Consider the ingredients you need:
the strong nuclear force particles;
the weak nuclear force particles;
the electromagnetic force particles;
Basic textbooks sometimes say that protons and neutrons have the same mass. This is almost true – but not quite, and the difference is important:
Protons have a mass of 938.27 MeV
Neutrons have a mass of 939.56 MeV
So the difference between them is small: a neutron is about 1.29 MeV heavier than a proton. There is no obvious reason why protons and neutrons should have just these masses, but if they were even slightly different, we wouldn’t be here. 2
The strong nuclear force (the force that binds together the elements in the nucleus of an atom) has a value of 0.007. If that value had been 0.006 or less, the Universe would have contained nothing but hydrogen. If it had been 0.008 or higher, the hydrogen would have fused to make heavier elements. In either case, any kind of chemical complexity would have been physically impossible. And without chemical complexity there can be no life. 3
in order to form the protons and the neutrons; and of course electrons. And all of these bits and pieces have to mesh like a clock - or even a watch. You can't just assemble these bits and pieces in just any old way and expect things to work out. These processes have nothing to do with the emergence of atoms from the fundamental particles, forces and fields that form the bedrock of the atomic realm. It's all governed by the laws, principles and relationships of quantum mechanics, all of which had to come from somewhere or from someone or from something. For example, there's the Pauli Exclusion Principle which requires that not more than two electrons can occupy exactly the same 'orbit' and then only if they have differing quantum values, like spin-up and spin-down. This prevents all electrons being together like commuters crowded into a Tokyo subway carriage at rush hour. Then there's the energy levels that electrons are allowed to have while 'orbiting' around the nucleus. That can be in this level or that level or the next level but not at in-between levels. This prevents electrons from spiraling down and impacting the positively charged nucleus which, being negatively charged, electrons would otherwise want to do. Design and fine-tuning by any other name still appears to be design and fine-tuning.
Consider further that the partial (fractional) electrical charges on the up-quarks and the down-quarks had to arrange themselves just-so such that a proton is a unity of positive electric charge and a neutron is a unity of electric charge neutrality. Then, the positive electric charge on the proton has to balance just so (to an infinite number of decimal places, at least as close to infinity as one can actually measure and calculate) the negative electric charge of the electron. How can the electric charge of the electron be EXACTLY equal and opposite to that of the proton when they otherwise share nothing in common?
If hydrogen atoms couldn't link up with oxygen atoms there could be no water and no water implies no life could arise. The same applies to dozens of other essential molecules that life requires.
On the other hand, why isn't there a universal solvent or acid that disassembles molecules? Everything can be stored in at least one kind of container. That too seems to be essential for life as is the requirement that some things need to be in solution some of the time. An atom is literally 99.99% empty space. And the part which supposedly is matter, might be just pure energy. And as such, the whole universe is simply held together by Gods power and his word: information.
Who fine-tuned the atomic parameters? Why fine-tuning? Well fine-tuning implies that something(s) exist against all the odds. Fine-tuning requires a tuner. The universe started with the design and fine-tuned engineering of the humble atom
The proton mass is 1836 times that of an electron. If this ratio were off even slightly, molecules would not form properly. It is also interesting to note that although protons are very different in size and mass, the charges are exactly the same in opposite degree. If this were not the case, again, molecules necessary to support complex life could not form. The same is true of the electromagnetic coupling constant between protons and electrons - it is very precisely balanced to support complex life. 4