Intelligent Design, the best explanation of Origins

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26Perguntas .... - Page 2 Empty Re: Perguntas .... on Mon Jun 17, 2019 12:35 pm

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But before that, he made an interesting remark, outlined on the left in red: The only way to find out is to make every possible effort to explain things naturally. Only if one fails—assuming failure can ever be definitely established—would one be entitled to state that what one is studying is not naturally explainable.

And that is precisely what was done in regards to the attempt to discover a natural mechanism to select right-handed RNA's for life. No mechanism has been found, and De Duve himself basically raised the white flag to confess: Chance !! Chance did it !! 

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William Dembski, The Design Revolution, page 220 
Eliminative inductions argue for the truth of a proposition by arguing that competitors to that proposition are false. ( Contrast this with Popperian falsification, where propositions are corroborated to the degree that they successfully withstand attempts to falsify them ) Provided the proposition, together with its competitors, form a mutually exclusive and exhaustive class, eliminating all the competitors entails that the proposition is true. 

As Sherlock Holmes famous dictum says: when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. This is the ideal case, in which eliminative inductions, in fact, become deductions. If normally, in practice, we don't have a neat ordering of competitors that can then all be knocked down with a few straightforward and judicious blows, in case of the origin of life, there are just two possible options:


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Either life was created by an intelligent creator, or life started by  random unguided chemical reactions. Some try to sugar-coat the mechanism of abiogenesis as " chemical evolution", and a considerable number of science papers do smuggle the evolutionary jargon into abiogenesis, but there has to be made a clear distinction. Evolution is only a possible candidate to explain origins once DNA replication was set up.


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Some have also tried to brandmark this dichotomy as a black and white fallacy, or "false dilemma" fallacy.  When only two choices are presented yet more exist, or a spectrum of possible choices exists between two extremes.  False dilemmas are usually characterized by “either this or that” language, but can also be characterized by omissions of choices. So is either intelligent design or chance, a false dilemma?

Many times, proponents of natural causes try to argue in that manner.
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"The more statistically improbable a thing is, the less can we believe that it just happened by blind chance. Superficially the obvious alternative to chance is an intelligent Designer. But Charles Darwin showed how it is possible for blind physical forces to mimic the effects of conscious design, and, by operating as a cumulative filter of chance variations, to lead eventual to organized and adaptive complexity, to mosquitoes and mammoths, to humans and therefore, indirectly, to books and computers.
"Darwin's theory is now supported by all the available relevant evidence, and its truth is not doubted by any serious modern biologist...

What Dawkins however conveniently overlooks is the fact that the origin of life cannot be explained through evolution.

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Koonin, the logic of chance, page 266
Evolution by natural selection and drift can begin only after replication with sufficient fidelity is established. Even at that stage, the evolution of translation remains highly problematic. The emergence of the first replicator system, which represented the “Darwinian breakthrough,” was inevitably preceded by a succession of complex, difficult steps for which biological evolutionary mechanisms were not accessible . The synthesis of nucleotides and (at least) moderate-sized polynucleotides could not have evolved biologically and must have emerged abiogenically—that is, effectively by chance abetted by chemical selection, such as the preferential survival of stable RNA species. Translation is thought to have evolved later via an ad hoc selective process.  

Did you read this ???!! An ad-hoc process ?? That's true. That's all which is left when the design is dismissed.

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Koonin states clearly as the proposed mechanism to explain the origin of RNA monomers, chance, and in order to remain in the realm of materialism, multiverses as a possible explanation. So we remain at the dichotomy of two possible explanations in regards to the Origin of Life: Chance and Intelligent design, 

and as well, in a broader sense, in regards to possible worldviews: 

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Any worldview is limited in that it does not grant absolute truth, but only yields degrees of probability or likelihood. Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability of a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available. Bayesian inference has found application in a wide range of activities, including science, theology, and philosophy. After careful examination, all we can do is come to instant-deduction to the best explanation.

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A common attempt of refutation by unbelievers is that there might be other possible options of worldviews, not just two - we have just not figured out yet. We can apply Russell's Teapot. If the unbeliever wishes to claim that there are other options, its upon him to demonstrate it. Assertions without evidence can be dismissed without evidence.

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Darwin wrote: To be brief I assume that species arise like our domestic varieties with much extinction;  And it seems to me, that supposing that such hypothesis were to explain general propositions, we ought, in accordance with a common way of following all sciences, to admit it, till some better hypothesis be found out.   July 20, 1857 The Correspondence of Charles Darwin

It asserts the superior explanatory power of a proposed cause based upon its proven—its known—causal adequacy and based upon a lack of demonstrated efficacy among the competing proposed causes.  The problem is that nature has too many options and without design couldn’t sort them all out.

Natural mechanisms are too unspecific to determine any particular outcome. Luck/chance/probability could theoretically sort out right-handed RNA's  with the right size and form, and arrange to find out the right place where to bond the base and phosphate, but it could  also bind it at any of the five ribose carbons, and grow and attach them anywhere, most of which have no biological advantage or are most probably deleterious.

Natural mechanisms have no constraints, they could produce any kind of novelty. Its however that kind of freedom that makes it extremely unlikely that mere natural developments provide new specific arrangements that are advantageous to form an information storing polymer.  Nature would have to arrange almost an infinite number of trials and errors until getting a new positive arrangement.

Since that would become a highly unlikely event, design is a better explanation. This situation becomes even more accentuated when natural selection is not a possible constrained since evolution depends on replication, which did not exist prior to DNA replication

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So is the design inference not a God of the gaps inference, after all ?  See that the argument from ignorance objection is not a magic wand for silencing intelligent design, let's begin with a reality check. When is the argument from ignorance objection raised against intelligent design, who exactly is being accused of being ignorant? It's natural to think that the ignorance here is on the part of design theorists, who want to attribute intelligent agency to biological systems.

If only those poor design theorists understood biology better, those systems would readily submit to mechanistic explanation. Matter of fact IMHO is, that despite decades of research, the scientific community has been desperately and unsuccessfully tried to discover how such systems could have formed, what mechanism exactly was in charge. Who is ignorant here?

The Scientific community as a whole. In fact, it's safe to say that the biological community is clueless about the emergence of biological complexity.

We also know from broad and repeated experience that intelligent agents can and do produce information-rich systems: we have positive experience-based knowledge of a cause that is sufficient to generate new instructing complex information, namely, intelligence.  the design inference does not constitute an argument from ignorance.

Instead, it constitutes an "inference to the best explanation" based upon our best available knowledge. Now, of course, are immediately the ones at the corner raising concern and objection, claiming that " inference to the best explanation" rather than falsifiable science is another cop-our of Intelligent Design promoters. Well, this epistemological approach is a littlebit older than some might expect.

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The fallacy of Personal Incredulity goes as follows: Because something is so incredible or difficult to imagine, it is wrong. "Incredulous" basically means "I don't believe it". It is at least disingenious, when atheists accuse theists to be incredule towards the No-God hypothesis, when they commit the same, by being incredulous towards the God hypothesis, because they can't imagine how an invisible God could exist.

Well, why should someone believe a "just so" story about HOW reality, the physical world, and in our special case, RNA, DNA, and nucleotides came to exist, if all the scientific evidence points to the fact that it cannot occur ? That is the THING that we are incredulous about - a *certain scenario* ( naturalism, cosmological, chemical, and biological evolution, abiogenesis and Neo-Darwinism)

and that irreducibly complex biological systems, coded, instructional or specified complex information, and entire factory complexes composed of myriads of interconnected factories, full of computers and robotic production lines could emerge naturally ) that's only *imagined* about how various amazing abilities of animals and plants happened all by themselves, defying known and reasonable principles of the limited range of chance, physical necessity, mutations and  Natural selection.

The proponent of naturalism is "incredulous" that an intelligent creator/designer could exist, beyond and behind our entire space-time continuum, who is our Creator. But there is nothing ridiculous about that - especially if you can't personally examine reality to that depth - how do you know nature is all that exists?

What IS ridiculous (IMO) is trying to imagine a *naturalistic origin* of these things.  What we need, is giving a *plausible* account of how it came about to be in the first place, and the " No-God hypothesis" simply doesn't cut the cake.

Is it reasonable to assume, that unguided random events, self-assembly, spontaneously by orderly aggregation and sequentially correct manner without external direction would produce a polypeptide chain of RNA on early earth, which somehow would have started to self replicate and produce a useful product for distant life, in face of all difficulties to produce even one functional RNA molecule?

If you can't make a brick, you can't make a house. Naturalistic beliefism is an anecdotal pseudo-scientific House of Cards.
If you can't make right-handed nucleotides, you cannot make life essential information storage and transmission mechanisms, consequently no proteins, nor biological cells.

http://elshamah.heavenforum.com

27Perguntas .... - Page 2 Empty Re: Perguntas .... on Thu Jul 18, 2019 6:36 pm

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Report of the Discovery Summer Seminar 2019 experience in Seattle

Otangelo Grasso

From the 5th to the 13th of July 2019, the Discovery Institute did hold its annual Summer Seminars on Intelligent Design in the Natural Sciences, the 12th, since it was started in 2007.

The Brazilian branch of Discovery Institute, headed by the distinguished scientist Marcos Eberlin, is in preparation of the book: " first Brazilian Collection of Intelligent Design arguments", where several of leading Brazilian scientists  are writing on various topics of Intelligent Design, which they endorse. I will write together with a scientist a chapter on the complex molecular machinery of the Cell. My co-writing partner told me that she applied to join the Summer Seminar in Seattle, so I thought it would be a good idea to apply, too, and was selected together amongst 52 mostly young scientists to join. People from ten different countries, from all parts of the world, received the privilege to attend. Daniel Reeves was in charge to organize our voyage and stay. Communication was excellent, and the whole organization of the event carefully and meticulously planned. The accommodations at Pacific Seattle University were also very good and comfortable, and so was the varied cuisine during our stay.

Since this was my first experience, I had no idea what to expect, and who would do the teachings in the classes, and when Daniel send us the Syllabus of Sessions and information of the program, listed was the who's who, all the great names of the ID movement, which I never met before. So-exciting days ahead, and my expectations did Skyrock. The program was well organized into various interesting topics:

The first day, on Saturday, Ann Gauger & Brian Miller were going to make the Introduction to the Seminar. Followed by John West on the Teleological v. Materialistic View of Man and Nature. Next was an Overview of Intelligent Design & Design Detection by Ann Gauger & Brian Miller, and at night:  Philosophy of Mind and Neuroscience by J.P. Moreland

Monday morning, Guillermo Gonzalez & Jay Richards spoke about  Big Bang Cosmology and the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Next was Luke Barnes: A Fortunate Universe: Cosmological Fine-Tuning. Building upon these two lectures, Stephen Meyer gave a lecture on a New Cosmological Argument, which is also the matter of his new forthcoming book. This was for me the highlight and best lecture at the Seminar, to which I will come to talk later. Next, Guillermo Gonzalez spoke about Research Topics in Astrobiology and Bruce Gordon on Multiverses, and last lecture of the day: Guillermo Gonzalez & Jay Richard: The Privileged Planet.

