The progression of biological systems: from a supposed prebiotic soup to the first self-replicating cell. From there, to the 3 domains of life: eukaryotic, archaea, and prokaryotes. From unicellular to multicellular life. From one kind of cell to specialized cells, and pluripotent cells. From there to tissues, organs, and whole bodies. From " simple " sponges to humans. EACH of these leaps of complexity is a QUANTUM step. Each node in Darwin's tree of split is the change compared to a mousetrap to a spaceship in terms of complexity. Must not EACH new cell be precisely specified through a master program which, coordinates, instructs, specifies each Cell in regard of its
1. Kind or type of cell ( Histology),
2. Cell size
3. It's specific function,
4. Position and place in the body. This is crucial. Limbs like legs, fins, eyes etc. must all be placed at the right place.
5. How it is interconnected with other cells,
6. What communication it requires to communicate with other cells, and the setup of the communication channels
7. What specific sensory and stimuli functions are required and does it have to acquire in regard to its environment and surroundings?
8. What specific new regulatory functions it acquires
9. When will the development program of the organism express the genes to grow the new cells during development?
11. Precisely how many new cell types must be produced for each tissue and organ?
10. Specification of the cell - cell adhesion and which ones will be used in each cell to adhere to the neighbor cells ( there are 4 classes )
11. Programming of time period the cell keeps alive in the body, and when is it time to self-destruct and be replaced by newly produced cells of the same kind
12. Set up its specific nutrition demands
I don't know how many mutations would be required in the genome to instruct all these things for one Cell. Now imagine the requirement to grow two or four legs, mutations had to generate NEW information for EACH cell, and for each new organ and body part, according to Axe's paper, 10^64 ( that's a one with 64 zeroes ) mutations for ONE positive mutation. And the information would be required in regard of body plan architecture IN ADVANCE. That mutation must be fixed in the genome and spread in the population. How many would be required for millions, billions of mutations to grow NEW cells, tissues, organs, and body plans? Nope, not millions, not billions, or trillions of years would be enough......
Nah Nah.... I have not enough faith to believe in Darwin's story....