Zch 6:12). The Messiah, then, will be a priestly King, just as David was, doing the priestly work of making atonement for the sins of the world before doing the royal work of establishing the kingdom of God on earth. According to the Lange commentary to Zch 6:13, “Nearly all interpreters, ancient and modern, render as in the text, and understand the clause to mean, that the Branch would be both king and high priest on one and the same throne.”22 Reflecting this Christological reading, the Pulpit Commentary states, “The Authorized Version is doubtless correct, as the clause is intended to declare that Messiah should, like Melchizedek, combine the offices of Priest and King (Ps. 110:4; Heb. 5:6, 10).”Even so, Zch 6:9-15 does anticipate a messianic figure, a royal-priest, just as Ps 110:4 looks forward to an eternal king priest. Thus the author of Hebrews recognizes Jesus as that royal high priest, writing, “It is evident that our Lord came from Judah, and about that tribe Moses said nothing concerning priests” (Heb 7:14). Therefore, he concludes that Jesus is indeed a priest after a different order, not of Levi, but of Melchizedek (Heb 7:15-17). The author of Hebrews also identifies Jesus, the son of David, as the referent of both Zch 6 and Ps 110, concluding that Jesus “is the kind of high priest we need: holy, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens” (Heb 7:26), in fact, a high priest, “who has been perfected forever” (Heb 7:28). 2

323. Zech. 9:9 Greeted with rejoicing in Jerusalem Matthew 21:8-10

Zechariah 9:9 prophesies that the coming king of Israel will arrive in Jerusalem, humble and riding on a donkey: "Rejoice greatly, Daughter Zion! Shout, Daughter Jerusalem! See, your king comes to you, righteous and victorious, lowly and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey."

This prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who rode into Jerusalem on a donkey to the great rejoicing of the people, as recorded in Matthew 21:8-10: "A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, while others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. The crowds that went ahead of him and those that followed shouted, 'Hosanna to the Son of David!' 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!' 'Hosanna in the highest heaven!'"

The connection between these passages is that they both point to the arrival of a king in Jerusalem who would be greeted with great rejoicing. Zechariah 9:9 identifies the king as one who would ride into Jerusalem on a donkey, and Matthew 21:8-10 confirms that Jesus, who rode into Jerusalem on a donkey, was the king who would be welcomed with great joy and praise. Both passages emphasize the significance of Jesus as the promised Messiah and King who would bring salvation to his people.

324. Zech. 9:9 Beheld as King John 12:12-13


Zechariah 9:9 is a prophecy in the Old Testament that speaks of a coming king who will enter Jerusalem in a triumphal and peaceful manner: "Rejoice greatly, Daughter Zion! Shout, Daughter Jerusalem! See, your king comes to you, righteous and victorious, lowly and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey."

In the New Testament, Jesus fulfills this prophecy when he enters Jerusalem riding on a donkey, and the crowds acclaim him as their king. In John 12:12-13, we read: "The next day the great crowd that had come for the festival heard that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem. They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting, 'Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Blessed is the king of Israel!'"

This event, known as the Triumphal Entry, is seen as the fulfillment of Zechariah's prophecy, as Jesus enters Jerusalem in a manner that fulfills the prophecy of a king riding on a donkey. The crowds recognize him as their king, but their understanding of his true mission and identity is incomplete. Jesus is indeed a king, but his kingdom is not of this world, and his ultimate victory will come through his sacrificial death and resurrection.



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325. Zech. 9:9 The Messiah would be just John 5:30

Zechariah 9:9 is a prophecy about the coming of the Messiah that says, "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; righteous and having salvation is he, humble and mounted on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey."

This prophecy speaks to the Messiah's character as a just and righteous king who would bring salvation to the people of Israel. The verse suggests that the Messiah would be a ruler who embodies justice and righteousness, and who would bring salvation to his people through his righteous rule.

John 5:30 echoes this theme of justice and righteousness, as Jesus says, "I can do nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me." Here, Jesus affirms his commitment to justice, saying that his judgments are based on God's will rather than his own desires.

Together, Zechariah 9:9 and John 5:30 emphasize the Messiah's character as a just and righteous ruler who would bring salvation to his people. Both passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah would be marked by his commitment to justice and righteousness, and that his followers should strive to emulate his example of justice and submission to God's will.

326. Zech. 9:9 The Messiah would bring salvation Luke 19:10

Zechariah 9:9 is a prophecy about the coming of the Messiah that says, "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; righteous and having salvation is he, humble and mounted on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey." This verse suggests that the coming of the Messiah would bring salvation to the people of Israel.

Luke 19:10 echoes this theme of salvation, as Jesus says, "For the Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost." Here, Jesus affirms his mission to bring salvation to those who are lost, emphasizing his role as the Messiah who has come to fulfill the prophecies of the Hebrew Scriptures.

Together, Zechariah 9:9 and Luke 19:10 emphasize the Messiah's role in bringing salvation to his people. Both passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah would be marked by his commitment to bringing salvation and his willingness to seek out those who are lost or marginalized. Additionally, both verses emphasize the personal nature of salvation, emphasizing that the Messiah's mission is to seek and save individuals who are lost or in need of rescue.

327. Zech. 9:9 The Messiah would be humble Matthew 11:29

Zechariah 9:9 is a prophecy about the coming of the Messiah that says, "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; righteous and having salvation is he, humble and mounted on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey."