On Tuesday we had: Evidence of Intelligent Design in the Origin of Life by Brian Miller, which was also an excellent lecture, which demonstrated, Brian is a true expert on the topic of the Origin of Life. After this lecture, another true highlight of the Seminar: Darwin’s Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design by Stephen Meyer. In the afternoon, Günter Bechly was lecturing from the Austrian Alps, via life broadcasting on the internet, about The Fossil Record: A Problem for Neo-Darwinian Evolution, and after a break, Michael Behe about  Irreducible Complexity, and then, Further Presentation on Co-Option, by Ann Gauger. The last lecture of the day was: Population Genetics, Part 1: The Edge of Evolution, by Michael Behe

Wednesday started with: Population Genetics, Part 2: Whale Evolution, by Richard Sternberg, followed by Ann Gauger about Obstacles to Evolution, and in the afternoon,    Winston Ewert gave a bit more theoretical & technical lecture: A Design-Based Model to Explain the Pattern of Nature. Then came Douglas Axe on Using Stylus, and another lecture which I really liked, was Developmental Mutations, given by Paul Nelson.

Thursday started with Jonathan Wells about Ontogenetic Information, followed by  Richard Sternberg about the Immaterial Genome. In the afternoon,  Douglas Axe's lecture was:  Natural Selection is Not Inventive, and after a break, Paul Nelson on  Challenges to Common Descent.

Friday morning, Günter Bechly & Ann Gauger's lecture was: The Biology of Human Uniqueness. In the afternoon, Robert Marks lectured about Artificial Intelligence & Human Uniqueness, followed by John West, on  Social Darwinism & Public Policy, and How to Survive Academia.

The last lecture was on Saturday, by John West: Science, Faith, and Intelligent Design

There were over 60 hours of lectures. All lecturers were great, but I cannot do justice to all, go in-depth in a rather short post, and mention all relevant points and arguments that were made. I will constrain to mention and outline a few key points, and did stand out and gave me new inputs for further investigations and learn more about the subjects presented. 

Stephen Meyer's lecture of his new argument, based on astronomical observations ( which will be also the topic of his forthcoming new book ), did stand out. First of all, it was unprecedented ( at least to me ) to see Stephen giving a lecture on Cosmology. Secondly, he did it with eloquence, without reading from a script, and even if he used cosmological parlance which I was not familiar with, the overall argument was presented in a clear understandable manner. 

He said: 

" There is an agreement that the energy condition is positive during all the time of this expansion.  But now there is this weird quantum dimension. So when the universe is very very small, it would be indeterministic, and so it is when crossing the point of singularity, some physicists say, well wait, we could have points of fluctuations, that would cause the universe to violate the energy conditions, where you have temporarily a negative energy condition. 

Those initial conditions that give rise to the expansion of the universe have to be finely tuned. The information has to be provided to the laws in order for them to do any good at all. In any case, in order to solve this big equation, you need to have boundary constraints and the boundary constraints will contain an outcome, that includes our universe is a reasonably probable outcome, which is very precisely chosen. " 

My comment: Indeed. 
Fine-tuning of the Big Bang 

http://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t1866-fine-tuning-of-the-big-bang

The Big Bang was the most precisely planned event in all of history

Professor Stephen Hawking: 
'If the rate of expansion one second after the Big Bang had been smaller by even one part in a hundred thousand million million, the Universe would have recollapsed before it ever reached its present state.' -

Steven Weinberg Department of Physics, University of Texas 
There are now two cosmological constant problems. The old cosmological constant problem is to understand in a natural way why the vacuum energy density ρV is not very much larger. We can reliably calculate some contributions to ρV , like the energy density in fluctuations in the gravitational field at graviton energies nearly up to the Planck scale, which is larger than is observationally allowed by some 120 orders of magnitude. Such terms in ρV can be cancelled by other contributions that we can’t calculate, but the cancellation then has to be accurate to 120 decimal places.

When one calculates, based on known principles of quantum mechanics, the "vacuum energy density" of the universe, focusing on the electromagnetic force, one obtains the incredible result that empty space "weighs" 1,093g per cubic centimetre (cc). The actual average mass density of the universe, 10-28g per cc, differs by 120 orders of magnitude from theory. 5 Physicists, who have fretted over the cosmological constant paradox for years, have noted that calculations such as the above involve only the electromagnetic force, and so perhaps when the contributions of the other known forces are included, all terms will cancel out to exactly zero, as a consequence of some unknown fundamental principle of physics.  But these hopes were shattered with the 1998 discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, which implied that the cosmological constant must be slightly positive. This meant that physicists were left to explain the startling fact that the positive and negative contributions to the cosmological constant cancel to 120-digit accuracy, yet fail to cancel beginning at the 121st digit.

Curiously, this observation is in accord with a prediction made by Nobel laureate and physicist Steven Weinberg in 1987, who argued from basic principles that the cosmological constant must be zero to within one part in roughly 10^123 (and yet be nonzero), or else the universe either would have dispersed too fast for stars and galaxies to have formed, or else would have recollapsed upon itself long ago. In short, numerous features of our universe seem fantastically fine-tuned for the existence of intelligent life. While some physicists still hold out for a "natural" explanation, many others are now coming to grips with the notion that our universe is profoundly unnatural, with no good explanation.

Lee Smolin wrote in his 2006 book The Trouble with Physics:
We physicists need to confront the crisis facing us. A scientific theory [the multiverse/ Anthropic Principle/ string theory paradigm] that makes no predictions and therefore is not subject to experiment can never fail, but such a theory can never succeed either, as long as science stands for knowledge gained from rational argument borne out by evidence.


DNA can be read in the forward direction, backwards, and Stephen Meyer told us that there is an ongoing scientific research of bacteria, where a strand of their DNA information can be read in the forward direction, and  have three different meanings when read forwards, and the same strand can provide three different kinds of information to produce different proteins as well when reading backwards,  !! That means, one single blueprint can be used in a variety of different ways and build different products. Thats striking evidence of design. 

I asked Richard Sternberg, where epigenetic information, like the splicing Code, is stored, and he said, that science has no answer to this (yet).

Another interesting point was brought up by Ann Gauger in one of her lessons. The placenta of mammals provide common structural and functional features, but there are striking differences among species in gross and microscopic structure of the placenta, and there is a classification of placentas of several fundamental types.  The reproductive strategy of birthing live young in special in mammals is different in many species.
So the evolutionary narrative goes that the placental mammals have evolved a variety of placental types. Convergent evolution is a common cop-out. But that goes straight against evolutionary predictions. 

“…No finale can be specified at the start, none would ever occur a second time in the same way, because any pathway proceeds through thousands of improbable stages. Alter any early event, ever so slightly, and without apparent importance at the time, and evolution cascades into a radically different channel."
Stephen J. Gould, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History (New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1989), 51.

Gould’s metaphor of “replaying life’s tape” asserts that if one were to push the rewind button, erase life’s history, and let the tape run again, the results would be completely different.  The very essence of the evolutionary process renders evolutionary outcomes as nonreproducible (or nonrepeatable). Therefore, “repeatable” evolution is inconsistent with the mechanism available to bring about biological change.

Paleontologist J. William Schopf, one of the world’s leading authorities on early life on Earth, has made this very point in the book Life’s Origin.
Because biochemical systems comprise many intricately interlinked pieces, any particular full-blown system can only arise once…Since any complete biochemical system is far too elaborate to have evolved more than once in the history of life, it is safe to assume that microbes of the primal LCA cell line had the same traits that characterize all its present-day descendants.


Brian Miller gave a great lecture on the Origin of Life. 

Here the highlights:
From a synthetic chemical perspective, neither I nor any  of my colleagues can fathom a prebiotic molecular route  to construction of a complex system. We cannot even figure out the prebiotic routes to the basic building blocks of life: carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. Chemists are collectively bewildered. Hence I say that no chemist understands prebiotic synthesis of the requisite building blocks, let alone assembly into a complex system.
James Tour, Rice University

Summary:
1. The chances for the first cell forming is too small if all arrangements of atoms are equally probable.
2. Those arrangements which correspond to life are far less probable than all possible starting points.
3. All-natural processes move toward higher entropy and/or lower energy (lower free energy), but the origin of life has to move in the opposite direction.
4. Systems far from equilibrium are no more likely to generate the first cell since they also tend toward higher entropy and the release of energy, while life requires the opposite.
5. Molecular machinery is needed to convert one form of energy into the high-energy molecules needed to drive reactions.
6. Life requires a very specific set of interconnected reactions to proceed and other destructive reactions to be prevented.
7. Enzymes drive the correct reactions, and they direct the energy from the breakdown of the high-energy molecules toward the enabling of energetically unfavourable reactions.
8. The enzymes are the result of sequences of amino acids containing to the right information like letters in a sentence.
9. Proteins eventually break down, so amino acid sequences must be stored in (encoded into) RNA/DNA.
10. Encoding involves each amino acid being represented by sequences of three nucleotides called codons (e.g. Ala à GCA).
11. No physical connection exists between any amino acid and its corresponding codons, so no physical process could have driven the encoding of the information.
12. The decoding process must use the same code as the encoding, but they cannot have any physical connection.
13. The information and code must have preexisted the cell.
14. DNA contains the encoded schematics for the cell in the same way that the signal from space in the movie Contact contained the schematics for a spaceship.
15. A minimally functional cell must have the machinery for numerous processes such as information processing, manufacturing and assembly of parts, and self-replication.
16. The cell’s processes demonstrate clear evidence of foresight, coordination, and goal direction which point unambiguously to intelligent design.
17. An intelligence had to create the information for the structure/operation of the cell and then construct it in world.


I can recommend anyone interested in Intelligent Design, to apply for next years Summer Seminar. It is a great experience, and i am thankful to all the Discovery staff and lecturers, which provided such a great experience !! 


Otangelo Grasso

Brian Miller's lecture:  detecting design:
Modern approaches to inverse modelling use approaches from heuristic optimization (Corne et al., 1999) to search the model space efficiently. Recent advances in multiobjective optimization (Fonseca and Fleming, 1996) are particularly promising in this regard since the quality of a model can usually be evaluated only by considering several, often conflicting criteria. A hope for understanding complexity in biology then is to uncover operational principles through a “calculus of purpose” (Lander, 2004)—by asking teleological questions such as why cellular networks are organized as observed, given their known or assumed function. At a more abstract level, we see highly organized and structured networks that facilitate global and coordinated responses to variations in the environment on all time scales, using local and decentralized mechanisms. Clearly, from an engineering point of view, biology is a marvel of technological “design.” We argue that analogies with engineered systems, in particular regarding how to generate appropriate responses to variations, are one major requirement on all highly integrated systems that can help us grasp biological complexity.

 The concept of “highly optimized tolerance” (HOT) relies on the very idea that robustness has to be regarded as a limited and conserved resource… In addition, HOT emphasizes a necessary connection between complexity and robustness. Making certain functions of a system more insensitive to disturbances, for instance, may require additional control loops. This, in turn, leads to higher complexity and to new potential sources of fragility. The effect is a “spiralling complexity” in which new features expose new fragilities to be “fixed” by further additions to the system (Carlson and Doyle, 2002). Clearly, evolvability is of paramount importance for living systems (Kirschner and Gerhart, 1998). Here, we think of evolvability simply (maybe naively) in the sense of controlled and structured change in lineages, rather than cells, on long time scales in response to perhaps large variations in the environment. At the population level (of all engineered systems of one type), evidently, progress in engineering fulfils similar criteria. From engineering, it is known that feedback control (plus feedforward control) enabled by fast and if possible remote advanced-warning sensing is the most powerful mechanism for providing robustness to fluctuations in the environment and the component parts. The heat-shock response in E. coli appears to employ exactly the same principles as shown by detailed modeling and subsequent model reduction to the core elements (El-Samad et al., 2005).

