Intelligent Design, the best explanation of Origins

This is my personal virtual library, where i collect information, which leads in my view to Intelligent Design as the best explanation of the origin of the physical Universe, life, and biodiversity

# Calculations: Number of cells in the human body, and synapses in the human brain

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Number of cells in the human body, and synapses in the human brain

The human brain, due to evolution, or design ?!

Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome
01 September 2005
More than a century ago Darwin1 and Huxley2 posited that humans share recent common ancestors with the African great apes. Modern molecular studies have spectacularly confirmed this prediction and have refined the relationships, showing that the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus or pygmy chimpanzee) are our closest living evolutionary relatives. 11

Brain Evolution
Ralph L. Holloway, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, New York, NY
The size of the hominid brain increased from about 450ml at 3.5 million years ago to our current average volume of 1350ml. These changes through time were sometimes gradual but not always.

My comment: Now let's make a little calculation. The human brain has 1,5^14, or 1.500.000.000.000.000 synapses. According to above claim, the hominid brain of our ur-ancestor, 3,5mio years ago, had a brain, a third of the size of homo sapiens today, that is 0,5^14, or 500.000.000.000.000 synapses approximately. That means there was an increase in a number of brain synapses of  1^15, or 1.000.000.000.000.000 in 3,5Mio ( 3.500.000 years ). If we divide that number in 3.500.000 years, it results in an increase of ~ 285.7 Mio synapses ( 285.700.000 ) per year !!, or 782.000 per day, or 32.600 synapses per hour.

In computing terms, the brain’s nerve cells, called neurons, are the processors, while synapses, the junctions where neurons meet and transmit information to each other, are analogous to memory. These synapses are not " just so" interconnected. The connections process and store information and must be the correct one..... like a computer network.

Now let's suppose the average age of each generation was 50 years. that means that there would have been 70 thousand generations in 3,5mio years. That means, in each generation, there would have had to be an increase of 14,3 billion (14.300.000.000 ) new synapse connections.....or 8,3 million new neurons per generation.

Just a comparison of the processing power of the human brain, compared to the fastest supercomputers made by man:
The brain is a deviously complex biological computing device that even the fastest supercomputers in the world fail to emulate. Well, that’s not entirely true anymore. Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Technology Graduate University in Japan and Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany have managed to simulate a single second of human brain activity in a very, very powerful computer. It took 40 minutes with the combined muscle of 82,944 processors in K computer to get just 1 second of biological brain processing time. 9

The prevalence of low-level function in four such experiments indicates that roughly one in 10^64 signature-consistent sequences forms a working domain. Combined with the estimated prevalence of plausible hydropathic patterns (for any fold) and of relevant folds for particular functions, this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences. 10

So how could natural selection, genetic drift or gene flow have produced the correct 32.6 thousand brain connections average per hour during 3,5mio years? The task would be to specify EACH new cell  precisely through a master program which, coordinates, instructs and defines each Cell in regard of its

1. Cell phenotype
2. Cell size
3. It's specific function,
4. Position and place in the body. This is crucial. Limbs like legs, fins, eyes etc. must all be placed at the right place.
5. How it is interconnected with other cells,
6. What communication it requires to communicate with other cells, and the setup of the communication channels
7. What specific sensory and stimuli functions are required and does it have to acquire in regard to its environment and surroundings?
8. What specific new regulatory functions it acquires
9. When will the development program of the organism express the genes to grow the new cells during development?
11. Precisely how many new cell types must be produced for each tissue and organ?
10. Specification of the cell-cell adhesion and which ones will be used in each cell to adhere to the neighbor cells ( there are 4 classes )
11. Programming of  time period the cell keeps alive in the body, and when is it time to self-destruct and be replaced by newly produced cells of the same kind
12. Set up its specific nutrition demands

Does it seem plausible that evolutionary mechanisms had this sort of power to evolve the human brain ?

There are 37.2 Trillion Cells in Your Body. That is 37,200,000,000,000 Cells
Each contains 2,3 Billion ( 2,300000000)  Proteins
That sums up to 85560000000000000000000 Proteins. That is 8,556^21 Proteins.
That is 8,5 Vigintillion Proteins.