This prophecy speaks to the humility of the Messiah, who would come not as a conquering warrior on a powerful horse, but as a humble and peaceful king, riding on a donkey. The prophecy suggests that the coming of the Messiah would be marked by his humility and compassion, in contrast to the pride and violence of worldly rulers.

Matthew 11:29 echoes this theme of humility, as Jesus says, "Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls." Here, Jesus invites his followers to learn from his example of humility and gentleness, encouraging them to take up his yoke and follow in his footsteps.

Together, Zechariah 9:9 and Matthew 11:29 emphasize the theme of humility as a key aspect of the Messiah's character and mission. Both passages suggest that the coming of the Messiah would be marked by his humility and compassion, and that his followers should emulate his example of gentleness and meekness.

328. Zech. 9:9 Presented to Jerusalem riding on a donkey Matthew 21:6-9

Zechariah 9:9 is a prophecy about the coming of the Messiah that says, "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; righteous and having salvation is he, humble and mounted on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey." This verse suggests that the Messiah would be presented to Jerusalem riding on a donkey.

Matthew 21:6-9 describes the fulfillment of this prophecy when Jesus enters Jerusalem riding on a donkey, an event known as the Triumphal Entry. The passage says, "The disciples went and did as Jesus had directed them. They brought the donkey and the colt and put on them their cloaks, and he sat on them. Most of the crowd spread their cloaks on the road, and others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. And the crowds that went before him and that followed him were shouting, 'Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!'"

Together, Zechariah 9:9 and Matthew 21:6-9 confirm that Jesus is the fulfillment of the prophecy about the Messiah riding on a donkey into Jerusalem. Jesus's entry into Jerusalem on a donkey was a deliberate act that fulfilled the prophecy of Zechariah 9:9 and signaled his identity as the long-awaited Messiah.

K. D. ZUBER (2019): The prophecy of Zechariah 9:9-10 has the distinction of being one of the most recognizable messianic prophecies in the Old Testament. This is because one portion of this prophecy is quoted in the Gospels in the account of Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem (Mt 21:5; Jn 12:15). Zechariah further reveals what the Lord’s Messiah (the King) will do when He comes: He will judge all false teachers and corrupt leaders (10:2-3a); He will reign in power and compassion (10:3b-6a); He will restore and regather the nation (10:6b-12). In the description of the Messiah’s reign in power (10:3b-6a) the prophet describes the Messiah with a series of four unique metaphorical titles (10:4).44 In contrast to the false leaders (bad “shepherds” 10:3), the prophet announces a “new stable leadership that will be granted directly ‘from the Lord.’” “The ancient rabbinic Targum correctly understood
these to be figures for the King Messiah coming from Judah.” The first title is “cornerstone” (10:4). In the construction of ancient buildings, the cornerstone was not a decorative afterthought but was “the principle stone” and “the focal point of a building.” On this stone depended both the structural integrity and the design arrangement of the entire structure. The layout of the entire structure, the measurements for, and the placement of, every other component of the building would be made in reference to this stone. It was literally the stone on which the building rested (the foundation), and the stone that gave integrity to every other part of the building. As the “cornerstone” the King Messiah will provide stability, a solid “foundation” for the nation to build on (cf. Isa 28:16). He will be the focal point of the nation, the One to whom all will look for guidance and direction. Hence, He is the One who assures
that the nation as a whole will enjoy unanimity of purpose and constancy of integrity. Unfortunately, as Ps 118:22a predicts, the builders will reject this “cornerstone.” This is exactly what happened when the nation rejected the Lord Jesus (cf. Mt 21:42; Mk 12:10; Lk 20:17; Ac 4:11). However, the psalmist also promises this rejected stone will “become the chief cornerstone” (NKJV) as He indeed is and will be (Eph 2:20; 1Pt 2:7). 2

J. F. Walvoord (2011): In contrast to the destruction of the enemies of Israel, Jerusalem would be blessed when her Messiah came. A particular prophecy was given concerning Christ entering Jerusalem in the triumphant procession: “Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion! Shout, Daughter of Jerusalem! See, your king comes to you, righteous and having salvation, gentle and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey” (v. 9). The announcement related to the first coming of Christ (Isa. 9:5–7; Mic. 5:2–4; Luke 1:32–33). His righteous character is revealed in both the Old and New Testaments (Ps. 45:6–7; Isa. 11:1–5; 32:17; Jer. 23:5–6; 33:15–16). He would and yet will come as a Deliverer having salvation, both in the sense of providing personal salvation for those who put their trust in Him and ultimately in delivering Israel from their enemies. The prophecy particularly described Christ inHis first coming as “gentle and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey” (Zech. 9:9). This was literally fulfilled as recorded in Matthew 21. 30

329. Zech. 10:4 The cornerstone Ephesians 2:20

Zechariah 10:4 says, "From him shall come the cornerstone, from him the tent peg, from him the battle bow, from him every ruler—all of them together." This verse speaks of the coming of a powerful ruler who would be the cornerstone of a new foundation.

In Ephesians 2:20, the Apostle Paul speaks of Jesus Christ as the cornerstone, saying, "built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone." Paul was using the image of a cornerstone to describe the central importance of Jesus in the foundation of the Church. He sees Jesus as the cornerstone of a new spiritual building that is founded on the teachings of the apostles and prophets.

In this way, Paul connects the prophecy of Zechariah 10:4 to Jesus Christ, whom he identifies as the cornerstone of the Church. Paul's use of the image of a cornerstone to describe Jesus emphasizes the critical role that Jesus plays in the foundation of the Church, and highlights the centrality of his teachings to the Christian faith.

