Evidence for an ancient world is given under the following headings:
1. Continental drift caused by plate tectonics.
2. Distribution of plants and animals around the world.
3. The origin of oxygen in our atmosphere.
4. Coal deposits and coal formation.
5. Speed of mountain erosion and upliftment.
6. Ice cores drilled in Antarctica.
7. Radiometric dating of rocks.
8. The fossil record shows stages in life complexity over time.
Modern scientists can point to many examples that demonstrate that the ages of both the earth and the universe are much older than the 6,000 or so years that one would derive from a literal reading of the Bible. These examples include:
red-shift of light from distant galaxies: suggests an age of the universe of between 13 and 15 billion years
radioisotope dating: based on observed ratios between different isotopes of radioactive elements, dates some rocks on earth older than 4.4 billion years (examples: carbon-14, uranium-thorium, potassium-argon)
plate tectonics: the slow movement of plates of the earth's crust floating on the underlying magma require the age of the earth to be at least 1 billion years old (also called continental drift)
optically stimulated luminescence: method of dating materials based on stored ionizing radiation, can date items more than 300,000 years old
thermoluminescence: method of dating materials based on stored nuclear energy, can date items more than 80,000 years old
archaeomagnetism: based on observations of reversals in the earth's magnetic field (evidenced in rocks containing iron), capable of precise age measurements up to 10,000 years, but geomagnetic reversals are observable in rocks dating back more than 100 million years
electronic spin resonance: based on observations of unpaired electrons trapped in crystal lattices, can date items at least tens of thousands of years old
pollen analysis: tracks existence of particular species of plant pollen, which can be preserved for up to 400 million years
ice core dating: samples earth's atmosphere at dates up to 650,000 800,000 (updated May 2008) years ago, for Antarctic samples
linguistic diffusion: recent studies of modern language diffusion suggest a date of at least 10,000 years for the closest possible common ancestor
soil creation by earthworms: suggests an age of several tens of thousands of years for current soil levels, assuming no erosion
erosion rates: erosion rate of Colorado River into the Grand Canyon indicates an age of several million years
molecular clock: genetic technique used to measure distance from common ancestor, indicates common ancestors of related species at tens of thousands of years, to hundreds of millions of years for distantly related species
God Himself specifically *defines* the term "day" (or "yom") as an ordinary day right there in the creation account (Gen 1:5, "And God called the light day"), and then goes on reaffirm this ordinary day definition in several other verses in that same chapter. In verse 14, for example, we see that God specifically contrasts "days" with "seasons," and "years." Also, check out verses 16 -18 where God uses the Sun and Moon to reaffirm that He is speaking of ordinary days. So according the text itself, creation week consisted of 6 ordinary days. It would be quite deceptive of God to repeatedly affirm that "day" means ordinary day, and then to use it to mean millions of years all in the same historical account.
Similarly, the Bible actually does state that Adam and Eve were the first humans, that they were created in the beginning, and that the time from Adam to Abraham spanned only about 2000 years. So according to the text itself, those 6 ordinary days were only a few thousand years ago.
Not only do we *not* have any scriptural support for OEC anywhere in the Bible, we actually *do* have scriptural support for YEC (not based on any creative interpretation of the text, but based on the text itself).
The point is that if God meant to convey a YEC chronology, then He did a fantastic job of communicating that. On the other hand, if He meant to convey an OEC chronology, then He failed miserably.
All the top 7 energy companies recognise that oil is millions of years old and state that fact on their websites:
BP: “In addition to drilling more wells and optimizing reservoir performance, we are looking ahead to the potential of the Paleogene. This is a geologic period that ended around 23 million years ago and lies over six miles beneath the ocean floor. We’ve made discoveries there in the Gulf of Mexico at Kaskida and Tiber. Lamar McKay; BP Upstream Chief Executive: http://www.bp.com/.../speeches/unlocking-the-future.html
Chevron: Page 8 “microfossils–formed from microscopic plants and animals that were buried millions of years ago–are time markers for finding (oil) sands. (http://www.chevron.com/.../pdf/chevron2008nextmagazine.pdf)
ExxonMobil: Page 20 “Reservoir found in sandstone is from the Upper Cretaceous period (~70 million years old).” (http://cdn.exxonmobil.com/.../exxonmobil-lamp-2015-v2.pdf
ConocoPhillips: Page 9 “So the Eagle Ford rocks were laid down about 90 million years ago in the Cretaceous Interior Seaway. They are organic marrows, which means they are calcite rich and organic material embedded in them”. (http://www.conocophillips.com/.../COP-Transcript-2014...
