1. The origin of the genetic cipher
1.Triplet codons must be assigned to amino acids to establish a genetic cipher. Nucleic-acid bases and amino acids don’t recognize each other directly but have to deal via chemical intermediaries ( tRNA's and Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase ), there is no obvious reason why particular triplets should go with particular amino acids.
2. Other translation assignments are conceivable, but whatever cipher is established, the right amino acids must be assigned to permit polypeptide chains, which fold to active functional proteins. Functional amino acid chains in sequence space are rare. There are two possibilities to explain the correct assignment of the codons to the right amino acids. Chance, and design. Natural selection is not an option, since DNA replication is not set up at the stage prior to a self-replicating cell, but this assignment had to be established before.
3. If it were a lucky accident that happened by chance, luck would have hit the jackpot through trial and error amongst 1.5 × 10^84 possible genetic code tables. That is the number of atoms in the whole universe. That puts any real possibility of a chance of providing the feat out of question. Its, using Borel's law, in the realm of impossibility. Natural selection would have to evaluate roughly 10^55 codes per second to find the one that's universal. Put simply, the chemical lottery lacks the time necessary to find the universal genetic code.
4. We have not even considered that there are also over 500 possible amino acids, which would have to be sorted out, to get only 20, and select all L amino and R sugar bases......
5. We know that minds do invent languages, codes, translation systems, ciphers, and complex, specified information all the time.
6. Put it in other words: The task compares to invent two languages, two alphabets, and a translation system, and the information content of a book ( for example hamlet) being created and written in English, and translated to Chinese, through the invention and application of an extremely sophisticated hardware system.
7. The genetic code and its translation system are best explained through the action of an intelligent designer.
2. The software and hardware of the cell are irreducibly complex
1. The cell contains a complex information storage medium through DNA.
2. The cell has a complex information processing system ( through RNA polymerase, transcription factors, a spliceosome, a ribosome, chaperone enzymes, specialized transport proteins , and ATP
3. The cell contains a genetic code which is at or very close to a global optimum for error minimization across plausible parameter space
4. The cell stores complex, specified, coded information ( the software )
5. The cell has a complex translation system through a universal cipher, which assigns 61 codons (4x4x4=64-3 stop and start=64) to 20 amino acids and permits the translation of the genetic code into functional proteins
6. This constitutes a logical structure of information processing : DNA>>RNA>>>Protein, based on software and hardware. Both aspects must be explained.
7. There is no reason for information processing machinery to exist without the software, and vice versa.
8. Systems of interconnected software and hardware are irreducibly complex.
9. An irreducible complex system can not arise in a stepwise, evolutionary manner.
10. Only minds are capable to conceptualize and implement instructional information control systems transformed into molecular dynamics
11. Therefore, an intelligent designer exists.
1. Origin of translation of the 4 nucleic acid bases and the 20 amino acids
The origin of the genetic cipher, the most perplexing problem in biology
2. The hardware and software of the cell, evidence of design