330. Zech. 11:4-6 At His coming, Israel to have unfit leaders Matthew 23:1-4

Zechariah 11:4-6 prophesies about the arrival of a bad or unfaithful shepherd, who will lead Israel astray and bring about its downfall. The passage reads, "Thus says the Lord my God, 'Feed the flock for slaughter, whose owners slaughter them and feel no guilt; those who sell them say, "Blessed be the Lord, for I have become rich"; and their shepherds do not pity them. For I will no longer pity the inhabitants of the land,' says the Lord. 'But indeed I will give everyone into his neighbor's hand and into the hand of his king. They shall attack the land, and I will not deliver them from their hand.'"

In Matthew 23:1-4, Jesus rebukes the religious leaders of his day for their hypocrisy and failure to lead the people of Israel in a faithful way. He says, "The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses' seat, so do and observe whatever they tell you, but not the works they do. For they preach, but do not practice."

So, while the passage in Zechariah 11:4-6 does not specifically mention the Messiah, it does describe the arrival of a bad shepherd who will lead the people astray. In Matthew 23, Jesus rebukes the religious leaders of his day for failing to lead the people in a faithful way, and warns his listeners to follow their teachings but not their actions. In this way, Matthew 23 can be seen as a fulfillment of the prophecy in Zechariah 11:4-6.



331. Zech. 11:4-6 Rejection causes God to remove His protection Luke 19:41-44

The passage in Zechariah 11:4-6 describes the Lord's judgment upon the people of Israel for rejecting their rightful shepherd. In this passage, the Lord declares that he will remove his protection from the people, allowing them to fall prey to their enemies. The "shepherd" referred to in this passage is likely a reference to the Messiah, who would come to lead and guide the people of Israel. The rejection of the Messiah by the people of Israel would lead to the removal of God's protection and the eventual destruction of Jerusalem.

The passage in Luke 19:41-44 describes Jesus weeping over Jerusalem, lamenting the fact that the people did not recognize the time of their visitation and would suffer destruction as a result. Jesus also declares that the city will be surrounded by enemies who will level it to the ground, leaving not one stone upon another.

These two passages both describe the consequences of rejecting God and his messengers. In Zechariah, the rejection of the Messiah leads to the removal of God's protection and the destruction of Jerusalem. In Luke, Jesus weeps over the people's rejection of him, knowing that it will ultimately lead to the destruction of the city. Both passages serve as warnings to those who reject God's messengers and the message of salvation, reminding us that there are consequences for our actions and choices.

332. Zech. 11:4-6 Rejected in favor of another king John 19:13-15

Zechariah 11:4-6 is a prophecy in the Old Testament about a shepherd who will be rejected by the people of Israel. The passage reads:

"Thus said the Lord my God: 'Feed the flock doomed to slaughter. Those who buy them slay them and go unpunished; and those who sell them say, "Blessed be the Lord, I have become rich"; and their own shepherds have no pity on them. For I will no longer have pity on the inhabitants of this land,' declares the Lord. 'Behold, I will cause the men to fall, each into the hand of his neighbor and into the hand of his king; and they will strike the land, and I will not deliver them from their hand.'"

John 19:13-15 is a passage in the New Testament that recounts the trial of Jesus before Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea. The passage reads:

"When Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus out and sat down on the judgment seat at a place called The Stone Pavement, and in Aramaic Gabbatha. Now it was the day of Preparation of the Passover. It was about the sixth hour. He said to the Jews, 'Behold your King!' They cried out, 'Away with him, away with him, crucify him!' Pilate said to them, 'Shall I crucify your King?' The chief priests answered, 'We have no king but Caesar.'"

The two passages are not directly related, but there may be some thematic parallels. In Zechariah, the shepherd is rejected by his people, while in John, Jesus is rejected by the Jewish authorities and the people who demand his crucifixion. However, it is important to note that the rejection of the shepherd in Zechariah is not necessarily a prophecy about the rejection of Jesus specifically, as the prophecy could be interpreted in a variety of ways. Similarly, the reference to Caesar as the only king the Jewish authorities recognize in John may reflect their political reality at the time, rather than a rejection of the concept of a messianic king altogether.

333. Zech. 11:7 Ministry to “poor,” the believing remnant Matthew 9:35-36

Zechariah 11:7 in the Old Testament and Matthew 9:35-36 in the New Testament both refer to ministry to the poor, but in different contexts.

In Zechariah 11:7, the prophet is describing the actions of a foolish shepherd who abandons his flock, causing the poor of the flock to be sold for money. The "poor" here are likely referring to the people of Israel who are oppressed and marginalized, with no one to care for them or protect them. In this context, the "believing remnant" may refer to a small group of faithful Israelites who remained loyal to God despite the many trials and hardships they faced.

In contrast, Matthew 9:35-36 describes Jesus' ministry as he traveled through various towns and villages, teaching in synagogues, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease and sickness. When Jesus saw the crowds, he was moved with compassion for them because they were "harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd." The "poor" in this context may refer to those who were sick, oppressed, or in need of help and hope, regardless of their social or economic status.

Overall, both Zechariah 11:7 and Matthew 9:35-36 emphasize the importance of ministering to the needs of those who are marginalized, oppressed, or in need, whether they are part of the believing remnant or not. These passages demonstrate God's concern for the vulnerable and the call for his followers to show compassion and love to those who are suffering.