===============================================================================================================================================

It's beyond me to understand, how one fertilized human egg can give rise to
37.2 Trillion Cells in our Body. That is 37,200,000,000,000 Cells
Each containing 2,3 Billion ( 2.300.000.000) Proteins
That sums up to 85.560.000.000.000.000.000.000 Proteins.
That is in total 8,556^21 Proteins in our body. That is 8,5 Vigintillion Proteins.
A human brain with 86 billion Neurons ( 86.000.000.000 neurons )
Each neuron with tens of thousands of synapses. Each synapse functions like a microprocessor, and tens of thousands of them can connect a single neuron to other nerve cells.
In the cerebral cortex alone 125 trillion synapses, or 1,25 x 10^14 (0.125 quadrillions), that is 1.250.000.000.000.000 synapses ( The brain has more switches than all the computers and routers and Internet connections on Earth. )

Our mental circuitry is more like Manhattan’s organized grid than London’s chaotic tangle. It consists of sheets of fibers that intersect at right angles, with no diagonals anywhere to be seen.

Van Wedeen from Massachusetts General Hospital, who led the study, says that his results came as a complete shock. “I was expecting it to be a pure mess,” he says. Instead, he found a regular criss-cross pattern like the interlocking fibers of a piece of cloth.

“If you look at brain connections in an adult human, it’s really a massive puzzle how something so complex can emerge,” says Behrens.

Some fibres execute 90 degree turns, and some entire grids will curve and warp. But the same underlying pattern holds. This simple system can still produce a brain of staggering complexity, but it makes it easier for neurons to find one another.

http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2012/03/29/the-brain-is-full-of-manhattan-like-grids/

The Geometric Structure of the Brain Fiber Pathways
http://science.sciencemag.org.sci-hub.hk/content/335/6076/1628

Cortico-cortical pathways formed parallel sheets of interwoven paths in the longitudinal and medio-lateral axes, in which major pathways were local condensations. Cross-species homology was strong and showed
emergence of complex gyral connectivity by continuous elaboration of this grid structure. This architecture naturally supports functional spatio-temporal coherence, developmental path-finding, and incremental rewiring with correlated adaptation of structure and function in cerebral plasticity.

Why do they even mention evolution ?

================================================================================================================================================

So average, there would have to be an increase of 2912 cells per day by natural selection, producing the information to make the right kind of cells.

669.760.000.000.000, or 669 trillion specifications per day during 3,5bio years.

A current estimation of human total cell number calculated for a variety of organs and cell types is presented. These partial data correspond to a total number of 3.72 × 10^13, or
3.7.200.000.000.000 cells.

In humans, there are about 200 different types of cells, and within these cells, there are about 20 different types of structures or organelles. 2  37.200.000.000.000

If we suppose that the first unicellular life forms emerged 3.5bi years ago, that is 3.500.000.000 years, then there would have to be an average increase of 1.062,857 cells each year, or 2912 cells per day, or 121 cells per hour to get the number of cells of the human body. Each of these cells would have to differentiate to form the different tissues and organs, the emergence of a signaling language,  right cell signaling at the right place, at the right moment, to provoke cell movement and cell proliferation to the right place, to form the right organs and tissues, and interlink them correctly in a functional way.

The human central nervous system (CNS) is the most complex living organ in the known universe. [url=Chapter 2 Introduction to Brain Anatomy Wieslaw L. Nowinski]6[/url]  Each synapse functions like a microprocessor, and tens of thousands of them can connect a single neuron to other nerve cells. In the cerebral cortex alone, there are roughly 125 trillion synapses, which is about how many stars fill 1,500 Milky Way galaxies.  The human brain is often considered to be the most cognitively capable among mammalian brains and to be much larger than expected for a mammal of our body size. 4  We find that the adult male human brain contains on average 86.1 +/- 8.1 billion NeuN-positive cells.   The total myelinated fiber length in a human brain varies from 150,000 to 180,000 km in young individuals. The total number of synapses in the human neocortex is approximately 1,5 x 10^14 (0.15 quadrillion), that is 1.500.000.000.000.000 synapses. The brain has more switches than all the computers and routers and Internet connections on Earth. 5 These connections should reveal a great deal about how the brain works, for while a single nerve cell may be enormously complex, it is in the massive networking of these many neurons that the brain’s fantastic processing and cognitive powers are likely to emerge.

According to mainstream science, Flatworms are the earliest known animals to have a brain, and supposedly evolved 500 mio years ago.
It would have had to produce 3.000.000 synapse connections per year, or 8200 new synapses per day, or 342 per hour. These synapses would have to make the right synaptic connections to form a functional nervous system.