From engineering, it is known that feedback control (plus feedforward control) enabled by fast and if possible remote advanced-warning sensing is the most powerful mechanism for providing robustness to fluctuations in the environment and the component parts. The heat-shock response in E. coli appears to employ exactly the same principles … we adopted a high-level view of cellular systems by combining biology and engineering approaches. This perspective does not want to disguise large differences between the two types of systems; in fact, biology often shows a more remarkable “design” than technology.

My comment: 
What i outlined in Brian Miller's lecture above, adds to refute common arguments brought forward against Bad design:
Imperfection merely raises the question of why an intelligent designer used plan A, rather than plan B.
Some, for example, point to the cruelty in nature, arguing that no self-respecting designer would set things up that way. This argument assumes an infallible knowledge of the design process. But that need not be the case. It may well be that the designer chose to create an “OPTIMUM DESIGN” or a “ROBUST AND ADAPTABLE DESIGN” rather than a “perfect design.” Perhaps some animals or creatures behave exactly the way they do to enhance the ecology in ways that we don’t know about. Perhaps the “apparent” destructive behaviour of some animals provides other animals with an advantage in order to maintain balance in nature or even to change the proportions of the animal population.

Evolution, adaptation, homeostasis, and the essential preprogrammed processes essential for life to survive in a changing environment 
http://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2724-evolution-adaptation-homeostasis-and-the-essential-preprogrammed-processes-essential-for-life-to-survive-in-a-changing-environment

Microevolution is better described as adaptation and is an engineered process, which does not happen by accident. The Cell receives macroscopic signals from the environment and responds by adaptive, nonrandom mutations. The capacity of Mammals and other multicellular organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions is extraordinary.  In order to effectively produce and secrete mature proteins, cellular mechanisms for monitoring the environment are essential. Exposure of cells to various environmental causes accumulation of unfolded proteins and results in the activation of a well-orchestrated set of pathways during a phenomenon known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Cells have powerful quality control networks consisting of chaperones and proteases that cooperate to monitor the folding states of proteins and to remove misfolded conformers through either refolding or degradation. Free-living organisms, which are more directly exposed to environmental fluctuations, must often survive even harsher folding stresses. These stresses not only disrupt the folding of newly synthesized proteins but can also cause misfolding of already folded proteins.  In living organisms, robustness is provided by homeostatic mechanismsAt least five epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for these life-essential processes :

- heat shock factors (HSFs)
- The unfolded protein response (UPR)
- nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination
- The DNA Damage Response
- The Response to Oxidative Stress

The cell modulates the signalling pathways at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Complex signalling pathways contribute to the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. Homeostasis is the mechanistic fundament of living organisms. 

Homeostasis, from the Greek words for "same" and "steady," refers to any process that living things use to actively maintain fairly stable conditions necessary for survival. It is also synonymous with robustness and adaptability.

This essential characteristic of living cells, homeostasis, is the ability to maintain a steady and more-or-less constant chemical balance in a changing environment. Cell survival requires appropriate proportions of molecular oxygen and various antioxidants. Reactive products of oxygen, calles Reactive Oxygen Species ( ROS) are amongst the most potent and omnipresent threats faced by cells. Cells, damaged by ROS, irreversibly infected, functionless and/or potentially oncogenic cells are destined for persistent inactivation or elimination, respectively. If mechanisms that do not trigger controlled and programmed Cell death ( apoptosis) are not present at day 1, the organisms cannot survive and dies. Simply put, the principle is that all of a multicellular organism's cells are prepared to suicide when needed for the benefit of the organism as a whole. They eliminate themselves in a very carefully programmed way so as to minimize damage to the larger organism.  On average, in human adults, it’s about 50-70 BILLION cells that die per day. We shed 30,000 to 50,000 skin cells every minute.

1. The control of metabolism is a fundamental requirement for all life, with perturbations of metabolic homeostasis underpinning numerous disease-associated pathologies.
2. Any incomplete Metabolic network without the control mechanisms in place to get homeostasis would mean disease and cell death.
3. A minimal metabolic network and the control mechanisms had to be in place from the beginning, which means, and gradualistic explanation of the origin of biological Cells, and life is unrealistic. 
Life is an all or nothing business and points to a creative act of God.


Following  molecules must stay in a finely tuned order and balance for life to survive:
Halogens like chlorine, fluoride, iodine, and bromine.  The body needs to maintain a delicate balance between all these elements.
Molybdenum (Mo) and iron (Fe) are essential micronutrients required for crucial enzyme activities and mutually impact their homeostasis, which means, they are interdependent on each other to maintain homeostatic levels. 
Potassium plays a key role in maintaining cell function, and it is important in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. Potassium-40 is probably the most dangerous light radioactive isotope, yet the one most essential to life. Its abundance must be balanced on a razor’s edge.
The ability of cells to maintain a large gradient of calcium across their outer membrane is universal. All biological cells have a low cytosolic (liquid found inside Cells ) calcium concentration, can and must keep this even when the free calcium outside is up to 20,000 times higher concentrated! 
- Nutrient uptake and homeostasis must be adjusted to the needs of the organisms according to developmental stages and environmental conditions.
Magnesium is the second most abundant cellular cation after potassium. The concentrations are essential to regulate numerous cellular functions and enzymes
Iron is required for the survival of most organisms, including bacteria, plants, and humans. Its homeostasis in mammals must be fine-tuned to avoid iron deficiency with a reduced oxygen transport 
Phosphate, as a cellular energy currency, essentially drives most biochemical reactions defining living organisms, and thus its homeostasis must be tightly regulated. 
Zinc (Zn) is an essential heavy metal that is incorporated into a number of human Zn metalloproteins. Zn plays important roles in nucleic acid metabolism, cell replication, and tissue repair and growth. Zn contributes to intracellular metal homeostasis. 
Selenium homeostasis and antioxidant selenoproteins in the brain: lack of finetuned balance has implications for disorders in the central nervous system
Copper ion homeostasis is maintained through regulated expression of genes involved in copper ion uptake. 

In the early 1960s, Ernest Nagel and Carl Hempel showed that self-regulated systems are teleological.

In his book: THE TINKERER’S ACCOMPLICE, How Design Emerges from Life Itself  J . SCOTT. TURNER, writes at page 12 :
Although I touch upon ID obliquely from time to time, I do so not because I endorse it, but because it is mostly unavoidable. ID theory is essentially warmed-over natural theology, but there is, at its core, a serious point that deserves serious attention. ID theory would like us to believe that some overarching intelligence guides the evolutionary process: to say the least, that is unlikely. Nevertheless, how design arises remains a very real problem in biology.  My thesis is quite simple: organisms are designed not so much because natural selection of particular genes has made them that way, but because agents of homeostasis build them that way. These agents’ modus operandi is to construct environments upon which the precarious and dynamic stability that is homeostasis can be imposed, and design is the result.

The author does not identify these agents, but Wiki describes agents as CONSCIOUS beings, which act with specific goals in mind. In the case of life, this agent made it possible for biological cells to actively maintain fairly stable levels of various metabolites and molecules, necessary for survival. We are once more, upon careful examination of the evidence in nature, justified to infer an intelligent designer as most case-adequate explanation of the origin of homeostasis and the ability of adaptation, commonly called evolution, of all living organisms. 

Brian Miller, Origin of life

Below, Brian Miller presented a good overview of what is required for life to begin:

Stages to Origin of Life
• Prebiotic Synthesis of Building Blocks
– Amino Acids, Sugars, Nucleotides, Lipids
• Linking of Building Blocks into Macromolecules
– Proteins and RNA/DNA
• Self-Organization of Metabolism
• Enclosure in Cell Membrane
• Encoding/Decoding of Protein Sequences in DNA
• Fully Functional Cell
– Information Processing, Energy Production, Manufacturing
– Auto Assembly, Feedback Control, Self-Replication

what I would outline however is, that the list above clarifies the required elements that could not emerge in stages, or an increase, evolutionary manner, as often depicted in science papers, as below, by Eugene Koonin:

Perguntas .... - Page 2 Stages10
but, as chemist Wilhelm Huck, professor at Radboud University Nijmegen outlined:

A working cell is more than the sum of its parts. "A functioning cell must be entirely correct at once, in all its complexity" :

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To go from a bacterium to people is less of a step than to go from a mixture of amino acids to a bacterium. — Lynn Margulis

http://news.illinois.edu/news/11/1005LUCA_ManfredoSeufferheld_JamesWhitfield_Caetano_Anolles.html
New evidence suggests that LUCA was a sophisticated organism after all, with a complex structure recognizable as a cell, researchers report. Their study appears in the journal Biology Direct.The study lends support to a hypothesis that LUCA may have been more complex even than the simplest organisms alive today, said James Whitfield, a professor of entomology at Illinois and a co-author on the study.

From a synthetic chemical perspective, neither I nor any  of my colleagues can fathom a prebiotic molecular route  to construction of a complex system. We cannot even figure out the prebiotic routes to the basic building blocks of life: carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. Chemists are collectively bewildered. Hence I say that no chemist understands prebiotic synthesis of the requisite building blocks, let alone assembly into a complex system.
James Tour, Rice University

Summary:
1. The chances for the first cell forming is too small if all arrangements of atoms are equally probable.
2. Those arrangements which correspond to life are far less probable than all possible starting points.
3. All-natural processes move toward higher entropy and/or lower energy (lower free energy), but the origin of life has to move in the opposite direction.
4. Systems far from equilibrium are no more likely to generate the first cell since they also tend toward higher entropy and the release of energy, while life requires the opposite.
5. Molecular machinery is needed to convert one form of energy into the high-energy molecules needed to drive reactions.
6. Life requires a very specific set of interconnected reactions to proceed and other destructive reactions to be prevented.
7. Enzymes drive the correct reactions, and they direct the energy from the breakdown of the high-energy molecules toward the enabling of energetically unfavourable reactions.
8. The enzymes are the result of sequences of amino acids containing to the right information like letters in a sentence.
9. Proteins eventually break down, so amino acid sequences must be stored in (encoded into) RNA/DNA.
10. Encoding involves each amino acid being represented by sequences of three nucleotides called codons (e.g. Ala à GCA).
11. No physical connection exists between any amino acid and its corresponding codons, so no physical process could have driven the encoding of the information.
12. The decoding process must use the same code as the encoding, but they cannot have any physical connection.
13. The information and code must have preexisted the cell.
14. DNA contains the encoded schematics for the cell in the same way that the signal from space in the movie Contact contained the schematics for a spaceship.
15. A minimally functional cell must have the machinery for numerous processes such as information processing, manufacturing and assembly of parts, and self-replication.
16. The cell’s processes demonstrate clear evidence of foresight, coordination, and goal direction which point unambiguously to intelligent design.
17. An intelligence had to create the information for the structure/operation of the cell and then construct it in world.