334. Zech. 11:8 Unbelief forces Messiah to reject them Matthew 23:33

In Zechariah 11:8, the Lord declares that he will remove his care and protection from the people of Israel because of their unbelief and rejection of their rightful shepherd. This rejection of the Messiah is a clear sign of the people's lack of faith, and as a result, they will suffer the consequences of their unbelief.

Similarly, in Matthew 23:33, Jesus is condemning the religious leaders of his day for their hypocrisy and unbelief. He declares that they are like snakes and brood of vipers and that they will not escape the judgment of hell. Jesus also laments over the city of Jerusalem, stating that he had longed to gather its people together as a mother hen gathers her chicks, but they were not willing.

These two passages both emphasize the importance of belief and faith in the Messiah. In Zechariah, the rejection of the Messiah leads to the removal of God's care and protection from the people. In Matthew, the religious leaders' unbelief results in their condemnation, and the city of Jerusalem suffers the consequences of rejecting their Messiah. These passages serve as a reminder that our faith and belief in the Messiah are essential, and rejecting him has serious consequences.

335. Zech. 11:8 Despised Matthew 27:20

Zechariah 11:8 is a prophecy in the Old Testament about the breaking of the covenant between God and Israel. The passage reads:

"I dismissed the three shepherds in one month. My soul became impatient with them, and their soul also loathed me."

Matthew 27:20 is a passage in the New Testament that recounts the trial of Jesus before Pilate and the release of Barabbas. The passage reads:

"But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to put Jesus to death."

While there is no direct connection between Zechariah 11:8 and Matthew 27:20, there may be some thematic parallels. In Zechariah, the rejection of the three shepherds and the loathing of God suggest a breakdown in the relationship between God and Israel, while in Matthew, the rejection of Jesus by the chief priests and the crowds suggests a rejection of God's chosen one. However, it is important to note that Zechariah's prophecy refers to the actions of Israel's leaders, while Matthew's account focuses on the actions of the crowd. Additionally, the context and specific details of each passage differ significantly, and it is not clear that they are directly related in any meaningful way.

336. Zech. 11:9 Stops ministering to those who rejected Him Matthew 13:10-11

Zechariah 11:9 refers to the prophet's breaking of two staffs - one called "Favor" and the other called "Union". This symbolizes God's breaking of the covenant with his people Israel, which is characterized by favor and unity, due to their rejection of Him. The chapter goes on to describe how God's flock will be sold and scattered due to their disobedience and unfaithfulness.

In contrast, Matthew 13:10-11 describes Jesus' teaching in parables to the crowds that gathered around him. Jesus explains to his disciples that he uses parables to reveal the mysteries of the kingdom to those who have ears to hear and understand. This passage does not address the issue of stopping ministry to those who reject Jesus.

While there may be a contrast between Zechariah 11:9 and Matthew 13:10-11 in terms of the response to rejection, it is important to note that the contexts of these passages are different. Zechariah 11:9 is a specific prophetic message to Israel, while Matthew 13:10-11 is an explanation of Jesus' teaching methods to his disciples. It is also important to consider the broader context of the Bible, which emphasizes God's mercy and grace toward those who turn to Him in repentance and faith, even if they have previously rejected Him.

337. Zech. 11:10-11 Rejection causes God to remove protection Luke 19:41-44

Zechariah 11:10-11 describes the breaking of the covenant between God and the people of Israel, which occurred because of their rejection of the true shepherd, the Messiah. As a result of their unbelief and rejection, God declares that he will remove his protection from the people, allowing them to suffer the consequences of their actions.

Similarly, in Luke 19:41-44, Jesus weeps over Jerusalem and the impending destruction that will befall the city because of the people's rejection of him as their Messiah. Jesus speaks of the judgment that will come upon the people of Jerusalem because they did not recognize the time of their visitation.

Both passages highlight the importance of accepting and following the Messiah and the consequences of rejecting him. In Zechariah, the removal of God's protection leads to the destruction of Jerusalem and the suffering of the people. In Luke, the rejection of Jesus as the Messiah leads to the destruction of the city and the suffering of its people.

These passages serve as a warning to all people that the rejection of the Messiah has serious consequences, both in this life and in the life to come. It is important for us to accept and follow the Messiah, Jesus Christ, as our Lord and Savior, so that we may receive the protection and blessings that come from being in a covenant relationship with God.

338. Zech. 11:10-11 The Messiah would be God John 14:7

Zechariah 11:10-11 is a prophecy in the Old Testament about the coming of a shepherd who will care for the people of Israel. The passage reads:

"Then I took my staff Favor and cut it in pieces, to break the covenant that I had made with all the peoples. So it was broken on that day, and thus the afflicted of the flock who were watching me realized that it was the word of the Lord."

There is no direct reference to the Messiah or the deity of the Messiah in this passage.

John 14:7 is a passage in the New Testament where Jesus is speaking to his disciples, explaining to them that he and the Father are one. The passage reads:

"If you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on you do know him and have seen him."

This passage does suggest that Jesus is divine and that he and the Father are one, but it does not specifically reference Zechariah 11:10-11 or connect the deity of Jesus to this particular prophecy.

It is important to note that the question of the deity of Jesus is a complex and controversial theological issue, and different interpretations of scripture can lead to different conclusions. While some may see a connection between Zechariah 11:10-11 and John 14:7, others may not. Ultimately, the interpretation of these passages depends on one's understanding of the nature of God and the person of Jesus.