==========================================================================================================================================

The waiting time problem in a model hominin population
We have used comprehensive numerical simulations to show that in populations of modest size (such as a hominin population), there is a serious waiting time problem that can constrain macroevolution. Our studies show that in such a population there is a significant waiting time problem even in terms of waiting for a specific point mutation to arise and be fixed (minimally, about 1.5 million years). We show that the waiting time problem becomes very severe when more than one mutation is required to establish a new function. On a practical level, the waiting time problem greatly inhibits the establishment of any new function that requires any string or set of specific linked co-dependent mutations. We show that the waiting time problem becomes more extreme as string length increases, as fitness benefit decreases, and as population size decreases. In a population of 10,000 the establishment of a string of just two specific co-dependent mutations tends to be extremely problematic (conservatively requiring an average waiting time of at least 84 million years). For nucleotide strings of moderate length (eight or above), waiting times will typically exceed the estimated age of the universe – even when using highly favorable settings. Many levels of evidence support our conclusions, including the results of virtually all the other researchers who have looked at the waiting time problem in the context of establishing specific sequences in specific genomic locations within a small hominin-type population. In small populations the waiting time problem appears to be profound, and deserves very careful examination. 7

1. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03014460.2013.807878
3. http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0531-5565(02)00151-1
4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19226510
5. http://darwins-god.blogspot.com.br/
6. Chapter 2 Introduction to Brain Anatomy Wieslaw L. Nowinski
7. https://tbiomed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12976-015-0016-z
8. http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2641-how-many-proteins-are-in-a-cell
9. https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/163051-simulating-1-second-of-human-brain-activity-takes-82944-processors
10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321723
11. http://www.cell.com/ajhg/pdf/S0002-9297(07)61654-1.pdf

Last edited by Admin on Sat Apr 20, 2019 5:27 am; edited 14 times in total

How was evolution able to place 37 trillion cells ( 37.200,000,000,000 Cells ) at the right place in the body of homo sapiens, in a time period of 1,5 billion ( 1.500,000,000 ) years, according to evolutionary thinking? That is, when supposedly unicellular lifeforms began to develop multicellularity.  Let's suppose a theoretical average lifespan of each organism of 30 years. That means there were 50mio (  50.000,000 ) generations. That means the average mutation rate of each generation had to generate 740 thousand ( 740,000 ) mutations PER YEAR, and as a result, NEW information to instruct the organism WHERE to add the new 740 thousand cells. That calculation dismisses all other requirements for body development, that is:

1. Kind or type of cell, that is, cell differentiation,
2. Cell size
3. It's specific function,
4. Position and place in the body. This is crucial. Limbs like legs, fins, eyes etc. must all be placed at the right place.
5. How it is interconnected with other cells,
6. What communication it requires to communicate with other cells, and the setup of the communication channels
7. What specific sensory and stimuli functions are required and does it have to acquire in regard to its environment and surroundings?
8. What specific new regulatory functions it acquires
9. When will the development program of the organism express the genes to grow the new cells during development?
11. Precisely how many new cell types must be produced for each tissue and organ?
10. Specification of the cell - cell adhesion and which ones will be used in each cell to adhere to the neighbor cells ( there are 4 classes )
11. Programming of time period the cell keeps alive in the body, and when is it time to self-destruct and be replaced by newly produced cells of the same kind
12. Set up its specific nutrition demands

The complexity of the human body is far beyond our imagination. Imagine, that during development, One cell, formed by egg and sprem, grows in about 20 years, from one cell, to 3,72 trillion Cells  in the human body.

An estimation of the number of cells in the human body

The Human Body has about 3,72 trillion, or 3.72 × 10^13 Cells. That is 37,200.000.000.000  Cells 1

Let's assume that the human body stops to grow, and turn adult, with 20 years.

That means, that during the time of development and growth, every year, 186 billion cells are added. 186.000.000.000 Cells.