Last edited by Admin on Tue Jul 23, 2019 8:46 am; edited 94 times in total

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28Perguntas .... - Page 2 Empty Re: Perguntas .... on Thu Jul 18, 2019 6:39 pm

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This adds to following:
Bill Faint: Life in any form is a very serious enigma and conundrum. It does something, whatever the biochemical pathway, machinery, enzymes etc. are involved, that should not and honestly could not ever "get off the ground". It SPONTANEOUSLY recruits Gibbs free energy from its environment so as to reduce its own entropy. That is tantamount to a rock continuously recruiting the wand to roll it up the hill, or a rusty nail "figuring out" how to spontaneously rust and add layers of galvanizing zinc on itself to fight corrosion. Unintelligent simple chemicals can't self-organize into instructions for building solar farms (photosystems 1 and 2), hydroelectric dams (ATP synthase), propulsion (motor proteins) , self repair (p53 tumor suppressor proteins) or self-destruct (caspases) in the event that these instructions become too damaged by the way the universe USUALLY operates. Abiogenesis is not an issue that scientists simply need more time to figure out but a fundamental problem with materialism


On homeostasis: 
Brian Miller presented following quote in one of the slides: 
Noteworthy, the probability of instability of a (randomly selected) state increases rapidly with increasing size of the system…the simple example clearly shows that the static picture of pathways and flux distributions, as often encountered in textbook diagrams, is highly misleading. A flux distribution is no static entity. Its stability, and thus its existence over a prolonged period of time, depends crucially on the numerical values of kinetic parameters and regulatory interactions: Only an intricate network of mutual interactions ensures metabolic homeostasis, prevents depletion of metabolic intermediates and allows for an optimal response to changing environmental conditions.
Ralf Steuer and Björn H. Junker, “Computational Models of Metabolism: Stability and Regulation in Metabolic Networks,” Advances in Chemical Physics 142, no. 105 (2008): 110–13

If one insists on attributing the pathway from mundane chemistry to life as the outcome of fixed dynamical laws, then (our analysis suggests) those laws must be selected with extraordinary care and precision, which is tantamount to intelligent design: it states that “life” is “written into” the laws of physics ab initio [from their inception]. There is no evidence at all that the actual known laws of physics possess this almost miraculous property. On practical grounds alone, we need to remain open to the possibility that the causal efficacy of information may amount to more than a mere methodological convenience, and might represent a new causal category not captured in a microstate
description of the system. What we term “the hard problem of life” is the identification of the actual physical mechanism that permits information to gain causal purchase over matter. This view is not accommodated in our current approaches to physics.
Davies and Walker, “The ‘Hard Problem’ of Life”

My comment: 
Homeostasis  in cells, and origin of life scenarios
http://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2447-homeostasis-in-cells-and-origin-of-life-scenarios

1. The control of metabolism is a fundamental requirement for all life, with perturbations of metabolic homeostasis underpinning numerous disease-associated pathologies.
2. Any incomplete Metabolic network without the control mechanisms in place to get homeostasis would mean disease and cell death.
3. A minimal metabolic network and the control mechanisms had to be in place from the beginning, which means, and gradualistic explanation of the origin of biological Cells, and life is unrealistic. 
Life is an all or nothing business and points to a creative act of God.


On proteins: 
Overall, what the field of protein evolution needs are some plausible, solid hypotheses to explain how random sequences of amino acids turned into the sophisticated entities that we recognize today as proteins. Until that happens, the phenomenon of the rise of proteins will remain, as Tawfik says, “something like close to a miracle.”
- Rajendrani Mukhopadhyayover, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

My comment:
Proteins: how they provide striking evidence of design
http://reasonandscience.catsboard.com/t2062-proteins-how-they-provide-striking-evidence-of-design

Proteins are evidence of intelligent design par excellence. Instructional/specified complex information is required to get the right amino acid sequence which is essential to get functionality in a vast sequence space ( amongst trillions os possible sequences, rare are the ones that provide function ), and every protein is irreducibly complex in the sense, that a minimal number of amino acids are required for each protein to get function. This constitutes a unsurmountable hurdle for the origin of life scenarios based on naturalistic hypotheses since unguided random events are too unspecific to get functional sequences in a viable timespan. Another true smack-down is the fact that single proteins or enzymes by themselves confer no advantage of survival at all, and have by their own no function. There is no reason why random RNA strands would become self-replicating. And even IF that were the case, so what? There would be no utility for them unless at least 50 different precisely arranged and correctly interlinked enzymes and proteins, each with its specific function, would interlink in a complex, just right metabolic network, and be encapsulated in a complex membrane with gates and pores, and in a precisely finely tuned and balanced homeostatic ambiance. Energy production and supply to each protein would also have to be fully setup right from the start...... hard to swallow. But if your wish of naturalism to be true is strong enough, just shut your reason up, and believe this. Blindly.

Proteins can be considered as information enriched polymers. In fact, the instruction for the 3-D structure of a protein is embedded in the sequences of amino acids and the electrochemical attractive forces among them.

DNA can be read in the forward direction, backwards, and Stephen Meyer told us that there is an ongoing scientific research of bacteria, where a strand of their DNA information can be read in the forward direction, and  have three different meanings when read forwards, and the same strand can provide three different kinds of information to produce different proteins as well when read backwards,  !! That means, one single blueprint can be used in a variety of different ways and build different products.

I asked Richard Sternberg, where epigenetic information, like the splicing Code, is stored, and he said, that science has no answer to this (yet).





This site reports:
Like many bacteria, Geobacter has long, filamentous appendages, pili, extending from its body. Pili allow bacteria to sense their environment, similarly to whiskers or antennae. Sometimes, bacteria use pili to directly interact with their environment, releasing chemical compounds or exchanging genetic information with other bacteria. It turns out Geobacter’s pili are highly electrically conductive- as conductive as synthetic organic metals. This discovery has led scientists to hypothesize Geobacter’s pili serve as “electrical wires” that conduct electrons from inside the cell to iron in the environment.

Before we get to electrical conductivity, a bit of background on iron breathing, or “iron-reducing”  in technical lingo. All life on earth requires energy. On a molecular level, all life acquires energy in much the same way: stripping electrons from one substance (usually, but not always, carbon.) and transferring said electrons to another substance- an electron acceptor. Oxygen is the preferred electron acceptor among multicellular organisms because of its high electron affinity. This just means you get more “bang for your buck” using oxygen to strip electrons off your food than using, say, iron or sulfur. But oxygen is not found everywhere, and many microbes have become adapted to using other electron acceptors in lieu of oxygen. In theory, this makes sense. In practice, iron is a bit of a head-scratcher. In its oxidized (i.e., electron-depleted) form, iron is a heavy, insoluble metal that cannot easily cross cell membranes. For decades, scientists have assumed that iron-reducers like Geobacter have some adaptation that allows them to use iron outside of their cells for respiration.


In 2016, Nature magazine reported the molecular Pilus  Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili 7

Perguntas .... - Page 2 Srep2310

In their conclusive remarks, they wrote:

These results demonstrate that it is feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a highly stable filamentous structure in which a core chain of aromatic amino acids facilitate electron transport along the length of the pilus. This finding is consistent with multiple lines of experimental evidence that have consistently suggested that G. sulfurreducens pili have metallic-like conductivity

And a paper , peer reviewed by the Royal Society of Chemistry reported:

Charge transport along the pili requires aromatic residues, which cluster once the peptide subunits (pilins) assemble keeping inter-aromic distances and geometries optimal for multistep hopping. The presence of intramolecular aromatic contacts and the predominantly α- helical conformation of the pilins has been proposed to contribute to charge transport and rectification. 

 Without those aromatic residues where they were, Geobacter had no zip in its pili. 10

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Schematic diagram showing the progression of the aromatic clusters up the pilus structure. The aromatic band is coloured blue, and the aromatic devoid band is coloured yellow. 11

A periodic 3.2-Å spacing in conductive, wild-type G. sulfurreducens pili that was missing in the nonconductive pili of strain Aro5, which lack key aromatic acids required for conductivity. These results suggest a clear structure-function correlation for metallic-like conductivity that can be attributed to overlapping π-orbitals of aromatic amino acids.

A study that modeled the G. sulfurreducens PilA monomer structure noted the likely role of aromatic amino acids in electron transfer in G. sulfurreducens pili but concluded that their arrangement provided “an optimal environment for the hopping of electrons”

E-pilin genes are primarily restricted to a tight phylogenetic group in the order Desulfuromonadales, which are an order within the Proteobacteria. 14 95  Fe(III)-reducing micro-organisms are known, and of these, 80 % lack e-pilin genes. The pilA genes encode mature pilin structural proteins with 60–90 amino acids that give rise to conductive pili. Longer type IVa pilA genes that are more commonly found in bacteria (>120 amino acid residues) yield pili with poor conductivity. The shorter amino acid sequence is due to lack of the C-terminal portion of the amino acid sequence which permits the pilin monomers to pack more tightly than the larger pilin monomers found in most bacteria, yielding a thinner pilus diameter and positioning amino acids in patterns that confer conductivity.

1. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/01/science/bacteria-microbes-electricity.html?fbclid=IwAR26kSnwQQrhGj1PANHBpm-BWlP5obvt3B_ogt2ExZBmS9_U_guIfsRTROc
2. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00290916
3. https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn19804-life-electric-microbes-wire-up-to-share-energy/
4. https://asknature.org/strategy/microbial-nanowires-transfer-electrons/
5. https://phys.org/news/2017-01-green-electronics-team-microbe-potomac.html
6. https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/docserver/fulltext/micro/162/12/2017_micro000382.pdf?expires=1563676889&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=ADF94981720AF9EBFE6736A003965374
7. https://www.nature.com/articles/srep23385
8. https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/cp/c7cp00885f#!divAbstract
9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18393985
10. https://phys.org/news/2013-11-bacterial-nanowire-protein-hints-secrets.html
11. http://www.jbc.org/content/288/41/29260/F5.expansion.html
12. https://prelights.biologists.com/highlights/structure-of-a-cytochrome-based-bacterial-nanowire/
13. https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/ee/c3ee40441b#!divAbstract
14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5320591/
15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4453548/
16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23698325/
17. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1462-2920.14638
18. http://cronodon.com/BioTech/Bacteria_pili.html
20. https://www.cell.com/cell/pdf/S0092-8674(19)30291-0.pdf
21. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0262407910604472
22. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1751-7915.13280
23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5320591/

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29Perguntas .... - Page 2 Empty Re: Perguntas .... on Fri Jul 26, 2019 8:58 am

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Stephen Meyer's new cosmological argument
Stephen Meyer's new argument is based on astronomical observations. Fine-tuning and cosmological arguments rely on invoking an external cause of the universe. Stephen began, building on the lectures given previously by Richards and Gonzalez on the expansion of the universe and the necessity of a beginning.

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An interesting convergence came in the 1920s after Hubble came up with the Hubble constant, the relationship of the expansion rate, and the distance to distant galaxies.