Shell: “LPG has been formed over millions of years beneath the ground”. (http://www.shell.com.hk/.../in.../lpg/all-about-lpg.html
Eni: Page 53 “The Timor Sea has been tectonically active for at least the past six million years where the Australian and Eurasian continental plates converge.” (http://www.eni.com/.../000177_DV_EX.HSE.0206.000_Final_no...)
Total S.A “The Pazflor oil field comprises four reservoirs. One of them, Acacia was formed around 25 million years ago in the Oligocene and contains light oil. The other three — Perpetua, Zinia and Hortensia — are younger, dating from the Miocene, just five to seven million years ago.” (http://www.total.com/.../total-world-first-subsea...)
It is clear that they use the old earth science model in their research and exploration. While some creationists question whether old earth or young earth models would give different results, again common sense would suggest that having an accurate understanding of where oil comes from and how and when it was made would help you find it. If the Young Earth model is more accurate then you would expect it to be more efficient in discovering oil (rather than just giving an alternative explanation of why it is there after someone else has found it using traditional methods).
1) No scientist relies on one analytical method unless it has been shown to be very accurate. The usual method is to correlate it against other methods and see if there is concordance.
In the case of carbon dating the scientists examined leaf litter from a Japanese lake, Lake Suigetsu and correlated it with carbon dating. http://www.the-scientist.com/...
2) Dating methods usually give a minimum age and I have a table showing 30 different methods of dating
1 Dendrochronology (tree rings) 8,000 years by California Bristle Cone pines, 12,000 by German Pines
2 Human Y-chromosomal ancestry Greater than 10,000
3 Oxidisable Carbon Ratio dating Greater than 10,000 years (20,000 +/- 200)
4 Lunar rocks 3.6 billion
5 Rock varnish Greater than 10,000
6 Thermoluminescence dating Greater than 10,000
7 Coral 400,000
8 Fission track dating Greater than 100,000
9 Ice layering Minimum from 40,000 years Chinese Dundee ice core to 900,000 EPICA ice core Antarctica
10 Lack of DNA in fossils 100,000
11 Permafrost 225,000 years from Prudhoe Bay
12 Weathering rinds 300,000
13 Amino acid racemization 1 million
14 Baptistinia asteroid family 160 million
15 Continental drift 200 million
16 Cosmogenic nucleotide dating minimum a few million
17 Erosion ex the Grand Canyon a few million
18 Geomagnetic reversals Several million
19 Impact craters a few million
20 Iron-manganese nodules Several million years
21 Length of the prehistoric day 370 million
22 Naica megacrystals 1 million
23 Nitrogen in diamonds 200 million
24 Petrified wood millions of years for complete permineralisation
24 Relativistic jets At least 1 million
26 Sedimentary varves 36,000 by Japanese diatoms
27 Stalactites over 1 metre long should take at least 10,000 years. Caves are full of many that are tens and hundreds of metres
28 Space weathering millions
29 Carbon -14 50,000 by Lake Suigetsu, Japan
30 Uranium 235 704 million
3) I have met several world class scientists and they are uninterested in the religion or lack of it of the scientist. They are only interested in the evidence.
(PhysOrg.com) -- Climate scientists have discovered a new archive of historical sea temperatures. With the help of the skeleton of a sponge that belongs to the Monorhaphis chuni species and that lived in the East China Sea for 11,000 years, an international team around scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry were now able to show that the deep ocean temperature changed several times over the past millennia. 1
How old is the earth? How old are the geologic ages? How are these dates determined?