Each of these cells has to  be specified in regards to:

1. Kind or type of cell ( Histology),
2. Cell size
3. It's specific function,
4. Position and place in the body. This is crucial. Limbs like legs, fins, eyes etc. must all be placed at the right place.
5. The formulation and generation of signaling codes to communicate with other cells, and the setup of the communication channels
6. What specific sensory and stimuli functions are required and does it have to acquire in regard to its environment and surroundings?
7. Setup of new regulatory functions of the new growing organism and molecular systems
8. When will the development program of the organism express the genes to grow the new cells during development?
9. Precisely how many new cell types must be produced for each tissue and organ?
10. How many of each cell type?
11. Specification of the cell-cell adhesion and which ones will be used in each cell to adhere to the neighbor cells ( there are 4 classes )
12. Programming of the time period the cell keeps alive in the body, and when is it time to self-destruct and be replaced by newly produced cells of the same kind
13. Set up its specific nutrition demands

Consider also, that there had to be an evolutionary transition from a supposed most primitive cell ( LUCA ), to the complexity of human cells, which hosts 2,3 billion ( !! ) proteins. 13
While, the smallest mycoplasma genome harbors less than 500 genes for a total of 500.000 pairs of nucleotides (0.5 megabases, or MB) 2

The total length of the human genome is over 3.000.000.000 base pairs.

The proteome of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a supposedly ‘‘simple’’ cell 4
This bacterium is one of the smallest known self-replicating bacteria. With fewer than 700 proposed proteins, it is well suited to a comprehensive proteome analysis.

Multiple evidence strands suggest that there may be as few as 19.000 human protein-coding genes 14

Only about 1.5% of the genome codes for proteins. 15  That means about 45,000.000 base pairs code for proteins in the human genome.

The Size of the Human Proteome: The Width and Depth 5
Following the hypothesis of “one gene = one protein,” there should be at least ~20,000 nonmodified (canonical) human proteins. Taking into account products of alternative splicing (AS), those containing single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) arising from nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), and those that undergo PTMs, as many as 100 different proteins can potentially be produced from a single gene. Here, we describe the theoretical prediction for the number of different proteoforms.

We estimate that in humans there exist 0.62 or 0.88 or 6.13 million protein species. a 8

Proteomics: An atlas of expression 7
29 May 2014
Applying their techniques to the many proteins in the body is daunting — the sum of human proteins exceeds the number of genes by far, and could run in the millions.

How many proteins in the human proteome?
DECEMBER 06, 2016
Speculations range from about 100,000 to almost one million.  I call these "speculations" because that's what they are. 9

So no one knows for certain. But for calculation sake, let's say, 6.13 million proteins species exist, what means, that the spliceosome can turn one gene into about 320 different protein products.

Mycoplasma as model of an eventual first living most primitive cell has:

- unicellular
- 500 genes
- 500.000,00 base pairs
- 700 proteins

Homo sapiens has:

- 3,720.000.000.000  Cells
- 19.000 genes
- 3.000.000.000 base pairs
- 45.000,000 protein-coding base pairs ( 1,5% of the total base pair size )
- 19.000 genes = 1 gene - 1 protein, would mean 19.000 proteins. 320 splicing products per gene means
- 6.130.000 protein species

Each Cell contains 2,3 Billion ( 2.300.000.000)  Proteins
That sums up to 85.560.000.000.000.000.000.000 Proteins in the Human body. That is 85,56 x 10^21 Proteins.

That is 8,56 Vigintillion Proteins.

There would have to be an

increase of
500 to 19.000 genes
500.000 to 45,000.000 base pairs
700 to 19.000 genes

producing 6.130.000 splice variants and protein species.

This, over a period of   1,5 billion ( 1.500,000,000 ) years, when supposedly the transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms began.

Evolution would have had to evolve the spliceosome machinery ( one of the, if not the most complex molecular machine known ) :

The awe-inspiring spliceosome, the most complex macromolecular machine known, and pre-mRNA processing in eukaryotic cells
http://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2180-the-spliceosome-the-splicing-code-and-pre-mrna-processing-in-eukaryotic-cells

And the splicing code, and encode through it the information to splice the genome correctly to produce over 6.130.000 protein splice variants from 17.300 genes, or as calculated above, 360 proteins through one gene.

Furthermore, it would have to be defined which proteins would be produced for which tissues and organs, and how many of each type for each cell. Rough estimates have put the number of different cell types in the human body at around 200, a number which seems low given the amount of diversity and specialization in our body. 10

Each of the over 200 cell types in the body interprets this identical information very differently in order to perform the functions necessary to keep us alive. 12
This demonstrates that we need to look beyond the sequence of DNA itself in order to understand how an organism and its cells function. After the Human Genome Project, scientists found that there were around 20,000 genes within the genome, a number that some researchers had already predicted.  Remarkably, these genes comprise only about 1-2% of the 3 billion base pairs of DNA [].  This means that anywhere from 98-99% of our entire genome must be doing something other than coding for proteins – scientists call this non-coding DNA.

