Net electrical neutrality of universe. The number of protons and electrons (produced by two independent processes in Big Bang), must agree to within a factor of 10 to the 37th power. Otherwise, electrical repulsion would
overwhelm gravity, preventing the formation of galaxies, stars, planets. 1
The universe is not electrically neutral but has a net positive charge. Such a universe contains a homogeneous distribution of protons that are not bound to galaxies and fill up the intergalactic space. This proton ‘gas’ charges macroscopic objects like stars and planets, but it does not generate electrostatic or magnetic fields that affect the motion of these bodies significantly.2
Most people know that protons and electrons carry equal-and-opposite charges (+1 and -1, respectively). What many people DON’T know is that protons are composed of 3 quarks, with charges of +2/3, +2/3, and -1/3, adding up to a +1 elementary charge. Electrons are entirely different fundamental particles…that happen to EXACTLY cancel out the net charge of the proton. 3
Quark Structure of the Proton
Protons and electrons have completely different compositions, and were formed at different times during the Big Bang. As far as we can measure, there are equal numbers of protons and electrons in the universe. If these charges didn’t precisely balance out, then the force of gravity (which is vanishingly weak by comparison) would be inconsequential. We would once again be left with a universe devoid of stars, planets, and galaxies.