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But who gets less attention is the Belgian priest, Father Lemaitre, in 1927, about what was already known about the redshift, the theoretical physics coming from general relativity, where Einstein the first time introduced the cosmological constant,  

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but then, later, physicists, Friedman, and Lemaitre himself said: Wait a minute, the value, assigned to the cosmological constant, to get the outward force of expansion, and the contracting force of gravity, is balanced just right, is extremely contrived, and is, therefore, unrealistically fine-tuned, 

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and the vast range of possible solutions, of possible values for that cosmological constant, that gives a dynamic universe, and since the redshift evidence was already available, LeMaitre said, and he introduced this evidence to Einstein in a Taxicab ride (that's how science was done back then ), and he said: 

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the better solution is a conjoined solution in astronomy and that gives you an expanding universe from some kind of beginning of the expansion. And that's the birth of the Big Bang. That's 1927.

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In the sixties, Hawking began to think about Black hole physics. A black hole is a place where the gravitational forces are so intense, they bend space so tightly, that not even light can get out. 

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The core concept of general relativity is that matter is actually bending space, is curving space, creates lines of trajectories, even light, as light passes through a massive object, and in fact the way of thinking of general relativity from the field of equations is to think that matter tells space how to curve, and space tells matter, how to move, so this is a reciprocal relationship.

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So Hawking is thinking about all this in relation to black holes because a black hole is a place of matter so densely compacted  and space is so densely curved that no light can get out, so Hawking has an insight, and says, why do we not apply what we know about black holes and general relativity, to the question of cosmology. To the origin of the universe itself.

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If we realize that the universe is expanding outwards, if we extrapolate back, that means that the matter in the universe is getting more and more densely compacted. So more or the same amount of matter, and a smaller and smaller and smaller volume, so space will get tightly curved until eventually, you arrive at some kind of a limit.

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So Hawking presented this idea in his PhD. thesis and Penrose said: Congratulations, Dr Hawking, now go out working out the maths.  So in 1968 and following, Hawking worked with Penrose and Ellis to prove the singularity theorem, which basically shows that  as you go back in time you go to a point where the universe is past geodesically incomplete, 

which means there is a beginning in time, and its not perfectly homogeneous, and the universe begins from zero spacial volume, and, basically, everything begins from there.

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In order for the conditions of the theorem to be met, the universe cannot be completely homogeneous, which the universe meets. Another matter is which energy conditions neet to apply, and there is an agreement that the energy condition is positive during all the time of this expansion.

But now there is this weird quantum dimension. So when the universe is very very small, it would be indeterministic, and so it is when crossing the point of singularity, some physicists say, well wait, we could have points of fluctuations, that would cause the universe to violate the energy conditions, where you have temporarily a negative energy condition. 

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And one model adopted the eternal chaotic inflation idea, where the universe expanded very very rapidly, called inflation.  But, an extension of that idea was that chaotic inflation had gone infinitely in the past, and was continuing infinitely in the future. And while the inflation goes on, the field, called infinite time field, would occasionally, shut off, just the right measure, and cause all the universe.

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That also came associated with the multiverse. So since that inflation was going back infinitely, there was no beginning. Two physicists began to explore that inflation cosmology, Borden and Vilenkin. And they had an initial proof in 1994, that showed that even a chaotic inflation model would have a beginning as well. 

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Then, in 2003, they developed a model, that was not subject to any energy condition at all, which was called the Borden-Guth-Vilenkin theorem. It is based on special relativity, and what they showed was that 

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even if the universe is expanding infinitely into the future, it must have had a temporal beginning, it must be geodesically past, incomplete. It traded on quantum indeterminacy, in the very tiny time when the universe was small enough to be described by quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the physicism of the very small, and the very weird. 

So, Einsteins ideas give us a very straightforward, a theoretical physics confirmation and an indication of a very beginning, which confirms the testimony of observations astronomy.

Inside that tiny window of Planck time, we have quantum mechanics, so we may not extrapolate back all the way to the beginning, using straightforward mathematical considerations from Einstein's theory of general relativity. We now think about what gravity would be like in the so-called quantum domain, where it's really really small.  

And so, theories, that became known as quantum gravity, or quantum cosmology, became a way of go-to when thinking about the origin of the universe, in a post - Einsteinian way, in a domain, where Einstein's physics may not apply. So quantum cosmology is describing the early stages using the maths of quantum mechanics. 

So the discussion of the origin of the universe started in the eighties and shifted away from Einstein's general relativity, to better considerations with quantum mechanics.

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So the first to work on this was Stephen Hawking. He wrote a book in 1988, called, a brief history of time. So quantum cosmology in addition to the new way of thinking about the origin of the universe has been posed, and it has been posed by Hawking himself as essentially an argument against the Kalaam cosmological argument of Gods existence.

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Hawking took that argument and famously said: What need is there for a creator ?! That followed after the presentation of the Hawking Hartle model quantum cosmology. 

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What they basically claimed was that the laws of the universe came from nothing and that nothing was unstable, this is Lawrence Krauss formulation of it.

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Hawking in his last book before he died wrote because there is such a law as gravity, he is speaking about quantum gravitational laws, the universe can and does create itself from nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason why there is something rather than nothing, why we exist, why the universe exists, is not necessary to invoke God, that set the universe going. 

An ordinary person looking at this statement might be tempted to think about something ontological that he is saying here since spontaneous creation means that something happens spontaneously for no apparent reason at all, and then saying, that there is no reason at all, that there is something rather than nothing, and why the universe exists, for no reason at all.    

And the problem in Hawking's book is, that you can't really understand, what the argument is. 

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There is a lot of assertions and analogies, but it's not really going into the physics, at least not in regards to this statement, so let's look a bit more deeply into quantum cosmology. 

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First, physicists where first uncomfortable why quantum cosmology and the singularity. Hawkins didn't like the implications of the singularity and looking for a way to solve the problem within the confines of physics itself, but secondly,  the extrapolation that is involved,  in a singularity, is obtained, let's take into account what is called Planck time, the tiny little time,  where things are so small, where quantum effects take route,

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so, two different versions of quantum cosmology were developed, one is the Hawking- Hartles, where the singularity is eliminated, and the second one is the Borden-Vilenkin, where it proposes to explain the origin of the universe from the singularity, from nothing at all.

In order to understand what these guys are up to, one has to do an excursion back into ordinary quantum mechanics, but nothing is not ordinary at all. Quantum mechanics was describing how waves and particles are essentially two of the same manifestations of fundamental reality.

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Fundamental units can act like waves or particles, be it photons or electrons. There was a famous equation, the Schroedinger equation, which was used to calculate the probability that an electron or photon might be at many possible positions,  and the electron might be at any point of many possible positions, that consequence is that it might be a wave or particle, so, a couple of these experiments gave us these strange concepts. The first actually in the 19th century.  

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Before 1802, when an experiment was performed by Thomas Young,  the famous double-slit experiment, prior it was thought that light is just particles, but light, put through  the single and double-slit experiment produced kind of an interference pattern,  like concentrating or being less intense,  alternately, it was as he dropped something in the water, and it gave waves where they were inforced, where the pit came together or cancelled each other out, where the waves crossed and hit each other.

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So that interference pattern characteristic of waves, with light, that suggested that light might be a wave. At the beginning of the 20th century, there was a very interesting experiment made by British physicist Geoffrey Taylor, which made a different version of this double split experiment,

which was able to lower the intensity of light, passing through the double split, where he was able to make that one particle was going through at the time, and what he was able to produce, again, was an interference pattern, that emerged progressively over time, so the light that was manifesting  as particles, 

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but the longer the particles were collected at the detection plate, the more the interference pattern became evident, suggesting that light even as the individual particles of light that were passing the double slits interfering with themselves, so they were both manifesting wave light and particle light at the same time.

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So in order to describe this mathematically, and to get an idea where the particle might show up, manifesting itself at the detection plate, physicists developed the famous mathematics of the Schroedinger equations, which permits us to calculate the probability of the particle manifest itself at a particular point.

The weird thing is that acting itself as a wave until it hits the detection plate it can end up at a whole lot of different places, that is it will not be at any specific place until it is observed, that is the weird thing about quantum mechanics. 

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Feynman used to say if you think you understand quantum mechanics, well, no, no one really understands quantum mechanics. It's really bizarre. This is the collapse of the wave function.  That's ordinary quantum mechanics. All this ordinary quantum mechanics it's even a more exotic situation when it comes to the beginning of the universe.

Quantum mechanics in regular cosmology describes all the possible positions and momenta associated with the waves and particles. In quantum mechanics, the particles can be at one point, even if its smeared out, they can be at lots of different places all at once. 

Now, quantum cosmology applies this idea, not to particles and waves of light or electrons, but it defies the idea that different possible geometries and configurations of matter that the universe might have. 

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We have the shape of our universe, and the configurations of matter are just described by general relativity. General relativity is concerned about the shape of space, and how matter affects them. So there is a matter field, and there is a geometry of space, in general relativity. So we are thinking about the origin of the universe, we are thinking about something intrinsic, about spacial geometry, and the configuration of matter.

Inside Planck Time, we have quantum indeterminacy, so maybe what we are dealing up there, is lots of possible universes, with lots of possible shapes, and geometries, and configurations of matter. And so what happens is, there is a wave theory of equations, the Wheeler-DeWitt equations, which basically synthesizes the Schroeder equation with considerations of Einsteinian gravity, it becomes gravity, plus quantum physics together. 

And to describe what the universe might be in that light, in that early dimension of time, it turned to definite characteristics, to a definite expansion.

The philosophical point will be very easy to grasp.  There is a kind of conversion, in ordinary quantum mechanics, to describe the equation that describes where the particle can be and allows us to calculate the probabilities associated with whether it is the ones that are observed. 

In quantum cosmology, we apply the same kind of math,  but you are not looking for particles, you try to calculate the probability at a given type of universe. In particular, ours, because this theory becomes an origins theory, when the equations or the functions, or, this function is the solution to the Wheeler–DeWitt equation.

In ordinary quantum mechanics is a function to describe the probabilities of all the created particles. Lots of different possibilities are described by this function.  That function, or the wave function, is a solution in ordinary quantum mechanics for the Schroedinger equation, and in quantum cosmology, its a solution to this Wheeler–DeWitt equation, which is the Schroedinger equation, adapted to try to describe the gravitational fields or possible gravitational fields of the early universe.

So if we can solve these equations, we can get a function that describes all the possible geometries, all the possible shapes that the universe might have, and the different distributions of matter within those shapes. Lots of possible distributions of shapes, lots of possible distributions of matter. So that's the wave function.  Quantum cosmologists believe they can explain our universe and in case, that, or if this wave function includes a universe like ours.

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Ours is a reasonably probable outcome of this wave function, then we can explain our universe. That's the idea, upon cosmology. So the Wheeler–DeWitt equation is just an analogue to the Schroedinger equation in regular quantum mechanics, describing all the possible, if you solve the equation, you get a side-function to describe all the possible places and the particles could be, 

and then if, that's the side function happens to produce or happens to include a universe like ours, explaining the origin of the universe, and without, one place would be without a beginning, as Hawking says, and one would be with a beginning, but coming essentially from nothing. It's just the physics doing the explaining.