This is a quite remarkable admission. If we have to look beyond, it means that in order for an organism to change, we have to look as well beyond the DNA sequence.

The number of human protein-coding genes is not significantly larger than that of many less complex organisms, such as the roundworm and the fruit fly. This difference may result from the extensive use of alternative pre-mRNA splicing in humans, which provides the ability to build a very large number of modular proteins through the selective incorporation of exons. 13

Question: How did the spliceosome evolve? Nobody knows. How did the splicing code emerge? Nobody knows. How did the information to produce 360 different slicings of one gene to make 360 protein species emerge? Nobody knows.

How was evolution able to place 37 trillion cells, or 3,72 x 10^13 ( 37.200,000,000,000 Cells ) at the right place in the body of homo sapiens, in a time period of 1,5 billion ( 1.500,000,000 ) years, according to evolutionary timescale? That is when supposedly unicellular lifeforms began to develop multicellularity.  Let's suppose a theoretical average lifespan of each organism of 30 years. That means there were 50.000,000 ( 50 mio ) generations. The average mutation rate of each generation had to generate and select

- the precise information and development program  to produce an average of the new addition  of  740,000 cells ( which are added by each generation )
- the precise information to increase the genomic length from 500.000 to 45.000.000 base pairs, that is :
45.000.000 ( human gene size ) - 500.000 ( mycoplasma gene size ) = 44.500.000 ( base pair increase during 1,5 bio years ) : 50.000.000 ( generations during that time period ) = an average increase of only 0,89 base pairs per generation.  So that means, that the increase of just 60 base pairs per generation had to generate the information to add 740.000 Cells to the body, and instruct each Cell in regards of following:

1. Kind or type of cell ( Histology),
2. Cell size
3. It's specific function,
4. Position and place in the body. This is crucial. Limbs like legs, fins, eyes etc. must all be placed at the right place.
5. The formulation and generation of signaling codes to communicate with other cells, and the setup of the communication channels
6. What specific sensory and stimuli functions are required and does it have to acquire in regard to its environment and surroundings?
7. Setup of new regulatory functions of the new growing organism and molecular systems
8. When will the development program of the organism express the genes to grow the new cells during development?
9. Precisely how many new cell types must be produced for each tissue and organ?
10. How many of each cell type?
11. Specification of the cell-cell adhesion and which ones will be used in each cell to adhere to the neighbor cells ( there are 4 classes )
12. Programming of the time period the cell keeps alive in the body, and when is it time to self-destruct and be replaced by newly produced cells of the same kind
13. Set up its specific nutrition demands

its evident that something is wrong with this equation.

So lets make another analysis. There are in homo sapiens 3 billion base pairs in 17300 genes, which code through splicing for 6.13mio protein species products.

but the generation of 740 thousand mutations and each of this generated new sequence, generating USEFUL information to produce an increase of complexity of the whole organism, instructing the generation of new proteins.   PER YEAR, and as a result, NEW information to produce an increase of instruct the organism WHERE to add the new 740 thousand cells.

a   Finding one's way in proteomics: a protein species nomenclature 6
Our knowledge of proteins has greatly improved in recent years, driven by new technologies in the fields of molecular biology and proteome research. It has become clear that from a single gene not only one single gene product but many different ones - termed protein species - are generated, all of which may be associated with different functions.

1. http://sci-hub.tw/10.3109/03014460.2013.807878
2. http://we.vub.ac.be/~dglg/Web/Teaching/Les/Discussions/Gribaldo-LUCA.pdf
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_genome
4. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1002/pmic.201100076
5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889822/
6. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1186/1752-153X-3-11
7. https://www.nature.com/articles/509645a
9. http://sandwalk.blogspot.com.br/2016/12/how-many-proteins-in-human-proteome.html
10. https://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/bio2.0/discovering_new_cell_types_one
11. http://book.bionumbers.org/how-many-proteins-are-in-a-cell/
12. http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2012/issue127a/
13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_genome#cite_note-15
14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204768/
15. http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/human_genome.htm