339. Zech. 11:12-13 Betrayed for thirty pieces of silver Matthew 26:14-15

Zechariah 11:12-13 prophesies about the betrayal of the Shepherd who represents God's people. In this passage, the prophet describes how the Shepherd will be betrayed for thirty pieces of silver and how this amount will be thrown into the temple treasury. This passage is often seen as a prophecy of the betrayal of Jesus by Judas Iscariot, who received thirty pieces of silver for betraying Jesus to the religious authorities.

In Matthew 26:14-15, we see the fulfillment of this prophecy as Judas approaches the chief priests and offers to betray Jesus for thirty pieces of silver. This passage provides a clear link between the prophecy in Zechariah and the events of Jesus' life. The amount of thirty pieces of silver is specifically mentioned in both passages, demonstrating the fulfillment of the prophecy.

The betrayal of Jesus by Judas is an important event in the life of Jesus, as it ultimately led to his crucifixion and resurrection. The fulfillment of this prophecy demonstrates God's sovereignty and his ability to bring about his purposes through human actions. It also highlights the theme of betrayal and the importance of loyalty in the Bible, as Judas' actions stand in contrast to the faithfulness and sacrifice of Jesus.

340. Zech. 11:12-13 Rejected Matthew 26:14-15

In Zechariah 11:12-13, the prophet describes the payment of 30 pieces of silver to the shepherd who had been caring for the flock. The shepherd then throws the pieces of silver into the temple and breaks his covenant with the people of Israel. This passage is often interpreted as a reference to the betrayal of the Messiah by Judas Iscariot, who received 30 pieces of silver to betray Jesus to the Jewish leaders.

In Matthew 26:14-15, it is recorded that Judas went to the chief priests and offered to betray Jesus to them for 30 pieces of silver. The chief priests agreed to the deal and Judas led them to Jesus, identifying him with a kiss, leading to Jesus' arrest and crucifixion.

The parallels between Zechariah 11:12-13 and Matthew 26:14-15 are striking, and many biblical scholars believe that the prophet Zechariah was prophesying the betrayal of the Messiah by Judas Iscariot. Both passages highlight the role of betrayal in the rejection of the Messiah and the breaking of the covenant relationship between God and his people.

These passages serve as a reminder of the importance of faithfulness and loyalty in our relationship with God and with one another. They also highlight the consequences of betrayal and the serious nature of rejecting the Messiah.

341. Zech. 11:12-13 Thirty pieces of silver cast in the house of the Lord Matthew 27:3-5

Zechariah 11:12-13 is a prophecy in the Old Testament about a payment of thirty pieces of silver to a shepherd who is ultimately rejected by the people of Israel. The passage reads:

"Then I said to them, 'If it is good in your sight, give me my wages; but if not, never mind!' So they weighed out thirty shekels of silver as my wages. Then the Lord said to me, 'Throw it to the potter, that magnificent price at which I was valued by them.' So I took the thirty shekels of silver and threw them to the potter in the house of the Lord."

Matthew 27:3-5 is a passage in the New Testament that recounts the actions of Judas Iscariot, one of Jesus' disciples, who betrays him to the chief priests for thirty pieces of silver. The passage reads:

"Then when Judas, who had betrayed Him, saw that He had been condemned, he felt remorse and returned the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, saying, 'I have sinned by betraying innocent blood.' But they said, 'What is that to us? See to that yourself!' And he threw the pieces of silver into the temple sanctuary and departed; and he went away and hanged himself."

The connection between Zechariah 11:12-13 and Matthew 27:3-5 is that both passages involve a payment of thirty pieces of silver that is ultimately rejected and thrown into the house of the Lord. While Zechariah's prophecy is not a direct prediction of Judas' actions, it can be seen as a foreshadowing of them, as the betrayal and rejection of the shepherd in Zechariah is similar to Judas' betrayal of Jesus in Matthew.

It is important to note that the precise details of these passages differ, and there is some debate among scholars about the significance of the similarities. However, many see a clear connection between Zechariah's prophecy and Judas' betrayal, and view this as an example of how Old Testament prophecies can be fulfilled in unexpected ways.

342. Zech. 11:12-13 The Messiah would be God John 12:45

Zechariah 11:12-13 does not explicitly mention that the Messiah would be God. This passage does prophesy about the betrayal of the shepherd who represents God's people, and how he would be sold for thirty pieces of silver.

However, John 12:45 is a passage in the New Testament that does indicate that the Messiah is God. In this passage, Jesus himself declares that he who sees him sees the one who sent him, implying that he is one with God. Jesus' declaration affirms his divinity, as only God can claim to be one with the Father.

Throughout the Gospel of John, there are several other passages that also affirm the divinity of Jesus. For example, in John 1:1, it is written, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." This passage suggests that Jesus is the Word, who was with God from the beginning and is God himself. Similarly, in John 20:28, after the resurrection, Thomas calls Jesus "my Lord and my God," further indicating his belief in the divinity of Jesus.

Overall, while Zechariah 11:12-13 does not explicitly mention that the Messiah would be God, the New Testament provides several passages that affirm Jesus' divinity, including John 12:45.

A. CHOU (2019): The intertextuality of Zechariah is what grounds the notions of Messiah, exile, judgment, atonement, and restoration in the passage. By seeing the text in this way, the gospel writers declare that the Messiah’s betrayal will lead Israel into judgment (cf. Mt 27:1-9) and also secure their redemption by His atoning sacrifice (cf. Mt 27:38-54). Seeing the theology of OT prophecy allows one to see the deep theology of the Gospels. 2

343. Zech. 12:10 The Messiah’s body would be pierced John 19:34-37

In Zechariah 12:10, the prophet speaks of a day when the people of Israel will look upon the one they have pierced and mourn for him as one mourns for an only son. This passage is often interpreted as a reference to the Messiah's death and the piercing of his body.