We don't need a God hypothesis. We don't need a transcendent cause, the Wheeler–DeWitt equation solves to produce a wave function, ours is included, then we say, the universe emerged out of nothing, out of the physics, the laws of physics now describe, the universe came from, we don't need to invoke God. That's Hawkins argument.

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So this is mainly an attempt to address the ultimate cosmological origins questions, without invoking a transcendent cause according to the beginning of the universe. Hawking btw. gets away with a beginning the way he did fix the space-time geometry of the beginning of the universe, 

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but only by the means of a mathematical trick  where he changes the time variable  t, and he exchanges it with It, for imaginary time,  and so he converts a problem of equation in a real domain into an imaginary domain  of complex numbers and solve the problem in complex numbers, and then convert back. 

They applied imaginable math and applied it to the real world. And you should not apply real metaphysical implications of what you are doing in an imaginary mathematical domain.

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Vilenkins theorem is much more philosophically sensitive, and there is a passage in his book, Many worlds in one, where he is describing the kind of philosophical paradox associated with the whole enterprise of quantum cosmology. He asks this interesting question: 

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Where does the universe come from? The quantum cosmological answer comes from the side-function.  It comes from the universal wave function. Describing all these possible universes, not which actually exist yet, but which are all mathematical possibilities. What does this mean, that the laws are not a mere description of reality, but could have an independent existence of their own, we are talking about the side functions of quantum cosmology.

In the absence of space, time and matter, what tablets could they be written on? The side functions can explain the ways they could exist, it is not a thing yet. The laws are expressed in a form of mathematical equations.

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If the means of the equations is the mind, this is mean that mind should create the universe? After he raises this provocative rhetorical question, he completes and doesn't answer us.

Hawking did raise a similar question. Also, in the  A brief history of time, he says:  what puts fire into the equation that gives a universe to describe? Should mathematical equations have causal power? Are they substantive in the real world? Usually, mathematical equations are what we use to describe the universe. 

Wheeler said: One of the equations we construct or dream up, did make things happening in the real world, it is as to say that the latitude and longitude on a real map are responsible for the height of the Himalayan mountains.

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The maths in their mind does not cause things to happen in the real world.  To say otherwise is a fallacy of ratification. To compute substantial causal powers to concepts. That is as to say that nature has mathematics build into it.

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But math is the expression of a powerful mind over nature. But that would be a theistic interpretation.

That is what cosmologists generally won't do.  Vilenkin is saying that we need a God.  This is sort of the very least point in cosmology, this has an implistic mathematical platonism about. Possible with a theistic twist. We are talking of a mind, pre-existing all of physics, that is pretty close to theism.

There is one more aspect, which is even more profound. We want to explain our universe. That's what the philosophers call the explanandum. The explanandum is a universal wave function that explains our universe as one of the reasonable, probable outcomes. How do we get to that universal wave function? By solving the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. 

By solving the Wheeler–DeWitt equation by itself, is a functional differential equation, and that has an infinite number of solutions. How do you solve these equations, by having an infinite number of solutions? You have to restrain the number of solutions. You have to restrain the degree of mathematical freedom, associated with these mathematical equations.  And you do that by imposing boundary constraints on the equations.

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Let me give an illustration of what that means. There is a law in physics, which is called Poe's law, which describes the harmonic motion of vibrating strings. The law of physics describes the possible harmonic motions, but that does not tell me how hard the string was plucked, that's information extrinsic to the law, that's called an initial condition.

That doesn't tell me how hard a harp player plucked the strings. I have to get that information from observation. From the experiment. Similarly, the string will vibrate differently, depending on how far the bends are. Where they are fixed.

And those are the boundary constraints, particularly in this equation. And that, also, is determined by observation. And you have to know. How the experiment was set up.

So, laws of physics are bound, they get the boundary constraints. You cant get any predictions out of them,  you can't get any explanations out of them, you have to know the boundary constraints, and the laws themselves don't give them. That's an additional sort of information.

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Think about the fine-tuning. The fine-tuning of those initial conditions. The information has to be provided to the laws in order for them to do any good at all. In any case, in order to solve this big equation, you need to have boundary constraints and the boundary constraints will contain an outcome, that includes our universe is a reasonably probable outcome, which is very precisely chosen. 

And Vilenkin does it one way, Hawking and Hartle do it another way. Hawking and Hartle do it with what they call superspace, but the bottom line is, in both cases,  both quantum cosmological models, are extremely constrained on degrees of mathematical freedom, are applied to the Wheeler–DeWitt equation, in the wave function, they include a universe like ours, as a reasonably probable argument. How do they choose these boundary rates? It's a bit of a teleological process.

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They look forward to the universe they want to, and then they might choose constraints that they get a wave function that includes a universe like that. It's a bit like Dawkins simulation: METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL He wants to get the Computer program to simulate that directed evolution.

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And so he gives it a target sequence, METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL, and gets the computer program to randomize a string of characters, and he selects those strings that get most similar to those strings he wants, and then he gets eliminating the wrong ones until he gets the outcome he wants. The original sequences have no meaning at all.

So what these guys do, there is some kind of circularity here, where they figure out the universe they want, and then they constrain the solutions to the Wheeler–DeWitt equations and the wave functions, which includes our universe as a possible outcome to get the solution they want. 

Obviously, there is circularity in that, there is no problem with modelling ours, but the claim is that this explains the origin of our universe. So, they are doing this modelling. So how does this modelling get off? It gets off by constraining the reason for mathematical freedom. What is that? At the meantime you say: It can be zero or one.

 I go and choose one. What if I don't? I constrained it. But I also,  in part, I also omit the information. The fundamental definition of a bit of information is chosen between two options, is choosing between.

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So what is going on? Theoretical physicists solving the Wheeler–DeWitt equation by infusing information in a form of restricted value constraints, and get an outcome, which is desirable. So what do they actually model? They model for a big amount of information. And in their model, where does information come from? 

From the mind of the theoretical physicists themselves. 

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This reminds me of the origin of life research. Where you have the stimulation experiments. And you know what is a good example? The chemicals are in the bath. Like the byproducts, you get the amino acids, you get a whole lot of other things that you don't want. So what do you do? 

Chemically, you remove those other chemicals, so you don't have the interfering cross-reactions, so this is an informed intervention. I want this, not that. All prebiotic simulation experiments are able to move the biochemistry into a life-friendly direction only on the expense of information is being applied by the experimenter. I think that tells us something.  

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With the expanding universe, that is mathematically analogous. Theoretical physicists providing the information by the boundary constraints, you get the solution that is necessary. This is a fine-tuning problem. The fine-tuning is being manifestly applied or provided by the intelligent physicists.  So I think this is actually illustrating the need for mathematical platonism,

I think it actually provides support for intelligent design. So what is being modelled is by intelligence a universe like ours. There are other things that can be said about this, for example, if you take a standard Copenhagen interpretation for example of the collapse of the wave function, what is it that posits the collapse?

It's an observation. What we want to say is, there is a cosmic observer that is responsible for all these possible actualizing universes like ours? Well, no, not for the materialist, so that problem is solved for example by invoking the many-worlds interpretation in quantum mechanics in all possible and impossible worlds but notice, the problem of providing prior information precedes any interpretation of the side function or whatever.  So even if you are involved in the mere interpretation of the side function, you still have the problem of getting to the side function, by constraining or increasing the mathematical freedom. There is a big infusion of mathematical information by the theoretical physicists.

If you have a straightforward singularity, you have obviously an infinite of materialistic implications. Borde Guth Vilenkin has pure conditions that have to be met, by establishing a beginning. Hawking - Penrose and Frank Tipler has fewer mathematical conditions that might strengthen the singularity condition,  but even if you don't accept the singularity or the past temporal beginning, the reason you would not accept that would be the fact that the universe is behaving like a quantum system in that early time, anyone that is going with a quantum cosmological approach,  that has theistic implications, and other reasons. So that is the cosmological trilemma for the naturalists.



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30Perguntas .... - Page 2 Empty Re: Perguntas .... on Sat Aug 10, 2019 7:18 am

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- Science
- Philosophy
- Theology

The basic epistemological framework to research about origins, and the fundamental question of why there is something, rather than nothing, is best based on the faculties of science, philosophy, and theology/religion. 

Gods existence, without attempting to identify his nature, can be done by evaluating science, and philosophical considerations. 
The identity of God is a matter of religion and theology.   

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The steps of progression to elaborate an epistemologically solid world view goes as follows:

1. Defining a solid epistemological framework, excluding scientism or verificationism, and permitting a holistic examination of evidence including philosophical and theological considerations.
2. Disposition to analyze the evidence as much honest and unbiased as possible, permitting it to lead wherever it is.
3. Clarifying how the action of (past) intelligent action can be recognized in nature.   
4. Research of scientific evidence and philosophical considerations which after careful evaluation point to Intelligence as a better mechanism to explain our origins than naturalistic explanations.
5. The inference of intelligent design/creationism leads to deism, theism or pantheism.
6. Philosophical considerations lead  to agnostic theism
7. Specifics about various evidence leads to the conclusion of Infinite Creator.
8. Comparative religions and historical evidence point to God of the Hebrews/Abraham.
9. Internal evidence constrains the choice of Judaism. Islam, Christianity, and born-again Christianity.
10. How we proceed in the cumulative case for Christianity is a much more detailed step. Ultimately we are not talking about "proof" like in repeated experimentation...but rather a preponderance of the evidence.  Ultimately it is the conviction of the Holy Spirit to believe in the miracles of Jesus and His Lordship/Deity.

Concluding and pointing to a specific God can be done rationally by adopting a cumulative case, which in my view, in the end, points to the God of the Bible. Point 1 to 5 point to a Creator as a better explanation rather than none. 
Point 6 - 10 deal with the identification of a specific God.  

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Above is a list of positive evidence of Gods existence, not depending on gaps or lack of knowledge.  We will be giving a closer look at each of these in the forthcoming videos. 

1. Existence of the universe. The universe had a beginning, therefore a cause
2. The universe obeys laws and rules of mathematics and physics. Its implementation depends on the action of an intelligent rational agency.
3. The physical universe and the laws of physics are interdependent and irreducible. There would not be one without the other.
4. Fine-Tuning. The fundamental physical constants, the universe, and the earth are finely tuned for life. Over 100 constants must be just right.
5. Formation of life. Life comes only from life. Abiogenesis has never been demonstrated to be possible despite over half a century of intensive scientific research.
6. Cells ARE literally factories. Biological cells ARE an industrial park of millions of interconnected complex factories, full of machines. Factories are always designed.
7. A minimal Cell requires 560 proteins with an average size of 400 amino acids, which totals  224.000 amino acids. That requires to select 1 out of 40^224.000
8. Irreducible complexity. Biological cells require a minimal number of parts, which have no use by themselves, and would never accumulate on a prebiotic earth
9. The appearance of design. The universe and biological systems appear designed. Therefore, most probably, they are designed. 
10. Codified Information. DNA has the highest storage density known, and stores the blueprint of life. Blueprints can always be tracked back to intelligence
11. The Fossil Record. The Fossil record, and in special the Cambrian explosion, demonstrates the sudden appearance of lifeforms, without intermediates. 
12. Consciousness and language. Conscience, mental reality, language, logic, free will, moral values, are immaterial entities, and cannot emerge from physical matter. 
13. Human objective logic depends and can only derive from a pre-existing necessary first mind with objective logic.
14. Theology and philosophy. Both lead to an eternal, self-existent, omnipresent transcendent, conscious, intelligent, personal and moral Creator.
15. The Bible. The Old Testament is a catalogue of fulfilled prophecies of Jesus Christ, and his mission, death, and resurrection foretold with specificity.
16. Archaeology. Demonstrates that all events described in the Bible are historical facts. 
17. History. Historical evidence reveals that Jesus Christ really did come to this earth, and really did physically rise from the dead
18. The Bible's witnesses. There are many testimonies of Jesus doing miracles still today, and Jesus appearing to people all over the globe, still today.
19. End times. The signs of the end times that were foretold in the Bible are occurring in front of our eyes. New world order, Israel as a nation, microchip implant etc.
20. After-life experiences. Credible witnesses have seen the afterlife and have come back and reported to us that the afterlife is real.