Last edited by Admin on Wed May 30, 2018 10:29 am; edited 2 times in total

The numbers say no to the evolution of homo sapiens

http://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2597-number-of-cells-in-the-human-body-and-synapses-in-the-human-brain#5979

The complexity of the human body is far beyond our imagination. During development, One cell, grows in about 20 years, from one fertilized egg to 3,72 trillion, or 3.72 × 10^13, or 37,200.000.000.000 Cells.  During the time of development and growth, every year, 186 bio cells are added. Consider as well, that there had to be an evolutionary transition from a supposed most primitive cell ( Last Universal Common Ancestor, LUCA ), hosting about 700 proteins, to the complexity of human cells, which hosts about 2,3 billion ( !! ) proteins.  That is an increase of 32mio fold, or 32mio mycoplasma-like ancestral cells would sum up to have the same protein content of a human Cell.

The smallest mycoplasma genome harbors about 500.000 DNA base pairs producing 700 proteins. The human genome has ~ 3bio base pairs. Following the hypothesis of “one gene = one protein,” there are ~19,000 genes, resulting in 19.000 nonmodified (canonical) human proteins, ( each gene has a length of about 2360 base pairs ).  Only about 1.5% of the human genome codes for proteins. That is ~ 45mio DNA base pairs.  As many as 320 different proteins can potentially be produced from a single gene through splicing of the spliceosome. So there exist an estimate of 6.13 million protein species in the human body.

There would have to be the increase from LUCA to human cell of 500.000 to 45,000.000 DNA base pairs, and 700 to 19.000 genes producing 6.13mio splice variants and protein species. This, over a period of   1,5 bio years, when supposedly the transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms began. Darwinian mechanisms would have had to evolve the spliceosome machinery ( one of the, if not the most complex molecular machine known ) and the splicing code, and encode through it the information to splice the genome correctly to produce these over 6.13mio protein splice variants from the 19.000 genes, or as calculated above, 320 protein species through one gene. Furthermore, it would have to be defined which proteins would be produced for which tissues and organs, and how many of each type for each cell. Rough estimates have put the number of different cell types in the human body at around 200, a number which seems low given the amount of diversity and specialization in our body.

How were evolutionary, non-guided mechanisms able to place 37 trillion cells at the right place in the body of homo sapiens, in a time period of 1,5bio years, according to evolutionary timescale? That is when supposedly unicellular lifeforms began to develop multicellularity.  Let's suppose a theoretical average lifespan of each organism generously of 30 years. That means there were 50mio generations. The average mutation rate of each generation had to generate and select  the precise information to increase the genomic length from 500.000 to 45.000.000 base pairs, that is :

45.000.000 ( human gene size ) - 500.000 ( mycoplasma gene size ) = 44.500.000 ( base pair increase during 1,5 bio years ) : 50.000.000 ( generations during that time period ) = an average increase through mutation and natural selection, drift, or gene flow,  of 0,89 base pairs per generation. If we would say that the average lifespan of each organism was 5 years, that means, there were 300mio generations and  0,15 mutations per generation.

Each of the over 200 cell types in the body interprets this identical information very differently in order to perform the functions necessary to keep us alive. This demonstrates that we need to look beyond the sequence of DNA itself in order to understand how an organism and its cells function, which means that in order for an organism to change, we have to look as well beyond the DNA sequence.  The number of human protein-coding genes is not significantly larger than that of many less complex organisms, such as the roundworm and the fruit fly. This difference must evidently be the result of the extensive use of alternative pre-mRNA splicing in humans, which provides the ability to build a very large number of modular proteins through the selective incorporation of exons.

Question: How did the spliceosome evolve? Nobody knows. How did the splicing code emerge? Nobody knows. How did the information to produce 360 different slicings of one gene to make 360 protein species emerge? Nobody knows. What emerged first, the splicing code, or the spliceosome? Are they not interdependent, one not having any function without the other?

If we take again an average age of each generation of 30 years, in 1,5bio years, to get from a single-celled organism to homo sapiens, on each generation, there had to be an increase of:

37,200.000.000.000 : 50,000.000 = 740.000 Cells per generation, through the increase of just 0,89 mutations !!!! It's evident, something does not match here.

Let us suppose, there was an average lifespan of 5 years, then there would have had to be an increase of 29.760 Cells through 0,15 mutations per generation. Makes no sense as well.