Similarly, in John 19:34-37, it is recorded that when Jesus was on the cross, a soldier pierced his side with a spear, fulfilling the prophecy in Zechariah. This event is seen by Christians as a clear indication that Jesus was indeed the promised Messiah.

The piercing of the Messiah's body is significant because it highlights the suffering and sacrifice that he endured for the salvation of all humanity. It also serves as a reminder of the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies in the life and death of Jesus.

These passages remind us that the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ are central to the Christian faith. They also highlight the importance of recognizing and accepting the Messiah when he comes, as rejecting him has serious consequences.

344. Zech. 12:10 The Messiah would be both God and man John 10:30

Zechariah 12:10 is a prophecy in the Old Testament about the mourning of the people of Israel when they look upon the one whom they have pierced. The passage reads:

"I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn."

This passage does not explicitly mention the Messiah as both God and man.

John 10:30 is a passage in the New Testament where Jesus is speaking to the Jews, claiming to be one with the Father. The passage reads:

"I and the Father are one."

This passage suggests that Jesus is divine and that he is one with the Father, but it does not specifically reference Zechariah 12:10 or connect the deity and humanity of Jesus to this particular prophecy.

It is important to note that the question of the deity and humanity of Jesus is a complex and controversial theological issue, and different interpretations of scripture can lead to different conclusions. While some may see a connection between Zechariah 12:10 and John 10:30, others may not. Ultimately, the interpretation of these passages depends on one's understanding of the nature of God and the person of Jesus.

345. Zech. 12:10 The Messiah would be rejected John 1:11

Zechariah 12:10 prophesies that the Lord will pour out a spirit of grace and supplication on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and they will look on the one they have pierced and mourn for him as for an only son. This passage is often interpreted as a prophecy about the rejection and eventual acceptance of the Messiah by the Jewish people.

In John 1:11, it is written that "He came to his own, and his own people did not receive him." This passage describes how the Jewish people, who were the intended recipients of Jesus' message and mission, rejected him instead. This rejection is seen as the fulfillment of the prophecy in Zechariah 12:10, where the Messiah is pierced and mourned for.

The rejection of Jesus by his own people is a significant theme in the New Testament, as it highlights the tension between Jesus' message and the religious and political establishment of his time. It also underscores the importance of faith and belief in the life of a Christian, as Jesus' rejection by his own people was ultimately overcome by his resurrection and the spread of the gospel to the Gentiles.

DANIEL E. STUART (2019): Zechariah foresees how Israel will one day pierce the Lord. But the Lord is gracious and faithful to His covenant. After defending the homeland of His people from their enemies, the Lord will pour out His Spirit upon the inhabitants of the land, stimulating their repentance over the sinful act. Ultimately, the Lord will forgive them and provide a way of cleansing. Although Zechariah simply makes this assertion without commenting on
how it will happen, the NT clarifies how this messianic prophecy finds direct fulfillment in the incarnation, crucifixion, and second coming of Jesus (cf. Jn 1:1; 19:37; Lk 23:48; Rev 1:7). Surely God has already provided the Israelites with the theological framework necessary to understand the incarnation and crucifixion through Isa 53 and Zch 9–14 so that when He would come to suffer in the person of Jesus He would come to a people theologically prepared for the idea 2

346. Zech. 13:7 God’s will He die for mankind John 18:11

In Zechariah 13:7, the prophet speaks of a time when the Lord will strike the shepherd, causing the sheep to scatter. This passage is often interpreted as a reference to the coming of the Messiah and his sacrificial death on behalf of humanity, as the shepherd is struck down as a result of the will of God.

Similarly, in John 18:11, it is recorded that when Jesus was being arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane, Peter drew his sword and cut off the ear of the high priest's servant. Jesus then rebuked Peter, stating that he must drink the cup that the Father had given him, indicating that he must fulfill God's will by going to the cross and sacrificing himself for the salvation of humanity.

These passages highlight the importance of recognizing the will of God and submitting to it, even if it means undergoing great suffering and sacrifice. They also highlight the central role that the Messiah's sacrificial death plays in the salvation of humanity, demonstrating God's great love for us.

As Christians, we believe that Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament, including those in Zechariah. We also recognize that the sacrificial death of Jesus on the cross was a central aspect of God's plan for the salvation of humanity, and that it was a demonstration of his great love for us.

347. Zech. 13: A violent death Mark 14:27

Zechariah 13 is a chapter in the Old Testament that contains prophecies about the future of Israel. The chapter begins with a promise of purification for the people of Israel, and continues with prophecies about false prophets and the destruction of idols.

There is no specific reference to a violent death in Zechariah 13.

Mark 14:27 is a passage in the New Testament that describes Jesus' prediction of his disciples' desertion and his own death. The passage reads:

"And Jesus said to them, 'You will all fall away, because it is written, "I will strike down the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered." But after I have been raised, I will go ahead of you to Galilee.'"

This passage references a prophecy from Zechariah 13:7, which reads:

"Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, and against the man, My Associate," declares the Lord of hosts. "Strike the Shepherd that the sheep may be scattered; and I will turn My hand against the little ones."

This passage from Zechariah 13 is seen by many as a foreshadowing of the death of Jesus, who is the Good Shepherd in the New Testament. While the passage from Mark 14 does not specifically mention Zechariah 13, it is widely understood as a reference to this prophecy and the violent death of Jesus.