1. something made based on mathematical principles


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Johannes Kepler, Defundamentis Astrologiae Certioribus, Thesis XX (1601)
"The chief aim of all investigations of the external world should be to discover the rational order and harmony which has been imposed on it by God and which He revealed to us in the language of mathematics."

Kepler formulated three major laws of planetary motion which enabled Isaac Newton to devise the law of gravitation. Working from the carefully measured positions of the planets, Kepler mathematically deduced his three laws from the data.

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Besides Kepler, Newton,

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Galileo, and

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Copernicus--viewed the universe as orderly and capable of mathematical description precisely because a rational God had fashioned it so. These brilliant scientists and mathematicians believed that, since God had designed the universe, then "all phenomena of nature would follow one master plan.

One mind designing a universe would almost surely have employed one set of basic principles to govern all related phenomena.

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2. The fundamental laws of physics
  Newton’s Three Laws of Motion.
  Law of Gravity.
  Conservation of Mass-Energy.
  Conservation of Momentum.
  Laws of Thermodynamics.
  Electrostatic Laws.
  Invariance of the Speed of Light.


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Only in the 20th century, it became clear that the incredibly diverse phenomena that we observe in nature are based on just six physical laws, each of which may be described by a simple mathematical relationship. The brilliant mathematical encoding of nature's deep structures, these physical laws can all be written on one side of one sheet of paper.

On the deepest level of the universe, there is cosmic harmony and coherence of the elemental forces and universal constants which govern all of nature. There are certain universal constants that describe the universe mathematically, and, remarkably, this set of constants is critical to the formation of a life-permitting universe.


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"The naive view implies that the universe suddenly came into existence and found a complete system of physical laws waiting to be obeyed. Actually, it seems more natural to suppose that the physical universe and the laws of physics are interdependent." —*WH. McCrea, "Cosmology after Half a Century," Science, Vol. 160, June 1968, p. 1297.

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As Richards and Gonzalez write: Our very ability to establish the laws of nature depends on their stability. (In fact, the idea of a law of nature implies stability.) Likewise, the laws of nature must remain constant long enough to provide the kind of stability life requires through the building of nested layers of complexity.

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The properties of the most fundamental units of complexity we know of, quarks, must remain constant in order for them to form larger units, protons and neutrons, which then go into building even larger units, atoms, and so on, all the way to stars, planets, and in some sense, people.

The lower levels of complexity provide the structure and carry the information of life. There is still a great deal of mystery about how the various levels relate, but clearly, at each level, structures must remain stable over vast stretches of space and time.

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And our universe does not merely contain complex structures; it also contains elaborately nested layers of higher and higher complexity. Consider complex carbon atoms, within still more complex sugars and nucleotides, within more complex DNA molecules, within complex nuclei, within complex neurons, within the complex human brain, all of which are integrated into a human body.

Such “complexification” would be impossible in both a totally chaotic, unstable universe and an utterly simple, homogeneous universe of, say, hydrogen atoms or quarks.

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So the question arises: 

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These Laws of Physics, where did they come from?
What is their origin?
Can laws come about naturally?
How did they come about fully balanced to create order instead of chaos?

The laws themselves defy a natural existence and science itself has not even one clue on how to explain them coming into being naturally. So when you use deductive reasoning, cancelling out all that does not fit or will not work, there is only one conclusion left that fits the bill of why the laws exist, and why they work together to make order instead of chaos.

Deny it as naturalist may, their way if thinking cannot explain away a Creator creating the laws that exist and the fact that they create order instead of chaos. That they are put together and tweaked to be in balance like a formula making everything work together to create all that we see. 

Always ignoring that even one notch off in how one law works with another that total and complete chaos would be the result. And that they cannot even contemplate the first step in an explanation that would fit their world views.
Applying the scientific method:

When all conclusions fit and point into one direction only, what is science supposed to do? According to the scientific method you are supposed to follow the evidence regardless of where it leads, not ignore it because it leads to where you don want to go.

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In 1952, Albert Einstein wrote a letter to Maurice Solovine, where he expressed how he was struck by the wondrous orderliness of the world.  He wrote:

You find it strange that I consider the comprehensibility of the world (to the extent that we are authorized to speak of such a comprehensibility) as a miracle or as an eternal mystery. Well, a priori one should expect a chaotic world, which cannot be grasped by the mind in any way.

The next evidence  

At least one hundred requirements constrain the selection of the universal constants to a remarkable degree.


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3. Fine-tuning 

Fine-tuning of the Big Bang
Fine-tuning of the  cosmological constant
Fine-tuning of the initial conditions of the universe
Fine-tuning of the  fundamental forces of the universe
Fine-tuning of the subatomic particles
Fine-tuning of  our Galaxy
Fine-tuning of the Solar System
Fine-tuning of the sun
Fine-tuning of the earth
Fine-tuning of the moon

Fine-tuning of the electromagnetic spectrum
Fine-tuning in biochemistry

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It is known now that relatively small changes in any of the constants produce a dramatically different universe and one that is not hospitable to life of any imaginable type. Over one hundred requirements constrain the selection of the universal constants to a remarkable degree.

Gribbin stated for example that the flatness of the Universe must have been precise to within 1 part in 10^60. This makes the flatness parameter the most accurately determined number in all of physics, and suggests a fine-tuning of the Universe, to set up conditions suitable for the emergence of stars, galaxies, and life, of exquisite precision.

If this were indeed a coincidence, then it would be a fluke so extraordinary as to make all other cosmic coincidences pale into insignificance. 

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Astrophysicist Paul Davies declared:  Our complex universe could have emerged only if the laws of physics are very close to what they are....The laws, which enable the universe to come into being, seem themselves to be the product of exceedingly ingenious design. If physics is the product of design, the universe must have a purpose, and the evidence of modern physics suggests strongly to me that the purpose includes us.
Superforce (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), 243.











Following is amazing evidence that the world was expressly designed to conform to simple laws that man would readily discover is furnished by the universal law of gravitation: F= Gm[1]m[2]/r^2. Notice the exponent 2. Why is it not 1.9999999 . . ., or 4.3785264 . . ., or something else hard to use in computations? Yet research has been able to specify the exponent as far as the first six digits, giving 2.00000.

Thus, so far as we can tell, the exponent is exactly 2. Coulomb's law of electric force is similar: F = kq[1]q[2]/r^2. In this case, research has established that the exponent is no different from exactly 2 as far as the first 17 digits. Would we find such laws in an accidental universe?

Of course, atheists will immediately claim that they tried, but were unable to recognize such evidence and become believers.

https://rationalreligion.co.uk/legendary-evolutionary-biologist-calls-out-modern-atheism-in-final-interview
http://inters.org/Einstein-Letter-Solovine
https://web.archive.org/web/20110805203154/http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9403/evidence.html

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Existence of the universe. The universe had a beginning, therefore a cause

1. Does God exist?  Episode 1:


The universe had a beginning, therefore a cause


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The Kalaam Cosmological Argument is well known, but still strongly disputed. 

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Whatever begins to exist, has a cause. While premise one seems obvious to most people, I have seen many times,  atheists demanding to prove that something cannot come from nothing. 

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Rabbits do not come out from the magician's hut from nothing. We know there is a trick involved. 

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As Descartes famously said:  Nothing comes out of nothing



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Per definition: 
Being - can do something
Non-being - can't do something

Being can create being
Non-being can't create being

Something can do something
Nothing can't do something

Causes can cause things
No causes can't cause things

Something can exist somewhere
Nothing can't exist somewhere

Something can be sometimes
Absolutely nothing can't be sometimes

Existence can create existence
Non-existence can't create existence

Consciousness can create consciousness
Non-consciousness can't create consciousness

If there was nothing, there would still be nothing. 
Since there IS something, there must always have been something. 

Absolutely nothing, as the absence of anything, can't do something. It has no potentialities, it is the contrary of being: Non-being. 0 x 0 = 0.  That is inductive reasoning which does not require empirical demonstration and testing. Nothing has no ontological value to be taken seriously as a possible explanation of anything, since, its the absence of any being, it cannot produce being. 

If there is is no logical contradiction contained within the concept of 'nothing' then it could, in principles, and in fact, exist. The state of non-being could be. But then , we would not be here to talk about non-being. And since we ARE here, non-being has never been, but being has always been. In time, and in eternity. An eternal being without beginning, and without end, exists.

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The Law of Cause and Effect is the most universal and most certain of all laws. Every material effect must have an adequate cause.



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Hawking in his last book before he died wrote:  Spontaneous creation is the reason why there is something rather than nothing, why we exist, why the universe exists, is not necessary to invoke God, that set the universe going. 


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Lawrence Krauss wrote in his book: A universe from nothing, following: Indeed, the immediate motivation for writing this book now is a profound discovery about the universe that has driven my own scientific research for most of the past three decades and that has resulted in the startling conclusion that most of the energy in the universe resides in some mysterious, now inexplicable form permeating all of empty space.

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It is not an understatement to say that this discovery has changed the playing field of modern cosmology. For one thing, this discovery has produced remarkable new support for the idea that our universe arose from precisely nothing.

Answer: If we define nothing as the absence of anything, then the assertion that the universe arose from precisely nothing is hogwash and pure irrational nonsense. But when we continue reading, it becomes clear that the nothing which Krauss describes is not in fact absolutely nothing. He goes on and writes:

Krauss: As I have described already, the laws of quantum mechanics imply that, on very small scales, for very short times, empty space can appear to be a boiling, bubbling brew of virtual particles and fields wildly fluctuating in magnitude.  It can be truly said that we all are here today because of quantum fluctuations in what is essentially nothing.

If we are all stardust, as I have written, it is also true, if inflation happened, that we all, literally, emerged from quantum nothingness. 

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Luke Barnes, a non-creationist astrophysicist who is a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Sydney Institute for Astronomy, University of Sydney, Australia, is scathing about Krauss and those who argue like him:

First and foremost, I’m getting really rather sick of cosmologists talking about universes being created out of nothing. Krauss repeatedly talked about universes coming out of nothing, particles coming out of nothing, different types of nothing, nothing being unstable. This is nonsense.

The word nothing is often used loosely—I have nothing in my hand, there’s nothing in the fridge etc. But the proper definition of nothing is “not anything”. Nothing is not a type of something, not a kind of thing. It is the absence of anything.