So that means, that the increase of just 0,89 base pairs per generation in the most generous case had to generate the information to add 740.000 Cells to the evolving organism per generation.
Then we have to consider the increase of 700 proteins in LUCA, to 2,3bio in Homo sapiens, in each Cell. That is, If we consider again an average lifespan of 30 years, that in each generation, there had to be an increase of:
2.300,000,000 : 700 = 3,280.000 total.   50,000.000 :  3,280.000 = 15 new proteins per generation.

So let us recapitulate:
During the timespan of 1,5bio years, by an average lifespan of 30 years of each generation, there would have been, per generation, an average mutation rate of 0,89 mutations,  producing an increase of 740.000 Cells,  an increase of 15 proteins  per cell,  and instructing EACH of the  744.000 Cells in regards of following:

1. Kind or type of cell ( Histology),
2. Cell size
3. It's specific function,
4. Position and place in the body. This is crucial. Limbs like legs, fins, eyes etc. must all be placed at the right place.
5. The formulation and generation of signaling codes to communicate with other cells, and the setup of the communication channels
6. What specific sensory and stimuli functions are required and does it have to acquire in regard to its environment and surroundings?
7. Setup of new regulatory functions of the new growing organism and molecular systems
8. When will the development program of the organism express the genes to grow the new cells during development?
9. Precisely how many new cell types must be produced for each tissue and organ?
10. How many of each cell types for each tissue?
11. Specification of the cell-cell adhesion and which ones will be used in each cell to adhere to the neighbor cells ( there are 4 classes )
12. Programming of the time period the cell keeps alive in the body, and when is it time to self-destruct and be replaced by newly produced cells of the same kind
13. Set up its specific nutrition demands
14. The precise information and development program  to produce an average of the new addition  of  744,000 cells ( which are added by each generation )
15. The development program which had to grow in complexity in each generation, to produce in the end Homo sapiens, which reaches its full adulthood in 20 years. That means
evolution had to program the exact placing of  186.000.000.000 Cells per year during 20 years in the Body.

its evident that something is wrong with this equation.

We have however not dealt yet with another fact. The production of the spliceosome of 320 protein species through splicing of the genes. Let's remember. 1 gene = 1 protein. But through splicing, 1 gene can be spliced in 320 variations, giving rise of 19000 genes x 320 splicing variations to 6.13mio different protein species. In order for this to be possible, the genome had, through mutations and natural selection, give rise to the spliceosome, and inventing a splicing code, and selection the splice variations in the exons, giving rise to millions of new protein species. The splicing code would, however, have no function without the spliceosome, and vice versa. Ask a evolutionary biologist, how both could have evolved in parallel, and then start to interact together, he will resort to saint time, and " science is working on it ". Or evolution of the gap arguments.

Our mental circuitry is more like Manhattan’s organized grid than London’s chaotic tangle. It consists of sheets of fibers that intersect at right angles, with no diagonals anywhere to be seen.

Van Wedeen from Massachusetts General Hospital, who led the study, says that his results came as a complete shock. “I was expecting it to be a pure mess,” he says. Instead, he found a regular criss-cross pattern like the interlocking fibers of a piece of cloth.

“If you look at brain connections in an adult human, it’s really a massive puzzle how something so complex can emerge,” says Behrens.

Some fibres execute 90 degree turns, and some entire grids will curve and warp. But the same underlying pattern holds. This simple system can still produce a brain of staggering complexity, but it makes it easier for neurons to find one another.

http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2012/03/29/the-brain-is-full-of-manhattan-like-grids/

The Geometric Structure of the Brain Fiber Pathways
http://science.sciencemag.org.sci-hub.hk/content/335/6076/1628

Cortico-cortical pathways formed parallel sheets of interwoven paths in the longitudinal and medio-lateral axes, in which major pathways were local condensations. Cross-species homology was strong and showed
emergence of complex gyral connectivity by continuous elaboration of this grid structure. This architecture naturally supports functional spatio-temporal coherence, developmental path-finding, and incremental rewiring with correlated adaptation of structure and function in cerebral plasticity.

Why do they even mention evolution

Every multicellular organism is composed of a number of different cell types, which vary from organism to organism. But each organ needs different types of Cells. Our human body has about 200 Cell types, which is a rather small number.

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