Overall, while there is no direct reference to a violent death in Zechariah 13, the passage from Mark 14 is commonly understood as a reference to this prophecy, and is seen as evidence of the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies in the life and death of Jesus.

348. Zech. 13:7 Both God and man John 14:9

Zechariah 13:7 is a prophecy about the coming of the Messiah and his suffering for the people of God. The passage states, "Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, against the man who is close to me!" The verse implies that the Messiah will suffer for the people of God and be struck down by the sword.

John 14:9 is a verse from the New Testament that refers to a conversation between Jesus and his disciples. In this passage, Philip asks Jesus to show them the Father, and Jesus replies, "Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father."

While there is no direct reference in Zechariah 13:7 to the Messiah being both God and man, the concept of the Messiah being a shepherd who is "close to God" and who suffers for the people of God implies a unique relationship between the Messiah and God. This relationship is further elaborated in the New Testament, where Jesus is identified as the Son of God and is described as both fully human and fully divine.

In John 14:9, Jesus is making a claim about his divine nature, affirming that he and the Father are one. This passage, along with other New Testament passages, supports the idea that Jesus is both fully God and fully human, and that his unique nature as the Son of God allows him to bridge the gap between God and humanity.

349. Zech. 13:7 Israel scattered as a result of rejecting Him Matthew 26:31-56

In Zechariah 13:7, the prophet speaks of a time when the Lord will strike the shepherd, causing the sheep to scatter. This passage is often interpreted as a reference to the scattering of Israel that would occur as a result of the rejection of the Messiah.

Similarly, in Matthew 26:31-56, it is recorded that when Jesus was arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane, his disciples all fled and abandoned him, fulfilling the prophecy in Zechariah 13:7. This scattering of the disciples also symbolized the scattering of Israel as a result of their rejection of the Messiah.

These passages highlight the serious consequences of rejecting the Messiah and the importance of faithfulness and loyalty in our relationship with God. They also demonstrate the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies in the life and death of Jesus.

As Christians, we believe that Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament, including those in Zechariah. We also recognize that rejection of the Messiah has serious consequences and that faithfulness and loyalty to God are essential for a meaningful and fulfilling life.

J. RANDALL PRICE (2019): The NT quotes and alludes to Zechariah some 41 times. The Gospels cite Zch 9–14 (especially in the Passion Narratives) more than any other portion of the OT. It is the second most cited OT book in Revelation, second only to the book of Ezekiel. Therefore, the messianic interpretation of Zch 13:7 should not be unexpected. The point of the possible intertextuality between the two passages points out connections to the shepherd/sheep metaphor. Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Zechariah are in harmony in the use of this sheep/shepherd metaphor in messianic terms. Thus, through this prophetic tradition, despite the presence of evil shepherds, God will raise up good shepherds and particularly send a Shepherd-Messiah to care for His people.2


350. Zech. 14:4 He would return to the Mt. of Olives Acts 1:11-12

In Zechariah 14:4, the prophet speaks of a day when the Lord will stand on the Mount of Olives, east of Jerusalem. This passage is often interpreted as a reference to the return of the Messiah.

Similarly, in Acts 1:11-12, it is recorded that when Jesus ascended into heaven, two angels appeared and told the disciples that he would return in the same way that he had ascended, that is, to the Mount of Olives.

These passages highlight the expectation of the return of the Messiah and the importance of being prepared for his coming. They also demonstrate the continuity of God's plan throughout history, as the return of the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament and confirmed in the New Testament.

As Christians, we believe in the second coming of Jesus Christ and look forward to his return with hope and expectation. We also recognize the importance of being prepared for his coming by living a life of faithfulness and obedience to God.

E.H. MERRILL (2019): Recent history attests to the ongoing faithfulness of Yahweh to His chosen nation, even in their present unbelief.28 They suffered through the terrible opposition of neighboring peoples in their UN-granted establishment of a Jewish state in 1948; the so-called Suez War of 1956; the struggle against what seemed apparent to most observers to be overwhelming odds in the attack by a coalition of nations in 1967, the miracle of which gave rise to its description as “The Six-Day War;” and then on the most holy day of the Jewish calendar, Yom Kippur of 1973, after a nearly devastating defeat, they once more prevailed and so decisively that “he who has eyes to see and ears to hear” can interpret the outcome as nothing short of divine intervention. But still, true and lasting shalom will be a reality only when the Sar Shalom, “the Prince of Peace,” comes in clouds and great glory. Then He shall bear His kingly scepter, wear His Davidic crown, and sit at the right hand of the Father on His royal throne. It is to all this that Zechariah directed his attention and upon which we too are invited to gaze with longing, and also with great assurance.2 

Maleachi 

351. Mal. 3:1 Messenger to prepare the way for Messiah Mark 1:1-8

Malachi 3:1 is a prophecy in the Old Testament about the messenger who would prepare the way for the coming of the Messiah. The passage reads:

"Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming," says the Lord of hosts.

This prophecy is commonly understood as a reference to John the Baptist, who was sent to prepare the way for Jesus, the Messiah.

Mark 1:1-8 is a passage in the New Testament that describes the beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and the ministry of John the Baptist. The passage reads:

"As it is written in Isaiah the prophet: 'Behold, I send My messenger ahead of You, who will prepare Your way; the voice of one crying in the wilderness, "Make ready the way of the Lord, make His paths straight."'" John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.