Virtual particles  are subatomic theoretical entities, and it's not even clear that they actually exist as opposed to being merely theoretical constructs. 


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These particles, if they are real, do not come out of anything. The quantum vacuum is  a sea of fluctuating energy, an arena of violent activity that has a rich physical structure and can be described by physical laws. These particles are thought to originate by fluctuations of the energy in the vacuum. 

"So it's not an example of something coming into being out of nothing, or something coming into being without a cause. The quantum vacuum and the energy locked up in the vacuum are the cause of these particles.

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And then we have to ask, well, what is the origin of the whole quantum vacuum itself? 

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Premise 2: The universe began to exist. How do we know this? Many claim that we cannot know it. 

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Where does the universe come from?  There are following possible answers to the question of the origin of the universe:

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The Universe is eternal; it always has existed and always will exist; There are various proposals, like oscillating universes, multiverses, infinite regress and so on. 



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The Universe was created by something that was also created, with an infinite number of events going back in creation.



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The Universe is not eternal; rather, it created itself out of nothing; or

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The Universe is not eternal and did not create itself out of nothing, but instead was created by something (or Someone) outside of itself.

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 How can we know that the universe most probably had a beginning?

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Scientific reasons to conclude that the universe had a beginning. 



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The Hubble constant describes the relationship of the expansion rate of the universe, and the distance to distant galaxies.



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In 1917, Einstein came up with a term called the cosmological constant.   



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Later, Friedman, and Belgian priest Lemaitre discovered that the value, assigned to the cosmological constant, to get the outward force of expansion, and the contracting force of gravity, are balanced just right, and incredibly fine-tuned.  



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There is a vast range , basically infinite number of possibilities and values for the cosmological constant and LeMaitre  introduced this evidence to Einstein in a Taxicab ride, and he said: 



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The best explanation faced the evidence is an expanding universe starting with a beginning of that expansion. That's the birth of the Big Bang theory. 



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In the sixties, Hawking started to investigate Black hole physics. The gravitational forces of black holes are so intense, they bend space in a way that not even light can get out. 

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So o Hawking rationalized: Why do we not apply what we know about black holes and general relativity to the universe itself?



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If the universe is expanding, that means that everything was more compacted back in time until getting to a limit. 

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So, starting in 1968, Hawking attempted to elaborate the singularity theorem pointing to a beginning of the universe.  

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Another point is that the energy had to be positive in order for an expansion to be able to occur. But, according to quantum physics, where things are very small, energy would not have been positive but fluctuating between positive and negative energy. 


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While fluctuating, this quantum vacuum energy field would by a lucky accident meet the right conditions and forces and permit the universe to enter a  period of very rapid expansion, called  inflation, and cause the universe into existence. 

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These ideas brought also forward new ideas, like the multiverse. If these virtual particles were fluctuating theoretically without a beginning. But, in 1994, two physicists, Borden and Vilenkin. provided proof and showed that even a chaotic inflation model would require a beginning. 

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Then, in 2003, they came up with a model, called the Borden-Guth-Vilenkin theorem. It is based on special relativity, and what they showed was that 

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even if the universe is expanding infinitely into the future, it must have had a starting point in time. The Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem is independent of any physical description of that moment. Their theorem implies that even if our universe is just a tiny part of a so-called “multiverse” composed of many universes, the multiverse must have an absolute beginning. 

Vilenkin is blunt about the implications: It is said that an argument is what convinces reasonable men and a proof is what it takes to convince even an unreasonable man. With the proof now in place, cosmologists can no longer hide behind the possibility of a past-eternal universe. There is no escape, they have to face the problem of a cosmic beginning
 
(Many Worlds in One [New York: Hill and Wang, 2006], p.176).


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Arvin Borde, Alan Guth, and Alexander Vilenkin were able to prove that any universe which has, on average, been expanding throughout its history cannot be infinite in the past but must have a past space-time boundary.

In 2012 Vilenkin showed that models which do not meet this one condition still fail for other reasons to avoid the beginning of the universe. Vilenkin concluded, “None of these scenarios can actually be past-eternal.” “All the evidence we have says that the universe had a beginning.” 

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And as well in 2012, an article in the magazine New Scientist : Death of the eternal cosmos From the cosmic egg to the infinite multiverse, every model of the universe has a beginning, stated: One shows that a problematic object called a naked singularity is a lot more likely to exist than previously assumed. The other suggests that the universe is not eternal, resurrecting the thorny question of how to kick-start the cosmos without the hand of a supernatural creator.



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continuing: As cosmologist Alexander Vilenkin of Tufts University in Boston explained last week, that hope has been gradually fading and may now be dead. He showed that all these theories still demand a beginning.  “ The universe can’t possibly be eternal in the past,” says Vilenkin. “There must be some kind of boundary.”

Late last year Vilenkin and graduate student Audrey Mithani showed that the egg could not have existed forever after all, as quantum instabilities would force it to collapse after a finite amount of time. 

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Further scientific evidence why the universe cannot be past eternal:
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy

Further scientific evidence that the universe had a beginning comes to the 2nd law of thermodynamics or the law of entropy.  This law says that in a closed universe the finite amount of energy is winding down, moving towards a time when all energy will be expended.

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The second law of thermodynamics relates to a concept called entropy. The directions associated with the second law—heat transfer from hot to cold, for example—are related to the tendency in nature for systems to become disordered and for less energy to be available for use as work.

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As entropy increases, less and less energy in the universe is available to do work. Eventually, all fuels will be exhausted, all temperatures will equalize, and it will be impossible for heat engines to function, or for work to be done. Entropy increases in a closed system, such as the universe.

But in terms of the universe, and the very long-term, very large-scale picture, the entropy of the universe is increasing, and so the availability of energy to do work is constantly decreasing. 

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Eventually, when all stars have died, all forms of potential energy have been utilized, and all temperatures have equalized there will be no possibility of doing work.

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Philosophical reasons why the universe nor quantum effect potentials cannot be past eternal 

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Let's suppose you start counting the steps of the walking man. Count, and add one step after the other. 1,2,3,4 and so on. The man keeps walking, and you keep counting his steps. Whenever he stops, the number of steps that you count is finite. The man can walk a thousand years or a billion years. The number of steps he walked is always finite,  never infinite.

Now imagine that our man started walking back past in time, reached now, and stops. Now, this point of time in the present is a point of time future to all past.  Correct?  In other words, we are future to yesterday.  Now, some have suggested that the universe is eternal. But this present moment in time can't represent an actual infinite number of events added one to another proceeding from the past.

Time has proceeded forward from the past as one event is added onto another to get us to today.  But we know that whenever you pause in the count as we've done right now, that you can't have an infinite number of past events.  Which means that there is not an infinite number of events that goes backwards from this point in time. 

Only a finite number of events did pass.  Which means the universe is not eternal.  Which means the universe has not existed forever and ever with no beginning, but in fact, had a beginning.

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In the next video, we will give a closer look in order to attempt to find out about which agency is the best candidate to explain the cause of the universe.



Last edited by Admin on Sat Oct 19, 2019 6:24 am; edited 4 times in total

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32Perguntas .... - Page 2 Empty Re: Perguntas .... Yesterday at 4:59 am

Admin


Admin
So, we are granted to infer that the premises are rationally sound, that is, that everything that begins to exist, has a cause. 

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Note, that premise one does not claim that everything has a cause, but EVERYTHING THAT BEGINS TO EXIST has a cause.

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What cause is the best candidate to cause the universe into existence ?


Existence can be divided into two basic categories: physical ( energy/matter, space and time), and mind ( consciousness, intelligence )



2. Since something cannot come from nothing, but we exist, then something has always existed. That must have been either the mind, physical things, or both together. 
3. The physical universe had to have a beginning, therefore it is not eternal. 
4. Thus, the mind must be eternal.



4. Therefore a non-physical, eternal, non-created & necessary first cause is the best explanation of our existence.
5. An agent endowed with free will can have a determination in a timeless dimension to operate causally at a (first) moment of time and thereby to produce a temporally first effect.
6. That cause must be supernatural in nature, (as He exists outside of His creation), Incredibly powerful (to have created all that is known), Eternal (self-existent, as He exists outside of time and space), Omnipresent (He created space and is not limited by it), Timeless and changeless (He created time),  Immaterial (because He transcends space), Personal (the impersonal can’t create personality), Necessary (as everything else depends on Him), Infinite and singular (as you cannot have two infinites),  Diverse yet has unity (as all multiplicity implies a prior singularity),  Intelligent (supremely, to create everything), Purposeful (as He deliberately created everything), Moral (no moral law can exist without a lawgiver), Caring (or no moral laws would have been given)


God is omnipresent (Psalm 139:7-12; Jeremiah 23:24)
God is omniscient (Psalm 147:4-5)
God is omnipotent (Jeremiah 32:17; Psalm 135:6)
God is Spirit (John 4:24)
God is in a league of His own (Isaiah 46:9)
God is immortal and invisible (1 Timothy 1:17)
God is the Creator (Genesis 1:1; Colossians 1:16)
God is unchanging (Malachi 3:6)
God is sovereign (Psalm 115:3)
God is One, yet He exists in three persons (Matthew 3:16-17; 28:19; 2 Corinthians 13:14)
God is loving (John 3:16; 1 John 4:8 )
God is gracious and merciful (Jonah 4:2; Deuteronomy 4:31)
God is righteous (Psalm 11:7)
God is holy (Leviticus 19:2; 1 Peter 1:16)
God is just (Deuteronomy 32:4; Isaiah 30:18)
God is forgiving (1 John 1:9)
God is compassionate (James 5:11)



































The Bible about the origin of the Universe
Remarkably, science, contradicting the Bible hundred years ago, claiming the Universe was eternal, has shifted to the same conclusion : The universe had a beginning, a finite time ago:  

Genesis 1:1 “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.”
Isaiah 45:18 “For this is what the LORD says – he who created the heavens, he is God.”
Proverbs 8:22 “The LORD brought me forth as the first of his works, before his deeds of old; I was formed long ages ago,  at the very beginning, when the world came to be.”
Titus 1:2 “in the hope of eternal life, which God, who does not lie, promised before the beginning of time…”
John 1:1 “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made.”
John 17:24 “Father, I want those you have given me to be with me where I am, and to see my glory, the glory you have given me because you loved me before the creation of the world.”
Colossians 1:15-16 “The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him.”
1 Peter 1:20 “He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake.”
2  Timothy 1:9 “He has saved us and called us to a holy life—not because of anything we have done but because of his own purpose and grace. This grace was given us in Christ Jesus before the beginning of time…”

A continuous, universal cosmic expansion

Job 9:8 “He alone stretches out the heavens.”
Psalm 104:2 “The LORD wraps himself in light as with a garment; he stretches out the heavens like a tent.
Isaiah 42:5 “This is what God the LORD says – the Creator of the heavens, who stretches them out.”
Zechariah 12:1 “The LORD, who stretches out the heavens, who lays the foundations of the earth, and who forms the human spirit within a person…”

The Bible offers solid support for the creation of the universe, distinguishing it from other religious texts.
Psalm 19:1“For the heavens declare the glory of God. The skies proclaim the work of his hands.”





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