This passage quotes the prophecy from Malachi 3:1 and identifies John the Baptist as the messenger who was sent to prepare the way for Jesus, the Lord who was coming to his temple.

Overall, the prophecy from Malachi 3:1 and its fulfillment in the ministry of John the Baptist is seen as evidence of the divine plan and preparation for the coming of Jesus as the Messiah.

352. Mal. 3:1 Sudden appearance at the temple Mark 11:15-16

Malachi 3:1 is a prophecy that describes the coming of a messenger who will prepare the way for the Lord to come to his temple. The verse says, "See, I will send my messenger, who will prepare the way before me. Then suddenly the Lord you are seeking will come to his temple; the messenger of the covenant, whom you desire, will come."

In Mark 11:15-16, there is a description of Jesus' sudden appearance at the temple. In this passage, Jesus enters the temple and drives out the merchants and money changers who were selling and exchanging goods. This event is significant because it marks the beginning of Jesus' public ministry and his assertion of his authority over the religious establishment.

While the sudden appearance of Jesus at the temple in Mark 11:15-16 is not a direct fulfillment of the prophecy in Malachi 3:1, it is seen as a symbolic representation of the coming of the Messiah to the temple. Jesus' arrival at the temple and his demonstration of authority over the religious establishment are seen as a fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies that foretold the coming of the Messiah.

Overall, the sudden appearance of Jesus at the temple in Mark 11:15-16 is a significant event in the New Testament, and it is often seen as a fulfillment of the prophecy in Malachi 3:1, which foretold the coming of the Messiah to his temple.

353. Mal. 3:1 Messenger of the new covenant Luke 4:43

In Malachi 3:1, the prophet speaks of a messenger who will prepare the way for the Lord, and the Lord whom the people seek will suddenly come to his temple. This passage is often interpreted as a reference to the coming of the Messiah.

Similarly, in Luke 4:43, Jesus refers to himself as a messenger of the new covenant, indicating that he has come to fulfill the prophecy in Malachi. Jesus' ministry was focused on the establishment of a new covenant between God and humanity, one that would be based on faith, love, and obedience to God.

These passages highlight the importance of recognizing the Messiah when he comes and the continuity of God's plan throughout history. They also demonstrate the central role that Jesus plays in the establishment of the new covenant and the salvation of humanity.

As Christians, we believe that Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament, including those in Malachi. We also recognize that the establishment of the new covenant through his life, death, and resurrection is central to the Christian faith and to our relationship with God.

354. Mal. 3:6 The God who changes not Hebrews 13:8

Malachi 3:6 is a passage in the Old Testament that proclaims the unchanging nature of God. The passage reads:

"For I, the Lord, do not change; therefore you, O sons of Jacob, are not consumed."

This passage emphasizes the consistency and faithfulness of God, who remains steadfast in His love and mercy towards His people.

Hebrews 13:8 is a passage in the New Testament that declares the unchanging nature of Jesus Christ. The passage reads:

"Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever."

This passage emphasizes the unchanging nature of Jesus Christ, who is identified as the Son of God and the mediator between God and humanity.

While Malachi 3:6 and Hebrews 13:8 are not directly connected, both passages emphasize the unchanging nature of God and Jesus Christ. This consistency and faithfulness is seen as a source of comfort and hope for believers, who can trust in the unchanging love and mercy of God and the unchanging nature of Jesus Christ, who is the same yesterday, today, and forever.

355. Mal. 4:5 Forerunner in spirit of Elijah Mt. 3:1-3; 11:10-14; 17:11-13

Malachi 4:5 is a prophecy in the Old Testament about the coming of the Lord and the work of the prophet Elijah. The passage reads:

"See, I will send the prophet Elijah to you before that great and dreadful day of the Lord comes."

This prophecy is often understood as a reference to the ministry of John the Baptist, who was sent to prepare the way for Jesus and was said to have come in the spirit of Elijah.

In the Gospel of Matthew, it is written that John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness preaching a message of repentance and preparing the way for the coming of Jesus. Matthew 3:1-3 reads:

"In those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea and saying, 'Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come near.' This is he who was spoken of through the prophet Isaiah: 'A voice of one calling in the wilderness, "Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him."'"

This passage connects the ministry of John the Baptist to the prophecy from Malachi 4:5, and identifies him as the one who came in the spirit of Elijah to prepare the way for the coming of the Lord.

In Matthew 11:10-14, Jesus himself identifies John the Baptist as the one who fulfilled the prophecy of the coming of Elijah, saying:

"Truly I tell you, among those born of women there has not risen anyone greater than John the Baptist; yet whoever is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. From the days of John the Baptist until now, the kingdom of heaven has been subjected to violence, and violent people have been raiding it. For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John. And if you are willing to accept it, he is the Elijah who was to come."

Finally, in Matthew 17:11-13, Jesus again refers to John the Baptist as the one who came in the spirit of Elijah. The passage reads:

"Jesus replied, 'To be sure, Elijah comes and will restore all things. But I tell you, Elijah has already come, and they did not recognize him, but have done to him everything they wished. In the same way the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands.' Then the disciples understood that he was talking to them about John the Baptist."

Overall, Malachi 4:5 and its fulfillment in the ministry of John the Baptist is seen as evidence of the divine plan and preparation for the coming of Jesus as the Messiah.

356. Mal. 4:6 Forerunner would turn many to righteousness

Malachi 4:6 is a prophecy in the Old Testament about the coming of the Lord and the work of the prophet Elijah. The passage reads: